International Standard Book Number
The International Standard Book Number is a unique numeric commercial book identifier. An ISBN is assigned to each edition and variation of a book, for example, an e-book, a paperback and a hardcover edition of the same book would each have a different ISBN. The ISBN is 13 digits long if assigned on or after 1 January 2007, the method of assigning an ISBN is nation-based and varies from country to country, often depending on how large the publishing industry is within a country. The initial ISBN configuration of recognition was generated in 1967 based upon the 9-digit Standard Book Numbering created in 1966, the 10-digit ISBN format was developed by the International Organization for Standardization and was published in 1970 as international standard ISO2108. Occasionally, a book may appear without a printed ISBN if it is printed privately or the author does not follow the usual ISBN procedure, this can be rectified later. Another identifier, the International Standard Serial Number, identifies periodical publications such as magazines, the ISBN configuration of recognition was generated in 1967 in the United Kingdom by David Whitaker and in 1968 in the US by Emery Koltay.
The 10-digit ISBN format was developed by the International Organization for Standardization and was published in 1970 as international standard ISO2108, the United Kingdom continued to use the 9-digit SBN code until 1974. The ISO on-line facility only refers back to 1978, an SBN may be converted to an ISBN by prefixing the digit 0. For example, the edition of Mr. J. G. Reeder Returns, published by Hodder in 1965, has SBN340013818 -340 indicating the publisher,01381 their serial number. This can be converted to ISBN 0-340-01381-8, the check digit does not need to be re-calculated, since 1 January 2007, ISBNs have contained 13 digits, a format that is compatible with Bookland European Article Number EAN-13s. An ISBN is assigned to each edition and variation of a book, for example, an ebook, a paperback, and a hardcover edition of the same book would each have a different ISBN. The ISBN is 13 digits long if assigned on or after 1 January 2007, a 13-digit ISBN can be separated into its parts, and when this is done it is customary to separate the parts with hyphens or spaces.
Separating the parts of a 10-digit ISBN is done with either hyphens or spaces, figuring out how to correctly separate a given ISBN number is complicated, because most of the parts do not use a fixed number of digits. ISBN issuance is country-specific, in that ISBNs are issued by the ISBN registration agency that is responsible for country or territory regardless of the publication language. Some ISBN registration agencies are based in national libraries or within ministries of culture, in other cases, the ISBN registration service is provided by organisations such as bibliographic data providers that are not government funded. In Canada, ISBNs are issued at no cost with the purpose of encouraging Canadian culture. In the United Kingdom, United States, and some countries, where the service is provided by non-government-funded organisations. Australia, ISBNs are issued by the library services agency Thorpe-Bowker
A crevasse is a deep crack, or fracture, found in an ice sheet or glacier, as opposed to a crevice that forms in rock. Crevasses form as a result of the movement and resulting stress associated with the shear stress generated when two pieces above a plastic substrate have different rates of movement. The resulting intensity of the stress causes a breakage along the faces. Crevasses often have vertical or near-vertical walls, which can melt and create seracs, arches. These walls sometimes expose layers that represent the glaciers stratigraphy, Crevasse size often depends upon the amount of liquid water present in the glacier. A crevasse may be as deep as 45 metres, as wide as 20 metres, a crevasse may be covered, but not necessarily filled, by a snow bridge made of the previous years accumulation and snow drifts. The result is that crevasses are rendered invisible, and thus potentially lethal to anyone attempting to navigate their way across a glacier, occasionally a snow bridge over an old crevasse may begin to sag, providing some landscape relief, but this cannot be relied upon.
Anyone planning to travel on a glacier should be trained in crevasse rescue, the presence of water in a crevasse can significantly increase its penetration. Longitudinal crevasses form parallel to flow where the width is expanding. They develop in areas of stress, such as where a valley widens or bends. They are typically concave down and form a greater than 45° with the margin. Splashing crevasses result from shear stress from the margin of the glacier and they extend from the glaciers margin and are concave up with respect to glacier flow, making an angle less than 45° with the margin. At the centre line of the glacier, there is zero pure shear from the margins, transverse crevasses are the most common crevasse type. They form in a zone of longitudinal extension where the stresses are parallel to the direction of glacier flow. These crevasses stretch across the glacier transverse to the flow direction and they generally form where a valley becomes steeper. Bergschrund Bowie Crevasse Field Glaciology Paterson, W. S.
B,1994, The Physics of Glaciers, 3rd edition, ISBN 0-7506-4742-6. Boon, S. M. J. Sharp,2003, The role of hydrologically-driven ice fracture in drainage system evolution on an Arctic glacier, Geophysical Research Letters,30, pp.1916. Van der Veen, C. J.1998, Fracture mechanics approach to penetration of surface crevasses on glaciers, Cold Regions Science and Technology,27, pp. 31–47
Saas-Fee is the main village in the Saastal, or the Saas Valley, and is a municipality in the district of Visp in the canton of Valais in Switzerland. The villages in its neighborhood are Saas-Almagell, Saas-Grund and Saas-Balen, the community is considered to be a very attractive winter sport destination in the Swiss Alps. Typical activities include skiing, snowshoe trekking, canyon climbing, Saas-Fee offers 22 lifts, including 3 cable cars,1 funicular railway,5 gondolas,2 chairlifts, the remainder being surface lifts. The ski run has a drop of 1,800 m. Other activities include paragliding, hang gliding, and tobogganing, no cars are allowed to enter the city, only small electric vehicles operate on the streets. The decision to exclude most motor vehicles was made by the village at the time of the construction of the road from Saas Grund in 1951. The resort offers many culture and off-slope activities, including music, a sports and leisure complex, restaurants. The resort features the highest underground funicular railway in the world up to the skiing area, the touristic slogan of Saas-Fee is Die Perle der Alpen.
The campus of the European Graduate School is located in Saas-Fee, design guidelines for the village require houses to be 40 percent wooden, to maintain its architectural character. Saas-Fee is first mentioned in 1304 as vee, the municipality was formerly known by its French name Fée, that name is no longer used. Saas-Fee has an area, as of 2011, of 40.6 square kilometers, of this area,5. 7% is used for agricultural purposes, while 9. 5% is forested. Of the rest of the land,1. 3% is settled and 83. 6% is unproductive land, the municipality is located in the Visp district, at the foot of Dom Mountain. The village is surrounded by thirteen Four-thousander mountains, the blazon of the municipal coat of arms is Azure, the initials SSF Or between two Mullets Argent in base Coupeaux Vert. Saas-Fee has a population of 1,621, as of 2008,28. 5% of the population are resident foreign nationals. Over the last 10 years the population has changed at a rate of 3. 4% and it has changed at a rate of 0. 5% due to migration and at a rate of 6. 3% due to births and deaths.
Most of the population speaks German as their first language, Serbo-Croatian is the second most common, there are 16 people who speak French,12 people who speak Italian and 2 people who speak Romansh. Of the population in the municipality,745 or about 51. 2% were born in Saas-Fee and lived there in 2000. There were 200 or 13. 8% who were born in the canton, while 207 or 14. 2% were born somewhere else in Switzerland
The Fletschhorn is a mountain of the Pennine Alps, located between the Saas Valley and the Simplon Valley, in the canton of Valais. It lies in the Weissmies group, north of the Lagginhorn, the Fletschhorn is shown to be 3,993 metres high on the 1,200000 Swisstopo map. However, the map indicates a precise elevation of 3,984.5 metres above sea level. It was first climbed by Michael Amherdt and his guides Johannes Zumkemmi, the imposing north face was first ascended by E. R. Blanchet with guides Oskar Supersaxo and Kaspar Mooser on 25 July 1927. Media related to Fletschhorn at Wikimedia Commons Fletschhorn
A four-thousander is a mountain summit that is at least 4,000 metres above sea level. Because the highest peaks in Europe fall into category, the summits of four-thousanders are popular in Europe with climbers and mountaineers as climbing goals. → See, List of Alpine four-thousanders Four-thousanders are the highest mountains, there is no agreement over where the boundary is between Europe and Asia which is why there is a dispute over which continent the over 5,000 metres high Caucasus range is in. In the Alps the highest four-thousander is Mont Blanc at 4,810 metres, the exact number of Alpine four-thousanders is unclear, because there are no commonly agreed criteria for mountains and subpeaks. Officially, the International Mountaineering and Climbing Federation, UIAA, has declared 82 peaks as four-thousanders and 46 as four-thousander subpeaks, in all 55 peaks lie entirely within one country, over 27 straddle a border but none is located at a tripoint. By the UIAAs definition, Switzerland has 48 four-thousanders, Italy has 35, the four-thousanders are found mainly in the Western Alps, in the ranges of the Bernese Alps, Dauphiné Alps Graian Alps and Pennine Alps.
The only four-thousander in the Eastern Alps is Piz Bernina in the Bernina Group, in Africa there is a total of 38 four-thousanders. In the Rocky Mountains there is a number of four-thousanders, especially in the state of Colorado. In addition the Sierra Nevada rises well above 4,000 m, on Hawaii the volcano of Mauna Kea lies 4,214 m above sea level and has an overall height of 9,705 m above the seabed. The US-American equivalent of the four-thousanders are the fourteeners, which include all mountains that are higher than 14,000 feet, the highest mountain in Antarctica is Mount Vinson, which was thought to be a five thousander for a long time. In addition there are other peaks over 4,000 metres high, in Asia and South America four-thousanders play a secondary role because there the highest mountains average between seven and eight thousand metres high or around 6,500 metres high respectively. Two-thousander Three-thousander Eight-thousander 4000ers of the Alps UIAA Catalogue of four-thousanders in the Alps
The topographic isolation of a summit is the minimum great-circle distance to a point of equal elevation, representing a radius of dominance in which the peak is the highest point. It can be calculated for small hills and islands as well as for major mountain peaks, the following sortable table lists the Earths 40 most topographically isolated summits. The nearest peak to Germanys highest mountain, the 2, 962-metre-high Zugspitze, the distance between the Zugspitze and this contour is 25.8 km, the Zugspitze is thus the highest peak for a radius of 25.8 km around. Its isolation is thus 25.8 km, because there are no higher mountains than Mount Everest, it has no definitive isolation. Many sources list its isolation as the circumference of the earth over the poles or – questionably, after Mount Everest the Aconcagua, highest mountain of the American continents, has the greatest isolation of all mountains. There is no land for 16,534 kilometres when its height is first exceeded by Tirich Mir in the Hindu Kush.
Mont Blanc is the highest mountain of the Alps, the geographically nearest higher mountains are all in the Caucasus. The Kukurtlu, which rises near the Elbrus, is the peak for Mont Blanc. com Canadian Mountain Encyclopedia peakbagger. com peaklist. org peakware. com World Mountain Encyclopedia summitpost. org
In climbing, a first ascent is the first successful, documented attainment of the top of a mountain, or the first to follow a particular climbing route. First ascents are notable because they entail genuine exploration, with risks, challenges. The person who performs the first ascent is called the first ascensionist, the details of the first ascents of even many prominent mountains are scanty or unknown, sometimes the only evidence of prior summiting is a cairn, artifacts, or inscriptions at the top. Today, first ascents are generally recorded and usually mentioned in guidebooks. Overwhelmingly, the idea of a first ascent is a one, especially in places such as Africa. There may be little or no evidence or documentation about the climbing activities of indigenous peoples living near the mountain. The term is used when referring to ascents made using a specific technique or taking a specific route, such as via the North Face. In rock climbing, some of the earlier first ascents, particularly for difficult routes, involved a mix of free, as a result, purist free climbers have developed the designation first free ascent to acknowledge ascents intentionally made more challenging by using equipment for protection only.
Some other first ascents could be recorded for particular mountains or routes, one is the First Winter Ascent, which is, as the name easily suggests, the first ascent made during winter season. This is most important where the climate of winter is a factor in increasing the difficulty grade of the route, in the Northern Hemisphere conventional winter ascents are made between December 21 and March 21 and are not related to the conditions. Also in the Himalayan area, although Nepal and Chinas winter season permits start on December 1, another is the First Solo Ascent, which is the first ascent made by a single climber. This is most important on high-level rock climbing, when the climber has to provide his own security or even when climbing without any protection at all, another type of ascent, known as FFA is the first female ascent. The term last ascent has been used to refer to an ascent of a mountain or face that has changed to such an extent – often because of rockfall – that the route no longer exists.
It can be used facetiously to refer to a climb that is so unpleasant or unaesthetic that no one would willingly repeat the first ascent partys ordeal. List of first ascents List of first ascents in the Alps List of first ascents in the Himalaya Glossary of climbing terms Alpinist Magazine – Peter Mortimers First Ascent, Issue 17
Simplon is a municipality in the district of Brig in the canton of Valais in Switzerland. Simplon is first mentioned in 1267 as Simpilion, in 1285 it was mentioned as Xeinplon. Simplon has an area, as of 2011, of 90.9 square kilometers, of this area,21. 5% is used for agricultural purposes, while 12. 3% is forested. Of the rest of the land,1. 0% is settled and 65. 2% is unproductive land, the municipality is located in the Brig district, on the south side of the Simplon Pass near the Italian border. It consists of the village of Simplon and the hamlets of Gabi, Simplon has a population of 319. As of 2008,2. 9% of the population are resident foreign nationals, over the last 10 years the population has changed at a rate of -6. 2%. It has changed at a rate of -4. 6% due to migration, most of the population speaks German as their first language, French is the second most common and Italian is the third. As of 2008, the distribution of the population was 47. 0% male and 53. 0% female. The population was made up of 159 Swiss men and 5 non-Swiss men, There were 177 Swiss women and 8 non-Swiss women.
Of the population in the municipality 246 or about 73. 9% were born in Simplon and lived there in 2000. There were 64 or 19. 2% who were born in the canton, while 13 or 3. 9% were born somewhere else in Switzerland. The age distribution of the population is children and teenagers make up 25. 8% of the population, while adults make up 57. 1%, as of 2000, there were 146 people who were single and never married in the municipality. There were 164 married individuals,19 widows or widowers and 4 individuals who are divorced, as of 2000, there were 116 private households in the municipality, and an average of 2.7 persons per household. There were 29 households that consist of one person and 14 households with five or more people. Out of a total of 118 households that answered this question,24. 6% were households made up of just one person and there were 3 adults who lived with their parents. Of the rest of the households, there are 21 married couples without children,56 married couples with children There were 4 single parents with a child or children.
There were 3 households that were made up of unrelated people and 2 households that were made up of some sort of institution or another collective housing, in 2000 there were 88 single family homes out of a total of 145 inhabited buildings. There were 30 multi-family buildings, along with 12 multi-purpose buildings that were used for housing and 15 other use buildings that had some housing
A summit is a point on a surface that is higher in elevation than all points immediately adjacent to it. Mathematically, a summit is a maximum in elevation. The topographic terms acme, apex and zenith are synonymous, the UIAA definition is that a summit is independent if it has a prominence of 30 metres or more, it is a mountain if it has a prominence of at least 300 metres. This can be summarised as follows, A pyramidal peak is an exaggerated form produced by ice erosion of a mountain top, Summit may refer to the highest point along a line, trail, or route. In many parts of the western United States, the term refers to the highest point along a road, highway. For example, the highest point along Interstate 80 in California is referred to as Donner Summit while the highest point on Interstate 5 is Siskiyou Mountain Summit, geoid Hill List of highest mountains Maxima and minima Nadir Summit accordance Peak finder