SUMMARY / RELATED TOPICS

Welfare

Welfare is a type of government support for the citizens of that society. Welfare may be provided to people of any income level, as with social security, but it is intended to ensure that people can meet their basic human needs such as food and shelter. Welfare attempts to provide a minimal level of well-being either a free- or a subsidized-supply of certain goods and social services, such as healthcare and vocational training. A welfare state is a political system wherein the State assumes responsibility for the health and welfare of society; the system of social security in a welfare state provides social services, such as universal medical care, unemployment insurance for workers, financial aid, free post-secondary education for students, subsidized public housing, pensions, etc. In 1952, with the Social Security Convention, the International Labour Organization formally defined the social contingencies covered by social security; the first welfare state was Imperial Germany, where the Bismarck government introduced social security in 1889.

In the early 20th century, the United Kingdom introduced social security around 1913, adopted the welfare state with the National Insurance Act 1946, during the Attlee government. In the countries of western Europe and Australasia, social welfare is provided by the government out of the national tax revenues, to a lesser extent by non-government organizations, charities. In the U. S. welfare program is the general term for government support of the well-being of poor people, the term social security has come to be referred to as US social insurance program for retired and disabled people though social security is itself a retirement insurance plan paid for by taxes taken from the individual worker's payroll check and matched by his employer, no part of it is paid by the Federal Government. In other countries, the term social security has a broader definition, which refers to the economic security that a society offers when people are sick and unemployed. In the U. K. government use of the term welfare includes help for poor people and benefits, including specific social services such as help in finding employment.

In the Roman Empire, the first emperor Augustus provided the Cura Annonae or grain dole for citizens who could not afford to buy food every month. Social welfare was enlarged by the Emperor Trajan. Trajan's program brought acclaim including Pliny the Younger; the Song dynasty government supported multiple programs which could be classified as social welfare, including the establishment of retirement homes, public clinics, paupers' graveyards. According to economist Robert Henry Nelson, "The medieval Roman Catholic Church operated a far-reaching and comprehensive welfare system for the poor..."Early welfare programs in Europe included the English Poor Law of 1601, which gave parishes the responsibility for providing welfare payments to the poor. This system was modified by the 19th-century Poor Law Amendment Act, which introduced the system of workhouses. Public assistance programs were not called welfare until the early 20th century when the term was adopted to avoid the negative connotations that had become associated with older terms such as charity.

It was predominantly in the late 19th and early 20th centuries that an organized system of state welfare provision was introduced in many countries. Otto von Bismarck, Chancellor of Germany, introduced one of the first welfare systems for the working classes. In Great Britain the Liberal government of Henry Campbell-Bannerman and David Lloyd George introduced the National Insurance system in 1911, a system expanded by Clement Attlee; the United States inherited England's poor house laws and has had a form of welfare since before it won its independence. During the Great Depression, when emergency relief measures were introduced under President Franklin D. Roosevelt, Roosevelt's New Deal focused predominantly on a program of providing work and stimulating the economy through public spending on projects, rather than on cash payment. Modern welfare states include Germany, the Netherlands, as well as the Nordic countries, such as Iceland, Norway and Finland which employ a system known as the Nordic model.

Esping-Andersen classified the most developed welfare state systems into three categories. In the Islamic world, one of the Five Pillars of Islam, has been collected by the government since the time of the Rashidun caliph Umar in the 7th century; the taxes were used to provide income for the needy, including the poor, orphans and the disabled. According to the Islamic jurist Al-Ghazali, the government was expected to store up food supplies in every region in case a disaster or famine occurred; the World Bank's 2019 World Development Report on The Changing Nature of Work considers whether traditional social assistance models continue to be appropriate given that, in 2018, 8 in 10 people in developing countries still receive no social assistance while 6 in 10 work informally beyond the government's reach. Welfare can take a variety of forms, such as monetary payments and vouchers, or housing assistance. Welfare systems differ from country to country, but welfare is provided to individuals who are unemployed, those with illness or disability, the elderly, those with dependent children, veterans.

A person's eligibility for welfare may be constrained by means testing or other

Mark Chatfield

Mark Webster Chatfield was an American breaststroke swimmer and breaststroke specialist. Chatfield won the gold medal in the 100-meter breaststroke at the 1971 Pan American Games, he represented the United States as a 19-year-old at the 1972 Summer Olympics in Germany. He advanced to the event final of the men's 100-meter breaststroke, finishing fourth overall with a time of 1:06.1. He was the 1973 U. S. national champion in the 100-yard breaststroke. He attended the University of Southern California, where he swam for the USC Trojans swimming and diving team from 1972 to 1975; as a college swimmer, he was recognized as an All-American in 1972, 1973, 1974, 1975. An accomplished Baroque and period musician and composer, he played cello and was a countertenor. Chatfield came out of retirement in 1994 to participate in the Gay Games, he recounted how "he could never disclose his sexuality for fear of losing his spot on the team."Chatfield died of lymphoma on December 23, 1998. List of University of Southern California people L.

A. Times Obituary List of USC All-American swimmers Mark Chatfield at Olympics at Sports-Reference.com

Zastava CZ 99

The Zastava CZ 99 is a semi-automatic pistol produced by Zastava Arms. It was developed in 1989 to replace the M57 in Police; the frame design was influenced by the SIG P226 albeit with some ambidextrous controls like the Walther P88 Compact. The CZ 99 is chambered in 9×19mm Parabellum with a 15-round magazine. CZ 999 Scorpion: While intended for the 9×19mm, there is a variant of the CZ 99 chambered in.40 S&W for foreign importers, with many of these handguns imported by the US in 1990. Over time though, newer versions of this firearm have been developed: The Zastava CZ 999, with DAO and DA/SA selector, as well as the CZ 999 Scorpion without this selector. Features a loaded chamber indicator. Comes in compact model as well. Zastava EZ is the fourth generation CZ 99, with an under-barrel picatinny rail, a loaded chamber indicator as well as an indicator for the last three rounds remaining in the magazine. Service- and personal defence gun, single/double action, ambidextrous. Exists in two calibers.

There are compact versions of both calibers. KSN Golan is an Israeli clone of the CZ 99, with rights being purchased after Zastava halted production. Though the Golan lacks the CZ 99’s loaded chamber indicator and has a shorter slide and barrel, different grips, other minor cosmetic variations from the CZ 99, it is identical in internal design, some parts are interchangeable between the two. Bosnia and Herzegovina Iraq Israel Jordan Lebanon Liberia Macedonia Serbia Palestine Montenegro Zastava CZ99 at the Internet Movie Firearms Database