A music video is a short film integrating a song and imagery, produced for promotional or artistic purposes. Modern music videos are made and used as a marketing device intended to promote the sale of music recordings. There are cases where songs are used in tie in marketing campaigns that allow them to more than just a song. Tie ins and merchandising could be used in toys or marketing campaigns for food, although the origins of music videos date back to musical short films that first appeared in the 1920s, they came into prominence in the 1980s when MTV based their format around the medium. Prior to the 1980s, these works were described by terms including illustrated song, filmed insert, promotional film, promotional clip, promotional video, song video. Music videos use a range of styles of contemporary videomaking techniques, including animation, live action filming, documentaries. Some music videos blend different styles, such as animation, combining these styles and techniques has become more popular because of the variation it presents to the audience.
Many music videos interpret images and scenes from the songs lyrics, other music videos may be without a set concept, being merely a filmed version of the songs live performance. Product placement is a technique in music videos, exemplified by the appearance of the Beats Pill in numerous hip hop videos. In 1894, sheet music publishers Edward B, marks and Joe Stern hired electrician George Thomas and various performers to promote sales of their song The Little Lost Child. Using a magic lantern, Thomas projected a series of images on a screen simultaneous to live performances. This would become a form of entertainment known as the illustrated song. In 1926, with the arrival of many musical short films were produced. Vitaphone shorts featured many bands and dancers, early 1930s cartoons featured popular musicians performing their hit songs on-camera in live-action segments during the cartoons. The early animated films by Walt Disney, such as the Silly Symphonies shorts and especially Fantasia, the Warner Brothers cartoons, even today billed as Looney Tunes and Merrie Melodies, were initially fashioned around specific songs from upcoming Warner Brothers musical films.
Live action musical shorts, featuring such performers as Cab Calloway, were distributed to theaters. Blues singer Bessie Smith appeared in a short film called St. Louis Blues featuring a dramatized performance of the hit song. Numerous other musicians appeared in short musical subjects during this period, soundies and released from 1940 to 1947, were musical films that often included short dance sequences, similar to music videos
A record producer or music producer oversees and manages the sound recording and production of a band or performers music, which may range from recording one song to recording a lengthy concept album. A producer has many roles during the recording process, the roles of a producer vary. The producer may perform these roles himself, or help select the engineer, the producer may pay session musicians and engineers and ensure that the entire project is completed within the record companies budget. A record producer or music producer has a broad role in overseeing and managing the recording. Producers often take on an entrepreneurial role, with responsibility for the budget, contracts. In the 2010s, the industry has two kinds of producers with different roles, executive producer and music producer. Executive producers oversee project finances while music producers oversee the process of recording songs or albums. In most cases the producer is a competent arranger, composer. The producer will liaise with the engineer who concentrates on the technical aspects of recording.
Noted producer Phil Ek described his role as the person who creatively guides or directs the process of making a record, indeed, in Bollywood music, the designation actually is music director. The music producers job is to create and mold a piece of music, at the beginning of record industry, producer role was technically limited to record, in one shot, artists performing live. The role of producers changed progressively over the 1950s and 1960s due to technological developments, the development of multitrack recording caused a major change in the recording process. Before multitracking, all the elements of a song had to be performed simultaneously, all of these singers and musicians had to be assembled in a large studio and the performance had to be recorded. As well, for a song that used 20 instruments, it was no longer necessary to get all the players in the studio at the same time. Examples include the rock sound effects of the 1960s, e. g. playing back the sound of recorded instruments backwards or clanging the tape to produce unique sound effects.
These new instruments were electric or electronic, and thus they used instrument amplifiers, new technologies like multitracking changed the goal of recording, A producer could blend together multiple takes and edit together different sections to create the desired sound. For example, in jazz fusion Bandleader-composer Miles Davis album Bitches Brew, producers like Phil Spector and George Martin were soon creating recordings that were, in practical terms, almost impossible to realise in live performance. Producers became creative figures in the studio, other examples of such engineers includes Joe Meek, Teo Macero, Brian Wilson, and Biddu
Luther Ronzoni Vandross, Jr. was an American singer and record producer. He became the singer of the group Change, which released its certified gold debut album, The Glow of Love. After Vandross left the group, he was signed to Epic Records as a solo artist and released his solo album, Never Too Much. His hit songs include Never Too Much and Now, Any Love, Power of Love/Love Power, I Can Make It Better and For You to Love. Many of his songs were covers of music by other artists such as If This World Were Mine, Since I Lost My Baby and Always. Duets such as The Closer I Get to You with Beyoncé, Endless Love with Mariah Carey, during his career, Vandross sold over 35 million records worldwide, and received eight Grammy Awards including Best Male R&B Vocal Performance four different times. He won a total of four Grammy Awards in 2004 including the Grammy Award for Song of the Year for a song recorded not long before his death, Luther Ronzoni Vandross, Jr. was born on April 20,1951 at Bellevue Hospital in Manhattan, New York City.
He was the child and second son of Mary Ida Vandross and Luther Vandross. His father was an upholsterer and singer, and his mother was a nurse, Vandross was raised on Manhattans Lower East Side in the NYCHA Alfred E. Smith Houses public housing development. At the age of three, having his own phonograph, he himself to play the piano by ear. Vandrosss father died of diabetes when Vandross was eight years old and his family moved to the Bronx when he was nine. His sisters, Patricia Pat and Ann began taking Vandross to the Apollo Theater and to a theater in Brooklyn to see Dionne Warwick, Patricia sang with the vocal group The Crests, and was featured on the songs 16 Candles and Sweetest One. In high school, Vandross performed in a group, Shades of Jade, during his early years in show business he appeared several times at the Apollos infamous amateur night and was booed by the audience. While a member of a workshop, Listen My Brother, he was invoiced in the singles Only Love Can Make a Better World.
He appeared in the first series of Sesame Street during 1969, Vandross graduated from William Howard Taft High School in 1969, and attended Western Michigan University for a year before dropping out to continue pursuing a career in music. He added backing vocals to Roberta Flack & Donny Hathaway in 1972, Vandross founded the first Patti LaBelle fan club, of which he was president. Vandross sang on Delores Halls Hall-Mark album and he sang with her on the song Whos Gonna Make It Easier for Me, which he wrote, and he contributed another song, In This Lonely Hour. Having co-written Fascination for David Bowies Young Americans, he went on to tour with him as a back-up vocalist in September 1974, Vandross wrote Everybody Rejoice for the 1975 Broadway musical The Wiz
All the Man That I Need
All the Man That I Need is a song written by American songwriters Dean Pitchford and Michael Gore. The song was first recorded as All The Man I Need by Linda Clifford in 1982, in 1991, Whitney Houston had a number one multiple chart hit with the song, recorded as All The Man That I Need, from her 1990 album, Im Your Baby Tonight. All the Man That I Need was originally written in 1981, by Dean Pitchford and they had Linda Clifford in mind when they wrote the song. They had previously written the song Red Light from Fame for her in 1980, Linda says, All the Man I Need was actually written for my husband and myself. I recorded it in 1980, when I recorded Red Light from the movie Fame, Whitney Houston recorded it years later. As Linda states, writers Michael Gore and Dean Pitchford actually wrote that song for Linda, Linda had gotten out of a bad marriage some years earlier and when Michael and Dean saw how happy Linda and Nick were together, the song kind of wrote itself. Clifford recorded her version of the song for inclusion on her album Ill Keep on Loving You, and subsequently released it as a single, Pitchford revealed that although different versions of the song were made, no one was really scoring a major success with it. I figured that it was one of songs that was going to get cut a number of times and not ever have its day.
However, he was a friend of Arista Records president Clive Davis. After a discussion between the two regarding the song, a version of it was sent to Davis. Davis, was impressed with the song, but felt they would be unable to do anything with it at time as Houston had recently finished recording her second album. Then came a long and agonizing wait for Pitchford while Arista went about the task of marketing Houstons second album, during this interim period, Pitchfords publishers received many requests from interested parties who wanted one of their acts to record the song. However, in the end Houston finally recorded it on her album Im Your Baby Tonight, All the Man That I Need is an R&B song. According to the music published at Musicnotes. com by Alfred Music Publishing. The beat is set in time, and moves at a slow tempo of 76 beats per minute. It has the sequence of B♭m–Fm–E♭–E♭/D♭–D♭–Cm7 as its chord progression, Houstons vocals in the song span from the note of C♯4 to the note of A5, while the piano elements range from the note of B♭1 to the high note of F♯5.
Stephen Holden of The New York Times, wrote that the song was an expression of sexual hero worship, the song features a saxophone solo by American recording artist Kenny G. All the Man That I Need garnered mainly positive reviews music critics
Didn't We Almost Have It All
Didnt We Almost Have It All is the second single from Whitney Houstons second album Whitney. The song was written by Michael Masser and Will Jennings and was released in August 1987 and it received a Grammy nomination for Song of the Year. The single was one for two weeks on the US Billboard Hot 100. A live performance from her September 2,1987 concert in Saratoga Springs, New York was used as the video and played on MTV, VH1. The recorded performance was televised along with her performance of I Wanna Dance with Somebody at the 1987 MTV Video Music Awards on September 11 and it was widely speculated that the song is about Houstons relationship with NFL star Randall Cunningham. Rob Wynn of Allmusic highlighted the song, L. A. Ill save my champagne for pop singers who dont add that overblown song to their repertoire. Rolling Stones Vince Alleti wrote, Masser reprises the show-tune schmaltz of The Greatest Love of All in his even cornier Didnt We Almost Have It All. According to Whitney fanpage, But there is a cut on the album whose title inadvertently sums up Houston at this stage of her development -- Didnt We Almost Have It All.
Following Houstons death in 2012, Entertainment Weekly published a list of her 25 best songs and it debuted at number forty one on the Hot 100 the week of August 22,1987 and six weeks reached number one. Didnt We Almost Have It All reached number one on the Billboard Hot 100 for two weeks, from September 26 to October 3,1987, where the song became her fifth number one. The song topped both component charts, the Hot 100 Singles Sales and Hot 100 Airplay, Houstons fourth song to do so, the single stayed in the Top 40 for 13 weeks, and topped the Billboard Adult Contemporary Charts for three weeks. It reached two on the Hot Black Singles chart for one week, behind A Rush on Me by Stephanie Mills. Internationally, the hit the top ten in several markets, and reached the top 20 in the United Kingdom, Switzerland. Didnt We Almost Have It All was ranked 22nd on the Billboard Hot 100 year-end charts, john Robinson – drums Paul Jackson, Jr. Written by Andrew Goldmark and Bruce Roberts
I'm Your Baby Tonight (song)
Im Your Baby Tonight is the lead single and title track from Whitney Houstons 1990 third studio album of the same name. The song was written and produced by Babyface and L. A. Reid, the single features a B-side, Feels So Good, which has not been featured on any Whitney Houston album. While the original version and produced by L. A. Reid and Babyface, was released in the United States, Houston was nominated for Best Pop Vocal Performance, Female with this track at the 33rd Grammy Awards in 1991. The song became a hit for Houston, reaching the top 10 worldwide. It reached number one on the Billboard Hot 100 chart, her eighth single to do so, a live performance was included in the 2014 CD/DVD release, Whitney Houston Live, Her Greatest Performances. Im Your Baby Tonight is written in the key of A minor with a tempo of 110 beats per minute in compound quadruple meter, the song follows a chord progression of Am9 – Fmaj7 – Bm7♭5 – E7sus – E7, and Houstons vocals span from C4 to A5. Following Houstons death in 2012, Entertainment Weekly published a list of her 25 best songs, the video uses the single edit of the song rather than the album version, whereas all of Houstons subsequent greatest-hits compilations have used the album version.
Im Your Baby Tonight hit the Top 10 in several markets including Australia, Italy, Switzerland, UK. After having charted ten Top 10 hits on the Billboard Top 100, Houston continued her chart momentum as Im Your Baby Tonight would become her 11th Top 10 hit, the song had an impressive debut at number 42 the week of October 20,1990. Six weeks later, it hit one, ending Mariah Careys three-week run at the top with Love Takes Time. Im Your Baby Tonight spent only one week at number one, the single spent 14 weeks in the Top 10,19 weeks in the Top 20, and 23 consecutive weeks in the Top 40. It reached number one on the Billboard Hot R&B/Hip-Hop Songs chart for two weeks, the single was certified Gold by the Recording Industry Association of America
Where Do Broken Hearts Go
For the similarly titled song by One Direction, see Where Do Broken Hearts Go Where Do Broken Hearts Go is the fourth single from Whitney Houstons second album, Whitney. The ballad was released in February 1988, the song was written by Frank Wildhorn and Chuck Jackson and produced by Narada Michael Walden. Wildhorn approached Jackson about the opportunity to write for Whitney Houston and he gave him the title, and Wildhorn completed the music and lyrics for the song. Initially, Houston did not want to record the song, feeling there was no message to convey. In a 2000 interview, Houston jokingly reported that she hated the song. However, Arista Records CEO Clive Davis believed the song would go to one if she recorded it. It indeed became a one, Houstons seventh consecutive number-one single in the United States. Allmusics Ron Wynn highlighted this track, robert Hilburn described this song as a ballad that raises questions without making you care about the answers. Where Do Broken Hearts Go, released off Whitney as the single in February 1988.
In addition, she became the first female artist to achieve four number-one singles from one album, Houston had the most number-one hits by a female artist in the 1980s, a feat equaled only by Madonna. The song topped the chart for two weeks, and spent 18 weeks on the chart. It entered the Billboard R&B/Hip-Hop Songs chart at number 60, the date of March 5,1988. On the Billboard Hot Adult Contemporary chart, the peaked at number one, the issue dated April 2,1988. It was ranked number 33 and 47, on the Billboard Top Pop and Top Black Singles year-end charts for 1988, the single placed at number two on the Top Adult Contemporary Singles year-end chart of the same year. Worldwide, Where Do Broken Hearts Go was not as successful as her previous singles from the album Whitney. The single debuted at number 30 on the UK Singles Chart, the ending date of March 12,1988. In Ireland, it peaked at two, the highest chart position of the song outside the United States. The song reached number 48 in Australia, number 24 in Italy, number 47 in the Netherlands, the song was very popular in the Philippines, and it became one of the main focus of the 2014 indie romantic film That Thing Called Tadhana
How Will I Know
How Will I Know is a 1986 song recorded by American recording artist Whitney Houston for her eponymous debut album, which was released in February 1985. It was released by Arista Records in November that year, as the third single. Composed by George Merrill and Shannon Rubicam, the song was intended for Janet Jackson. Houston recorded the song with altered lyrics and production from Narada Michael Walden, the lyrics speak about the protagonist trying to discern if a boy she likes will ever like her back. How Will I Know received mainly positive reviews, the song became Houstons second number one single on the United States Billboard Hot 100. It spent two weeks atop the chart and became Houstons first chart topper on the Canadian RPM Singles Chart. Success was worldwide, it reached the top 10 in Sweden, Ireland and the United Kingdom, and the top 20 in the Netherlands, New Zealand, the songs music video features scenes of Houston dancing in a setting of video screens and colored partitions. The music video gave Houston exposure to the teens and MTV and it received nominations at the 1986 MTV Video Music Awards in the categories of Best Female Video and Best New Artist in a Video, winning the former category.
The song was performed on many of her tours including Greatest Love Tour and her Nothing, songwriters George Merrill and Shannon Rubicam had written the songs demo for Janet Jackson, employed by A&M Records executive, John McClain. However, after hearing the song, Jacksons management passed on the song, feeling it was too weak in comparison to her other material, in an interview with Fred Bronson, Merrill expressed his feelings after learning of Jacksons decision. We were pretty upset because we thought it was perfect for her at the time and we had written it with her completely in mind. During this period, Brenda Andrews, at Almo-Irving Music and Rubicams publisher, played the song for Gerry Griffith, who was compiling material for Houstons debut at the time, felt the song perfectly matched her sound. He soon contacted Andrews and the two writers and implored that they should relinquish the song to him for Houstons debut album. Griffith described his discovery of the song, and what he and Clive Davis thought of it, We had a lot of R&B-based tunes, we had a few ballads, so when I heard How Will I Know, I said this is absolutely perfect.
I played it for Clive he fell in love with it, I wasnt very familiar with her family background, I didnt realize that even at that time there was a pretty big industry buzz about her future. After getting in touch with Walden, Griffith frantically implored him to produce the song, describing how important the song would be for Houstons future album, after hearing the songs demo, Walden agreed to fly down to San Rafael, California to arrange it. He was not much impressed with the demo and requested permission to change some of the songs lyrics, flustered by his request and Rubicam denied him the right to their song. After a lot of back-and-forth with Griffith, they compromised and allowed Walden to de-construct the song and change the key, after completing the song, Houston came into the studio to record her vocals
Whitney Elizabeth Houston was an American singer, actress and model. In 2009, Guinness World Records cited her as the most awarded female act of all time, Houston is one of pop musics best-selling music artists of all-time, with an estimated 170–200 million records sold worldwide. She released seven albums and two soundtrack albums, all of which have diamond, multi-platinum, platinum or gold certification. Houston is the only artist to chart seven consecutive No.1 Billboard Hot 100 hits and she is the second artist behind Elton John and the only woman to have two number-one Billboard 200 Album awards on the Billboard magazine year-end charts. Houstons debut album, Whitney Houston, became the debut album by a woman in history. Rolling Stone named it the best album of 1986, and ranked it at number 254 on the magazines list of the 500 Greatest Albums of All Time. Her second studio album, became the first album by a woman to debut at number one on the Billboard 200 albums chart, Houstons first acting role was as the star of the feature film The Bodyguard.
The films original soundtrack won the 1994 Grammy Award for Album of the Year and its lead single, I Will Always Love You, won the Grammy Award for Record of the Year and became the best-selling single by a woman in music history. With the album, Houston became the first act to sell more than a million copies of an album within a week period under Nielsen SoundScan system. The album makes her the top female act in the top 10 list of the albums of all time. Houston continued to star in movies and contribute to their soundtracks, including the films Waiting to Exhale, the Preachers Wife soundtrack became the best-selling gospel album in history. On February 11,2012, Houston was found dead in her guest room at the Beverly Hilton, in Beverly Hills, the official coroners report showed that she had accidentally drowned in the bathtub, with heart disease and cocaine use listed as contributing factors. News of her death coincided with the 2012 Grammy Awards and featured prominently in American, Whitney Houston was born on August 9,1963 in what was a middle-income neighborhood in Newark, New Jersey.
She was the daughter of Army serviceman and entertainment executive John Russell Houston, Jr. and her elder brother Michael is a singer, and her elder half-brother is former basketball player Gary Garland. Her parents were both African American, through her mother, Houston was a first cousin of singers Dionne Warwick and Dee Dee Warwick. Her godmother was Darlene Love and her aunt was Aretha Franklin. Houston was raised a Baptist, but was exposed to the Pentecostal church. After the 1967 Newark riots, the moved to a middle-class area in East Orange, New Jersey
Saving All My Love for You
Saving All My Love for You is a song written by Michael Masser and Gerry Goffin with arrangement by Gene Page. It was originally a hit for Marilyn McCoo and Billy Davis Jr. in 1978 on their album Marilyn & Billy. A cover of the song was done by American recording artist Whitney Houston, for her debut, self-titled album, the song was the second single from the album in the United States and third worldwide. The song received favorable reviews from music critics, who picked it as one of the albums highlights. Whitney earned her first Grammy Award with the song, on the category Grammy Award for Best Female Pop Vocal Performance. Commercially, the song topped the Billboard Hot 100, being her first number one on the charts, it went to number one in the UK and Ireland. In the United States, it was awarded a Gold certification from the RIAA, Saving All My Love for You was written by Michael Masser and Gerry Goffin during the 1970s and originally recorded with Marilyn McCoo and Billy Davis Jr. on their LP Marilyn and Billy.
After her performance, the singer told Masser that the song was one of her favorites, after the success of her previous single, You Give Good Love, the label initially didnt think about releasing Saving All My Love for You as the next single. He proposed that if all the women get on their feet when Houston sings Saving, Davis would agree that it should be the next single. Ultimately, the song was released as the single in the United States. Saving All My Love for You is a soul and R&B song, composed in the key of A major, Houstons vocal range on the song span from the low-note of F#3 to the high-note of E5. Dave Heaton of PopMatters wrote that Whitney sings some parts with bittersweet lightness and other parts with urgent heaviness, the song caused controversy due to its lyrics about having an affair with a married man. Houstons mother Cissy Houston didnt at all like the scenario described in the lyrics, Whitney herself confessed, I was going through a terrible love affair. He was married, and that never work out for anybody.
Saving All My Love for You received positive reviews music critics. Stephen Thomas Erlewine of Allmusic picked the song as a highlight on the album, dave Heaton of PopMatters praised Whitney for singing as the other woman, ratcheting up the drama without overdoing it. Sputnikmusic called it the sexiest, most romantic song on the record, brad Wete of Vibe called it goliath, writing that the song was a fresh serving of precocious talent compared to 1985s mildly flavored R&B bluffet. Los Angeles Times praised her performance, writing that, it should mean a cinch Grammy nomination
LaserDisc is a home video format and the first commercial optical disc storage medium, initially licensed and marketed as MCA DiscoVision in North America in 1978. It was not a format in Europe and Australia when first released but was popular in the 1990s. Its superior video and audio quality made it a choice among videophiles. The technologies and concepts behind LaserDisc were the foundation for optical disc formats including Compact Disc, DVD, Optical video recording technology, using a transparent disc, was invented by David Paul Gregg and James Russell in 1958. The Gregg patents were purchased by MCA in 1968, by 1969, Philips had developed a videodisc in reflective mode, which has advantages over the transparent mode. MCA and Philips decided to combine their efforts and first publicly demonstrated the video disc in 1972. LaserDisc was first available on the market, in Atlanta, Georgia, on December 15,1978, Philips produced the players while MCA produced the discs. The Philips-MCA cooperation was not successful, and discontinued after a few years, several of the scientists responsible for the early research founded Optical Disc Corporation.
In 1979, the Museum of Science and Industry in Chicago opened its Newspaper exhibit which used interactive LaserDiscs to allow visitors to search for the front page of any Chicago Tribune newspaper and this was a very early example of public access to electronically stored information in a museum. The first LaserDisc title marketed in North America was the MCA DiscoVision release of Jaws in 1978, the last title released in North America was Paramounts Bringing Out the Dead in 2000. The last Japanese released movie was the Hong Kong film Tokyo Raiders from Golden Harvest, a dozen or so more titles continued to be released in Japan, until the end of 2001. Production of LaserDisc players continued until January 14,2009, when Pioneer stopped making them and it was estimated that in 1998, LaserDisc players were in approximately 2% of U. S. households. By comparison, in 1999, players were in 10% of Japanese households, LaserDisc was released on June 10,1981 in Japan, and a total of 3.6 million LaserDisc players were sold there.
A total of 16.8 million LaserDisc players were sold worldwide, by the early 2000s, LaserDisc was completely replaced by DVD in the North American retail marketplace, as neither players nor software were produced. Players were still exported to North America from Japan until the end of 2001, the format has retained some popularity among American collectors, and to a greater degree in Japan, where the format was better supported and more prevalent during its life. In Europe, LaserDisc always remained an obscure format and it was chosen by the British Broadcasting Corporation for the BBC Domesday Project in the mid-1980s, a school-based project to commemorate 900 years since the original Domesday Book in England. From 1991 up until the early 2000s, the BBC used LaserDisc technology to play out the channel idents, the standard home video LaserDisc was 30 cm in diameter and made up of two single-sided aluminum discs layered in plastic. Although appearing similar to compact discs or DVDs, LaserDiscs used analog video stored in the domain with analog FM stereo sound