Science fiction is a genre of speculative fiction dealing with imaginative and futuristic concepts such as advanced science and technology, space exploration, time travel, extraterrestrials in fiction. Science fiction explores the potential consequences of scientific other various innovations, has been called a "literature of ideas." "Science fiction" is difficult to define as it includes a wide range of concepts and themes. James Blish wrote: "Wells used the term to cover what we would today call'hard' science fiction, in which a conscientious attempt to be faithful to known facts was the substrate on which the story was to be built, if the story was to contain a miracle, it ought at least not to contain a whole arsenal of them."Isaac Asimov said: "Science fiction can be defined as that branch of literature which deals with the reaction of human beings to changes in science and technology." According to Robert A. Heinlein, "A handy short definition of all science fiction might read: realistic speculation about possible future events, based solidly on adequate knowledge of the real world and present, on a thorough understanding of the nature and significance of the scientific method."Lester del Rey wrote, "Even the devoted aficionado or fan—has a hard time trying to explain what science fiction is," and that the reason for there not being a "full satisfactory definition" is that "there are no delineated limits to science fiction."
Author and editor Damon Knight summed up the difficulty, saying "science fiction is what we point to when we say it." Mark C. Glassy described the definition of science fiction as U. S. Supreme Court Justice Potter Stewart did with the definition of pornography: "I know it when I see it." Science fiction had its beginnings in a time when the line between myth and fact was arguably more blurred than the present day. Written in the 2nd century CE by the satirist Lucian, A True Story contains many themes and tropes that are characteristic of contemporary science fiction, including travel to other worlds, extraterrestrial lifeforms, interplanetary warfare, artificial life; some consider it the first science-fiction novel. Some of the stories from The Arabian Nights, along with the 10th-century The Tale of the Bamboo Cutter and Ibn al-Nafis's 13th-century Theologus Autodidactus contain elements of science fiction. Products of the Age of Reason and the development of modern science itself, Johannes Kepler's Somnium, Francis Bacon's New Atlantis, Cyrano de Bergerac's Comical History of the States and Empires of the Moon and The States and Empires of the Sun, Margaret Cavendish's "The Blazing World", Jonathan Swift's Gulliver's Travels, Ludvig Holberg's Nicolai Klimii Iter Subterraneum and Voltaire's Micromégas are regarded as some of the first true science-fantasy works.
Indeed, Isaac Asimov and Carl Sagan considered Somnium the first science-fiction story. Following the 18th-century development of the novel as a literary form, Mary Shelley's books Frankenstein and The Last Man helped define the form of the science-fiction novel. Brian Aldiss has argued. Edgar Allan Poe wrote several stories considered science fiction, including "The Unparalleled Adventure of One Hans Pfaall" which featured a trip to the Moon. Jules Verne was noted for his attention to detail and scientific accuracy Twenty Thousand Leagues Under the Sea which predicted the contemporary nuclear submarine. In 1887, the novel El anacronópete by Spanish author Enrique Gaspar y Rimbau introduced the first time machine. Many critics consider H. G. Wells one of science fiction's most important authors, or "the Shakespeare of science fiction." His notable science-fiction works include The Time Machine, The Island of Doctor Moreau, The Invisible Man, The War of the Worlds. His science fiction imagined alien invasion, biological engineering and time travel.
In his non-fiction futurologist works he predicted the advent of airplanes, military tanks, nuclear weapons, satellite television, space travel, something resembling the World Wide Web. In 1912, Edgar Rice Burroughs published A Princess of Mars, the first of his three-decade-long planetary romance series of Barsoom novels, set on Mars and featuring John Carter as the hero. In 1926, Hugo Gernsback published the first American science-fiction magazine, Amazing Stories, in which he wrote: By'scientifiction' I mean the Jules Verne, H. G. Wells and Edgar Allan Poe type of story—a charming romance intermingled with scientific fact and prophetic vision... Not only do these amazing tales make tremendously interesting reading—they are always instructive, they supply knowledge... in a palatable form... New adventures pictured for us in the scientifiction of today are not at all impossible of realization tomorrow... Many great science stories destined to be of historical interest are still to be written...
Posterity will point to them as having blazed a new trail, not only in literature and fiction, but progress as well. In 1928, E. E. "Doc" Smith's first published work, The Skylark of Space, written in collaboration with Lee Hawkins Garby, appeared in Amazing Stories. It is called the first great space opera; the same year, Philip Francis Nowlan's original Buck Rogers story, Armageddon 2419 appeared in Amazing Stories. This was followed by the first serious science-fiction comic. In 1937, John W. Campbell became editor of Astounding Science Fiction, an event, sometimes conside
Joseph "Joe" Orlando was an Italian American illustrator, writer and cartoonist during a lengthy career spanning six decades. He was the associate publisher of Mad and the vice president of DC Comics, where he edited numerous titles and ran DC's Special Projects department. Orlando was born in Bari, emigrating to the United States in 1929, he began drawing at an early age, going to art classes at a neighborhood boys' club when he was seven years old. He continued there until he was 14, winning prizes annually in their competitions, including a John Wanamaker bronze medal. In 1941, he began attending the School of Industrial Art; this school was a breeding ground for a number of comics artists, including Richard Bassford, Frank Giacoia, Carmine Infantino, Rocke Mastroserio, Alex Toth and future comics letterer Gaspar Saladino. Infantino and Orlando remained close friends for decades. While Orlando was still a student, he drew his first published illustrations, scenes of Mark Twain's The Prince and the Pauper for a high-school textbook.
After his high school graduation, Orlando entered the U. S. Army and was assigned to the military police, doing stockade guard duty, followed by 18 months in Europe. From Le Havre, France, he was sent to Antwerp, Belgium and to Germany, where he stenciled boxcars and guarded strategic supplies for the occupation forces. After his 1947 discharge, he returned to New York and began study at the Art Students League on the GI Bill, he entered the comic book field in 1949 when the packager Lloyd Jacquet assigned him to draw for the Catholic-oriented Treasure Chest. This was a "Chuck White" story. At the Jacquet Studio he met fellow artist Tex Blaisdell, the two teamed on many projects. In the early 1950s, he was an assistant to Wally Wood on stories for several publishers, including Fox, Avon and EC Comics, before becoming a regular staff artist with EC in the summer of 1951, he was earning $25 a page at EC, shortly after his first EC stories under his own name were published that summer, he married his first wife, Gloria, in September 1951.
After EC, from 1956 to 1959, he drew Classics Illustrated adaptations, including Ben-Hur, A Tale of Two Cities and Rudyard Kipling's Kim. In addition to many contributions to EC's Mad, Orlando scripted the Little Orphan Annie comic strip beginning in 1964, he did covers for Newsweek and New Times, his work as an illustrator appeared in National Lampoon, children's books and numerous comic books. For Warren Publishing's black-and-white horror comics magazine Creepy, debuting in 1964, Orlando was not only an illustrator but a story editor on early issues, his credit on the first issue masthead read: "Story Ideas: Joe Orlando."He worked in toy design and advertising. In 1992, the short-lived live-action television show The Amazing Live Sea Monkeys with Howie Mandel used special effects make-up designs based on the character concepts created by Orlando for his Sea Monkeys illustrations. In 1966, Orlando and writer E. Nelson Bridwell created the parody superhero team The Inferior Five in Showcase #62.
This lighthearted feature would soon receive its own ongoing series. Orlando launched the Swing with Scooter series with writers Barbara Friedlander and Jack Miller in July 1966. After 16 years of freelancing, Orlando was hired in 1968 by DC Comics, where he was the editor of a full line of comic books, including Adventure Comics, All-Star Comics, Bat Lash, House of Mystery, Plop!, Swamp Thing, The Witching Hour scripting for several of these titles. Orlando coined the names of Weird Western Tales titles. While serving as DC's vice president, he guided the company's Special Projects department; this included the creation of art for T-shirts and other licensed products, negotiating with such companies as American Greetings and Topps, working with editor Joey Cavalieri on Looney Tunes Magazine and supervising production of trading cards, Six Flags logos, DC character style guides and other items. In the late 1960s, Orlando hired Filipino artist Tony DeZuniga for work on some of DC's horror titles.
In 1971, Orlando and DC publisher Carmine Infantino traveled to the Philippines on a recruiting trip for more artists. Alfredo Alcala, Mar Amongo, Ernie Chan, Alex Niño, Nestor Redondo, Gerry Talaoc were some of the Filipino komik artists who would work for DC in the 1970s and 1980s. During the 1980s, Orlando began teaching at the School of Visual Arts, continuing as an art instructor there for many years. In 1987, he created an illustration for the supplemental text piece from Watchmen #5, a page from the comic-within-the-comic, Tales of the Black Freighter. Orlando's contribution was designed. Watchmen writer Alan Moore chose Orlando because he felt that if pirate stories were popular in the Watchmen universe, DC editor Julius Schwartz would have lured Orlando into drawing a pirate comic book; the comic-within-a-comic pages were credited to the fictitious artist "Walt Feinberg", all art attributed to Feinberg was drawn by series-artist Dave Gibbons. The Orlando page was the only artwork for the series not by Gibbons.
A limited series featuring The Phantom published by DC in 1988 was written by Peter David and drawn by Orlando and Dennis Janke. Orlando had a long working association with the pr
Dark fantasy is a subgenre of fantasy literary and cinematic works that incorporate darker and frightening themes of fantasy. It often combines fantasy with elements of horror or has a gloomy, dark atmosphere, or a sense of horror and dread. A strict definition for dark fantasy is difficult to pin down. Gertrude Barrows Bennett has been called "the woman who invented dark fantasy". Both Charles L. Grant and Karl Edward Wagner are credited with having coined the term "dark fantasy"—although both authors were describing different styles of fiction. Brian Stableford argues "dark fantasy" can be usefully defined as subgenre of stories that attempt to "incorporate elements of horror fiction" into the standard formulae of fantasy stories. Stableford suggests that supernatural horror set in the real world is a form of "contemporary fantasy", whereas supernatural horror set or wholly in "secondary worlds" should be described as "dark fantasy". Additionally, other authors and publishers have adopted dark fantasy to describe various other works.
However, these stories share universal similarities beyond supernatural occurrences and a dark brooding, tone. As a result, dark fantasy cannot be solidly connected to a defining set of tropes; the term itself may refer collectively to tales that are either fantasy-based. Some writers use "dark fantasy" as an alternative description to "horror", because they feel the latter term is too lurid or vivid. Charles L. Grant is cited as having coined the term "dark fantasy". Grant defined his brand of dark fantasy as "a type of horror story in which humanity is threatened by forces beyond human understanding", he used dark fantasy as an alternative to horror, as horror was associated with more visceral works. Dark fantasy is sometimes used to describe stories told from a monster's point of view, or that present a more sympathetic view of supernatural beings associated with horror. Anne Rice's The Vampire Chronicles, Chelsea Quinn Yarbro's Saint-Germain, Neil Gaiman's The Sandman are early examples of this style of dark fantasy.
This is in contrast to the traditional horror model, which focuses more on the victims and survivors. In a more general sense, dark fantasy is used as a synonym for supernatural horror, to distinguish horror stories that contain elements of the supernatural from those that do not. For example, a story about a werewolf or vampire could be described as dark fantasy, while a story about a serial killer would be horror. Stableford suggests that the type of horror conveyed by fantasy stories such as William Beckford's Vathek and Edgar Allan Poe's The Masque of the Red Death "is more aesthetic than visceral or existential", that such stories should be considered "dark fantasies" rather than the "supernaturalized thrillers" of conventional horror fiction. Karl Edward Wagner is credited for creating the term "dark fantasy" when used in a more fantasy-based context. Wagner used it to describe his fiction about the Gothic warrior Kane. Since "dark fantasy" has sometimes been applied to sword and sorcery and high fantasy fiction that features anti-heroic or morally ambiguous protagonists.
Another good example under this definition of dark fantasy is Michael Moorcock's saga of the albino swordsman Elric. The fantasy work of H. P. Lovecraft, Clark Ashton Smith and their emulators have been specified as "dark fantasy", since the imaginary worlds they depicted contain a large number of horror elements. Dark fantasy is used to describe fantasy works by authors that the public associates with the horror genre. Examples of this would be Stephen King's The Dark Tower series, Peter Straub's Shadowland and Clive Barker's Weaveworld. Alternatively, dark fantasy is sometimes used for "darker" fiction written by authors best known for other styles of fantasy. Key would fit here. On Dark Fantasy — author Lucy Snyder's essay on the differences between "pure" horror and dark fantasy
Harvey Kurtzman was an American cartoonist and editor. His best-known work includes writing and editing the parodic comic book Mad from 1952 until 1956, writing the Little Annie Fanny strips in Playboy from 1962 until 1988, his work is noted for its satire and parody of popular culture, social critique, attention to detail. Kurtzman's working method has been likened to that of an auteur, he expected those who illustrated his stories to follow his layouts strictly. Kurtzman began to work on the New Trend line of comic books at EC Comics' in 1950, he wrote and edited the Two-Fisted Tales and Frontline Combat war comic books, where he drew many of the researched stories, before he created his most-remembered comic book, Mad, in 1952. Kurtzman scripted the stories and had them drawn by top EC cartoonists, most Will Elder, Wally Wood, Jack Davis; the comic book switched to a magazine format in 1955, Kurtzman left it in 1956 over a dispute with EC's owner William Gaines over financial control. Following his departure, he did a variety of cartooning work, including editing the short-lived Trump and the self-published Humbug.
In 1959, he produced the first book-length work of original comics, the adult-oriented, satirical Jungle Book. He edited the low-budget Help! from 1960 to 1965, a humor magazine which featured work by future Monty Python member Terry Gilliam and the earliest work of underground cartoonists such as Robert Crumb and Gilbert Shelton. He brought Help! to an end after the success of the risqué Playboy feature Little Annie Fanny began to take up his time. While Annie Fanny provided much of his income for the rest of his career, he continued to produce an eclectic body of work, including screenwriting the animated Mad Monster Party? in 1967 and directing and designing several shorts for Sesame Street in 1969. From 1973, Kurtzman taught cartooning at the School of Visual Arts in New York, his work gained greater recognition toward the end of his life, he oversaw deluxe reprintings of much of his work. The Harvey Award was named in Kurtzman's honor in 1988, he was inducted into the Will Eisner Comic Book Hall of Fame in 1989, his work earned five positions on The Comics Journal's Top 100 Comics of the 20th Century.
Harvey Kurtzman spoke little of his parents in interviews, not much is known of their pre-American lives. David Kurtzman and Edith née Sherman grew up in Ukraine in Odessa, were literate urbanites, they belonged to the city's large Jewish community, one that suffered generations of antisemitic oppression, the city had fallen into economic hardship following the Russian Revolution. Shortly after World War I David emigrated to New York and Edith soon followed in what she called "a desperate journey" escaping the new Soviet Union. There the non-observant pair married in a civil ceremony; the first of their two sons, was born April 8, 1923. Harvey Kurtzman was born on October 3, 1924, in a tenement building on 428 East Ninety-Eighth Street in Brooklyn in New York City. David joined the Christian Science church, when he suffered a bleeding ulcer he turned to prayer to cure it; the family was in such desperate financial straits that their mother placed the Kurtzman brothers in an orphanage for three months until she secured work as a milliner.
Several months Edith remarried to Russian-Jewish immigrant Abraham Perkes, who worked in the printing industry as a brass engraver. The Kurtzman boys kept their surname; the couple had a son Daniel on February 17, 1931. In 1934, the family moved to the more upscale Bronx. Perkes was not wealthy, but managed to provide for his family during the Great Depression of the 1930s, he was a trade unionist, the couple read the communist newspaper Daily Worker. Perkes brought young Kurtzman to work, encouraged him to help with design and drawing and to think of himself as a professional artist. Though he was a shy boy his teachers recognized Kurtzman's intelligence in grade school and allowed him to skip a grade, he displayed artistic talent early and his sidewalk chalk drawings drew the attention of children and adults, who gathered around to watch him draw. He called these strips "Ikey and Mikey", inspired by Goldberg's comic strip Mike and Ike, his stepfather had an interest in art and took the boys to museums.
His mother enrolled him in art lessons. His parents had him attend the left-leaning Jewish Camp Kinderland, but he did not enjoy its dogmatic atmosphere. Though not ashamed of their Jewish heritage, neither of the Kurtzman brothers agreed to have a Bar Mitzvah. Kurtzman fell in love with the newly emerging comic books in the late 1930s. Unsatisfied with what he found in his parents' newspapers, he searched through garbage cans for the Sunday comics sections of his neighbors' newspapers, he admired a wide variety of strips, including Hamlin's Alley Oop, Caniff's Terry and the Pirates, Gould's Dick Tracy, Foster's Prince Valiant, Raymond's Flash Gordon, Capp's Li'l Abner. He found Will Eisner's comic book The Spirit a "standard by which other comic books would be measured", called Eisner "the greatest... a virtuoso cartoonist of a kind who had never been seen before". Eisner's page layouts had considerable influence on Kurtzman's work. At 14 Kurtzman won a cartooning contest for which he received a dollar and had his cartoon published in Tip Top Comics #36.
Future collaborator Jack Davis had won the s
Albert Bernard Feldstein was an American writer and artist, best known for his work at EC Comics and, from 1956 to 1985, as the editor of the satirical magazine Mad. After retiring from Mad, Feldstein concentrated on American paintings of Western wildlife. Al Feldstein was born October 1925, in Brooklyn, New York, to a Jewish household, he is the son of Max, who made dental molds, Beatrice Feldstein. After winning an award in the 1939 New York World's Fair poster contest, he decided on a career in the art field and studied at the High School of Music and Art in Manhattan. While in high school, he was hired by Jerry Iger to work in the S. M. Iger Studio, a packager of comic-book stories supplying outsourced content to publishers entering the new medium, he recalled...running errands, erasing pages and doing general gofer work after school for three dollars a week.... It was there that I began to learn to do comic-book art — first, by inking backgrounds penciling and inking backgrounds inking figures penciled by others penciling and inking figures, doing whole pages from beginning to end.
His earliest background art was for Queen of the Jungle. After graduating from high school he attended the Art Students League. Feldstein freelanced art including Fox Comics. Feldstein recalled that Bob Farrell, whom he considered a "wheeler-dealer" driving a convertible Cadillac, introduced him to Victor Fox in return for a commission from all payments Fox made to him. Feldstein produced the art for the stories, he described Fox as the "typical exploiting comic book publisher of his day, grinding out shameless imitations of successful titles and trends" and mistreating his writers and artists. Feldstein wrote and packaged the complete Junior and Sunny books for Fox, produced a comic book adaptation of Meet Corliss Archer. Warned by his letterer Jim Wroten to be cautious about payments from Victor Fox, who'd "gotten himself into financial trouble", Feldstein approached Bill Gaines, who'd just taken over as EC Comics publisher following his father's death in a speedboat crash. Feldstein's initial EC assignment was drawing a teenage book, the beginning of a long working relationship with Gaines.
Arriving at EC in 1948, Feldstein began as an artist, but he soon combined art with writing editing most of the EC titles. Although he wrote and illustrated one story per comic, in addition to doing many covers, Feldstein focused on editing and writing, reserving his artwork for covers. From late 1950 through 1953, he wrote stories for seven EC titles; as EC's editor, Feldstein created a literate line, balancing his genre tales with potent graphic stories probing the underbelly of American life. In creating stories around such topics as racial prejudice, domestic violence, police brutality, drug addiction and child abuse, he succeeded in addressing problems and issues which the 1950s radio, motion picture and television industries were too timid to dramatize. While developing a stable of contributing writers that included Robert Bernstein, Otto Binder, Daniel Keyes, Jack Oleck and Carl Wessler, he published the first work of Harlan Ellison. EC employed the comics industry's finest artists and published promotional copy to make readers aware of their staff.
Feldstein encouraged the EC illustrators to maintain their personal art styles, this emphasis on individuality gave the EC line a unique appearance. Distinctive front cover designs framing those recognizable art styles made Feldstein's titles easy to spot on crowded newsstands; those comic books, known as EC's New Trend group, included Weird Science, Weird Fantasy, Tales from the Crypt, The Haunt of Fear, The Vault of Horror, Shock SuspenStories, Crime SuspenStories and Piracy. After the New Trend titles folded in 1955, Feldstein edited EC's short-lived New Direction line, followed by EC's Picto-Fiction magazines. After industry and government pressures forced Gaines to shut down most of his EC titles, Feldstein was separated from the company, but when Harvey Kurtzman left Mad in 1956, Gaines turned to his former editor. Feldstein spent the next 29 years at the helm of what became one of the nation's leading and most influential magazines, it is unclear what the circulation of the magazine was when Feldstein took over but it is estimated to be between 325,000 and 750,000.
By the 1960s, it had increased to over a million, by the 1970s, it had doubled to two million. Circulation multiplied more than eight times during Feldstein's tenure, peaking at 2,850,000 for an issue in 1974, although it declined to a third of that figure by the end of his time as editor. Feldstein has been credited with giving the magazine the personality of a "smart-alecky and indisputably clever spitball-shooter."Many new cartoonists and writers surfaced during the early years of Feldstein's editorship. This process leveled off in the 1960s as the magazine came to rely on a steady group of contributors. Feldstein's first issue as editor was the first issue to display the twisted work of cartoonist Don Martin; the following issue, #30, marked the debuts of longtime cover artist Norman Mingo and artist Bob Clarke. Kelly Freas first appeared in issue #31. Issue #32 brought artists Mort Drucker, George Woodbridge and Joe Orlando, while issue #33 introduced readers to writers Frank Jacobs and Tom Koch.
Al Jaffee, who had appeared in four of editor Kurtzman's last issues before leaving with him, returned just a year and a half later. Larry Siegel and Arnie Kogen began writing for the magazine in
Murray Leinster was a nom de plume of William Fitzgerald Jenkins, an American writer of science fiction and alternate history literature. He wrote and published more than 1,500 short stories and articles, 14 movie scripts, hundreds of radio scripts and television plays. Leinster was born in Norfolk, the son of George B. Jenkins and Mary L. Jenkins, his father was an accountant. Although both parents were born in Virginia, the family lived in Manhattan in 1910, according to the 1910 Federal Census, he began his career as a freelance writer before World War I. Over the next three years, Leinster published ten more stories in the magazine. During World War I, Leinster served with the Committee of Public Information and the United States Army. During and after the war, he began appearing in pulp magazines like Argosy, Snappy Stories, Breezy Stories, he continued to appear in Argosy into the 1950s. When the pulp magazines began to diversify into particular genres in the 1920s, Leinster followed suit, selling jungle stories to Danger Trails, westerns to West and Cowboy Stories, detective stories to Black Mask and Mystery Stories, horror stories to Weird Tales, romance stories to Love Story Magazine under the pen name Louisa Carter Lee.
Leinster's first science fiction story, "The Runaway Skyscraper", appeared in the February 22, 1919 issue of Argosy, was reprinted in the June 1926 issue of Hugo Gernsback's first science fiction magazine, Amazing Stories. In the 1930s, he published several science fiction stories and serials in Amazing and Astounding Stories, he continued to appear in other genre pulps such as Detective Fiction Weekly and Smashing Western, as well as Collier's Weekly beginning in 1936 and Esquire starting in 1939. Leinster was an early writer of parallel universe stories. Four years before Jack Williamson's The Legion of Time came out, Leinster published his "Sidewise in Time" in the June 1934 issue of Astounding. Leinster's vision of extraordinary oscillations in time had a long-term impact on other authors, for example Isaac Asimov's "Living Space", "The Red Queen's Race", The End of Eternity. Leinster's 1945 novella "First Contact" is credited as one of the first instances of a universal translator in science fiction.
In 2000, Leinster's heirs sued Paramount Pictures over the film Star Trek: First Contact, claiming that it infringed their trademark in the term. However, the suit was dismissed. Leinster was one of the few science fiction writers from the 1930s to survive in the John W. Campbell era of higher writing standards, publishing over three dozen stories in Astounding and Analog under Campbell's editorship; the last story by Leinster in Analog was "Quarantine World" in the November 1966 issue, thirty-six years after his appearance in the premier January 1930 issue. Murray Leinster's 1946 short story "A Logic Named Joe" contains one of the first descriptions of a computer in fiction. In the story, Leinster was decades ahead of his time in imagining the Internet, he envisioned logics in every home, linked through a distributed system of servers, to provide communications, data access, commerce. After the war, when both his name and the pulps had achieved a wider acceptance, he would use either "William Fitzgerald", "Fitzgerald Jenkins" or "Will F. Jenkins" as names on stories when "Leinster" had sold a piece to a particular issue.
Leinster was so prolific a writer that Groff Conklin, when reviewing Operation: Outer Space in March 1955, noted that it was his fourth novel of 1954 and that another would be reviewed in the next month. Leinster continued publishing in the 1950s and 1960s, appearing in Galaxy Magazine and The Magazine of Fantasy and Science Fiction, as well as The Saturday Evening Post, he won a Hugo Award for his 1956 story "Exploration Team". Leinster's career included tie-in fiction based on several science fiction TV series: an episodic 1960 novel, Men into Space, was derived from the series' basic concepts, but Leinster had little knowledge of the series' actual content, none of the book episodes bear any relationship to the filmed episodes. Men Into Space was followed, seven years by two original novels based on The Time Tunnel, three based on Land of the Giants. Leinster was an inventor under his real name of William F. Jenkins, best known for the front projection process used in special effects. In 1921, he married Mary Mandola, born in New York to Italian parents.
They had four daughters. Liberty Award for "A Very Nice Family", first published in the January 2, 1937 issue of Liberty Magazine. Hugo Award for Best Novelette for "Exploration Team". Retro-Hugo for Best Novelette for "First Contact". Guest of Honor at Discon I, the 21st Worldcon in 1963; the Sidewise Award for Alternate History is named after Leinster's story "Sidewise in Time." In the 1979 American film Starcrash, the spaceship in the opening sequence is called the Murray Leinster. In Virginia, 27 June 2009 was designated Will F. Jenkins Day in honor of his achievements in science fiction. Sword of Kings, John Long, 1933. Scalps, Brewer & Warren, 1930. Murder Madness, Brewer & Warren, 1931. Murder Will Out, John Hamilton, 1932. No Clues (as Wil
Weird Science (comics)
Weird Science was an American science fiction comic book magazine, part of the EC Comics line in the early 1950s. Over a four-year span, the comic ran for 22 issues, ending with the November -- 1953 issue. Weird Fantasy was a sister title published during the same time frame. Published by Bill Gaines and edited by Al Feldstein, the bi-monthly Weird Science replaced Saddle Romances with the May/June 1950 issue. Although the title and format change took effect with issue 12, Gaines and Feldstein decided not to restart the numbering in order to save money on second class postage; the Post Office took note and, starting with issue #5, all the issues were numbered correctly. Because of this, "Weird Science #12" could refer to either the May/June 1950 issue, or the actual 12th issue published in 1952; the same confusion exists for issues #13-15, #15 being the last issue published before EC reset the numbering. Artist/Writer Harry Harrison claims credit for giving Gaines the notion of publishing science fiction.
Harrison has stated that he and artist Wally Wood were interested in science fiction and gave Gaines science fiction stories to read. Harrison, had no editorial control over the contents of the comic aside from his own stories and left EC by the end of 1950. Early cover illustrations were by Feldstein. Wood, the title's leading artist, took over as the regular cover illustrator in 1952. For a period of time in 1952, Wood drew two stories per issue; the other Weird Science interior artists were Feldstein, Frank Frazetta, Al Williamson, Joe Orlando, George Evans, Harvey Kurtzman, George Roussos, Will Elder, Jack Kamen, Sid Check and Jack Olesen. Writers in the early issues included Feldstein, Kurtzman and Gardner Fox. Gaines and Feldstein wrote nearly all stories from 1951 to 1953; as with other EC Comics and Feldstein used some Weird Science stories to teach moral lessons. "The Probers" features a space shuttle doctor who pays no mind to dissecting various animals, only to end up on an alien planet where aliens plan to dissect him.
In "The Worm Turns" astronauts have fun with Mexican jumping beans but face a similar situation when they hide in a piece of fruit on an alien world and are found by a giant alien. "He Walked Among Us" was a take on organized religion in which a Christ-like astronaut helps the impoverished populace of an alien world but is killed by those in power, prompting the birth of a religion. Gaines and Feldstein made cameo appearances in "Chewed Out", other EC staffers were drawn into "EC Confidential"; as with the other EC comics edited by Feldstein, the stories in this comic were based on Gaines reading a large number of science fiction stories and using them to develop "springboards" from which he and Feldstein could launch new stories. Specific story influences that have been identified include the following: "Lost in the Microcosm" - Henry Hasse's "He Who Shrank" "The Micro Race" - Theodore Sturgeon's "Microcosmic God" "The Sounds from Another World" - Roald Dahl's "The Sound Machine" "Machine from Nowhere" - Maurice Hugi's "Mechanical Mouse" "Divide and Conquer" - Donald Wandrei's "A Scientist Divides" "Monster From the Fourth Dimension" - Donald Wandrei's "The Monster From Nowhere" "The Martian Monster" - Anthony Boucher's "Mr. Lupescu" "Why Papa Left Home" - Charles Harness's "Child by Chronos" "Chewed Out!"
- Katherine MacLean's "Pictures Don't Lie!" "Say Your Prayers" - Anthony Boucher's "Expedition" "The Island Monster" - Merian C. Cooper and Ernest B. Schoedsack's King Kong "Keyed Up!" - Duncan Munro's "U-Turn"After their unauthorized adaptation of one of Ray Bradbury's stories in another magazine, Bradbury contacted EC about their plagiarism of his work. They reached an agreement for EC to do authorized versions of Bradbury's short fiction; these official adaptations include: "The Long Years" "Mars is Heaven!" "The One Who Waits" "Surprise Package" "Punishment Without Crime" "Outcast of the Stars" EC's science fiction comics were never able to match the popularity of their horror comics like Tales from the Crypt, but Gaines and Feldstein kept them alive using the profits from their more popular titles. In the EC Library reprints, comics historian Mark Evanier theorizes that the short story format, where no story was longer than eight pages helped contribute to poor sales because the horror comics were much better suited for short stories with shock endings than the science fiction comics.
Evanier ponders whether the similar logo style of Weird Science and its companion comic Weird Fantasy as well as similar cover subjects contributed to lower sales due to customers thinking they owned the issues on sale. Historian Digby Diehl wondered whether having host characters like EC's horror comics would have helped the comics be more commercially successful; when the poor sales became too much to handle, Weird Science combined with companion comic Weird Fantasy in 1954 to become Weird Science-Fantasy. As discussed in an "In Memoriam" feature in the final issue, it was stated that every issue for the previous year and a half lost money and they had no choice but to combine the two comics into one. Weird Science-Fantasy ran for seven issues before a title change to Incredible Science Fiction for four issues; as with many other EC titles, Weird Science has been reprinted numerous times over the years. Ballantine Books reprinted selected stories in a series of paperback EC anthologies in 1964-66.
All 22 issues were published in black and white in four hardbound volumes in 1980 as part of publisher Russ Cochran's The