Wellington is the capital and second-most populous urban area of New Zealand, with 418,500 residents. It is located at the south-western tip of the North Island, between Cook Strait and the Remutaka Range. Wellington is the major population centre of the southern North Island, is the administrative centre of the Wellington Region, which includes the Kapiti Coast and the Wairarapa, it is the world's southernmost capital of a sovereign state. Wellington features a temperate maritime climate, is the world's windiest city by average wind speed; the Wellington metropolitan area comprises four local authorities: Wellington City, on the peninsula between Cook Strait and Wellington Harbour, contains the central business district and about half the population. As the nation's capital since 1865, the New Zealand Government and Parliament, Supreme Court and most of the public service are based in the city. Architectural sights include The Old Government Buildings—one of the largest wooden buildings in the world—as well as the iconic Beehive, the executive wing of the New Zealand Parliament.
Wellington is home to several of the largest and oldest cultural institutions in the nation, such the National Archives, the National Library, the Museum of New Zealand Te Papa Tongarewa, numerous theatres. It plays host to many artistic and cultural organisations, including the New Zealand Symphony Orchestra and Royal New Zealand Ballet. One of the world's most liveable cities, the 2016 Mercer Quality of Living Survey ranked Wellington 12th in the world, was first in the world for both liveability and non-pollution by Deutsche Bank, from 2017–18. Wellington's economy is service-based, with an emphasis on finance, business services, government, it is the centre of New Zealand's film and special effects industries, a hub for information technology and innovation, with two public research universities. Wellington is one of New Zealand's chief seaports and serves both domestic and international shipping; the city is served by the third busiest airport in the country. Wellington's transport network includes train and bus lines which reach as far as the Kapiti Coast and the Wairarapa, ferries connect the city to the South Island.
Described by Lonely Planet in 2013 as "the coolest little capital in the world", the emerging world city has grown from a bustling Māori settlement, to a small colonial outpost, from there to an Australasian capital experiencing a "remarkable creative resurgence". Wellington takes its name from Arthur Wellesley, the first Duke of Wellington and victor of the Battle of Waterloo: his title comes from the town of Wellington in the English county of Somerset, it was named in November 1840 by the original settlers of the New Zealand Company on the suggestion of the directors of the same, in recognition of the Duke's strong support for the company's principles of colonisation and his "strenuous and successful defence against its enemies of the measure for colonising South Australia". One of the founders of the settlement, Edward Jerningham Wakefield, reported that the settlers "took up the views of the directors with great cordiality and the new name was at once adopted". In the Māori language, Wellington has three names.
Te Whanganui-a-Tara refers to Wellington Harbour and means "the great harbour of Tara". The legendary Maori explorer Kupe, a chief from Hawaiki, was said to have stayed in the harbour prior to 1000 CE. Here, it is said he had a notable impact on the area, with local mythology stating he named the two islands in the harbour after his daughters, Mākaro. However, the primary settlement of Wellington is said to have been executed by Tara, the son of Whatonga, a chief from the Mahia Peninsula, who told his son to travel south, to find more fertile lands to settle. In New Zealand Sign Language, the name is signed by raising the index and ring fingers of one hand, palm forward, to form a "W", shaking it from side to side twice; the city's location close to the mouth of the narrow Cook Strait leaves it vulnerable to strong gales, leading to the nickname of "Windy Wellington". Legends recount that Kupe explored the region in about the 10th century. Before European colonisation, the area in which the city of Wellington would be founded was seasonally inhabited by indigenous Māori.
The earliest date with hard evidence for human activity in New Zealand is about 1280. Wellington and its environs have been occupied by various Māori groups from the 12th century; the legendary Polynesian explorer Kupe, a chief from Hawaiki, was said to have stayed in the harbour from c. 925. A Māori explorer, named the harbour Te Whanganui-a-Tara after his son Tara. Before the 1820s, most of the inhabitants of the Wellington region were Whatonga's descendants. At about 1820, the people living there were Ngāti Ira and o
Kudi Arasu was a Tamil weekly magazine published by Periyar E. V. Ramasamy in Madras Presidency in India. Periyar started Kudi Arasu on 2 May 1925 in Erode with K. M. Thangaperumal pillai as the editor, its initial publications were issued weekly on Sunday with 16 pages at a cost of one anna. In November 1925, Periyar quit the Indian National Congress after his failed attempt to bring reservation for non-Brahmins in educational institutions and government jobs, he started the Self-Respect Movement to propagate self-respect among Indians Tamils. The magazine became the mouthpiece of the movement; the magazine circulated in the Tamil diaspora, for which Thamizhavel G. Sarangapani played a prominent role, it had Periyar's wife Nagammai, his sister Kannammal and his brother E. V. Krishnasamy as the publisher for a period of time when he was on tour or arrested, it ceased publication on 5 November 1949. Periyar wrote several articles on atheism and against the caste system. Others like M. Singaravelu wrote many articles on socialism.
In an editorial dated 29 March 1931, Periyar criticised Mahatma Gandhi for Bhagat Singh's death. He wrote, There is no one. There is none. Besides, we now see several people known as patriots and national heroes scolding Mr. Gandhi for the happening of this event; the Madras government of the British Raj banned the magazine at several occasions for various reasons including sedition and for propagating communism. In 1935, the Tamil version of Why I am an Atheist was banned, translator P. Jeevanandham and publisher E. V. Krishnasamy were arrested. In 2010, works from between 1925 and 1938 were reproduced and published as books
Carl Cranke is an American former motorcycle enduro competitor. He represented the United States in 10 International Six Days Trial in the 1970s, he earned two silver medals in ISDT competition. Cranke was notable for his tuning abilities with two-stroke engines and was credited with helping develop Penton motorcycles, he was inducted into the AMA Motorcycle Hall of Fame in 2000. Cranke grew up in Northern California, near Sacramento where he attended Bella Vista High School in Fair Oaks, California, he began racing a 50cc Suzuki in local dirt track races with sponsorship from a local motorcycle shop when he was 16 years old. He began racing in scrambles racing, the forerunner to the sport of motocross. Cranke became a professional dirt track racer when he turned 18, competing against future dirt track national champions Mert Lawwill and Dick Mann. In 1968, he was the top ranked novice dirt track racer in the nation; when dirt track racing became too expensive for him, Cranke began competing in Hare scrambles and Hare and Hound races.
He began competing in motocross racing. After Cranke defeated Swedish rider Lars Larsson in the support race at a Trans-AMA motocross event in Gilroy, California, he was contracted to race for the Penton racing team. Pentons were off-road competition motorcycles designed and sold in the United States by John Penton. Initial frame manufacturing and assembly were done by the KTM factory of Austria, which took over all production and distribution in the United States. Cranke qualified to become an American representative at the 1972 International Six Days Trial in Czechoslovakia; the International Six Days Trial, now known as the International Six Days Enduro, is a form of off-road motorcycle Olympics, the oldest annual competition sanctioned by the FIM dating back to 1913. He earned a Gold Medal that year in Czechoslovakia and, went on to represent the United States in 10 International Six Days Trials events while competing aboard Penton, KTM and Yamaha motorcycles, he earned a total of two silver medals in ISDT competition.
Cranke ended his professional racing career after the 1981 season. Cranke was inducted into the AMA Motorcycle Hall of Fame in 2000. Carl Cranke at the Motorcycle Hall of Fame