World War I
World War I known as the First World War or the Great War, was a global war originating in Europe that lasted from 28 July 1914 to 11 November 1918. Contemporaneously described as "the war to end all wars", it led to the mobilisation of more than 70 million military personnel, including 60 million Europeans, making it one of the largest wars in history, it is one of the deadliest conflicts in history, with an estimated nine million combatants and seven million civilian deaths as a direct result of the war, while resulting genocides and the 1918 influenza pandemic caused another 50 to 100 million deaths worldwide. On 28 June 1914, Gavrilo Princip, a Bosnian Serb Yugoslav nationalist, assassinated the Austro-Hungarian heir Archduke Franz Ferdinand in Sarajevo, leading to the July Crisis. In response, on 23 July Austria-Hungary issued an ultimatum to Serbia. Serbia's reply failed to satisfy the Austrians, the two moved to a war footing. A network of interlocking alliances enlarged the crisis from a bilateral issue in the Balkans to one involving most of Europe.
By July 1914, the great powers of Europe were divided into two coalitions: the Triple Entente—consisting of France and Britain—and the Triple Alliance of Germany, Austria-Hungary and Italy. Russia felt it necessary to back Serbia and, after Austria-Hungary shelled the Serbian capital of Belgrade on the 28th, partial mobilisation was approved. General Russian mobilisation was announced on the evening of 30 July; when Russia failed to comply, Germany declared war on 1 August in support of Austria-Hungary, with Austria-Hungary following suit on 6th. German strategy for a war on two fronts against France and Russia was to concentrate the bulk of its army in the West to defeat France within four weeks shift forces to the East before Russia could mobilise. On 2 August, Germany demanded free passage through Belgium, an essential element in achieving a quick victory over France; when this was refused, German forces invaded Belgium on 3 August and declared war on France the same day. On 12 August and France declared war on Austria-Hungary.
In November 1914, the Ottoman Empire entered the war on the side of the Alliance, opening fronts in the Caucasus and the Sinai Peninsula. The war was fought in and drew upon each power's colonial empire as well, spreading the conflict to Africa and across the globe; the Entente and its allies would become known as the Allied Powers, while the grouping of Austria-Hungary and their allies would become known as the Central Powers. The German advance into France was halted at the Battle of the Marne and by the end of 1914, the Western Front settled into a battle of attrition, marked by a long series of trench lines that changed little until 1917. In 1915, Italy opened a front in the Alps. Bulgaria joined the Central Powers in 1915 and Greece joined the Allies in 1917, expanding the war in the Balkans; the United States remained neutral, although by doing nothing to prevent the Allies from procuring American supplies whilst the Allied blockade prevented the Germans from doing the same the U. S. became an important supplier of war material to the Allies.
After the sinking of American merchant ships by German submarines, the revelation that the Germans were trying to incite Mexico to make war on the United States, the U. S. declared war on Germany on 6 April 1917. Trained American forces would not begin arriving at the front in large numbers until mid-1918, but the American Expeditionary Force would reach some two million troops. Though Serbia was defeated in 1915, Romania joined the Allied Powers in 1916 only to be defeated in 1917, none of the great powers were knocked out of the war until 1918; the 1917 February Revolution in Russia replaced the Tsarist autocracy with the Provisional Government, but continuing discontent at the cost of the war led to the October Revolution, the creation of the Soviet Socialist Republic, the signing of the Treaty of Brest-Litovsk by the new government in March 1918, ending Russia's involvement in the war. This allowed the transfer of large numbers of German troops from the East to the Western Front, resulting in the German March 1918 Offensive.
This offensive was successful, but the Allies rallied and drove the Germans back in their Hundred Days Offensive. Bulgaria was the first Central Power to sign an armistice—the Armistice of Salonica on 29 September 1918. On 30 October, the Ottoman Empire capitulated. On 4 November, the Austro-Hungarian empire agreed to the Armistice of Villa Giusti after being decisively defeated by Italy in the Battle of Vittorio Veneto. With its allies defeated, revolution at home, the military no longer willing to fight, Kaiser Wilhelm abdicated on 9 November and Germany signed an armistice on 11 November 1918. World War I was a significant turning point in the political, cultural and social climate of the world; the war and its immediate aftermath sparked numerous uprisings. The Big Four (Britain, the United States, It
A cleanroom or clean room is a facility ordinarily utilized as a part of specialized industrial production or scientific research, including the manufacture of pharmaceutical items and microprocessors. Cleanrooms are designed to maintain low levels of particulates, such as dust, airborne organisms, or vaporized particles. Cleanrooms have an cleanliness level quantified by the number of particles per cubic meter at a predetermined molecule measure; the ambient outdoor air in a typical urban area contains 35,000,000 particles for each cubic meter in the size range 0.5 μm and bigger in measurement, equivalent to an ISO 9 cleanroom, while by comparison an ISO 1 cleanroom permits no particles in that size range and just 12 particles for each cubic meter of 0.3 μm and smaller. The modern cleanroom was invented by American physicist Willis Whitfield; as employee of the Sandia National Laboratories, Whitfield created the initial plans for the cleanroom in 1960. Prior to Whitfield's invention, earlier cleanrooms had problems with particles and unpredictable airflows.
Whitfield designed his cleanroom with a constant filtered air flow to flush out impurities. Within a few years of its invention in the 1960s, Whitfield's modern cleanroom had generated more than US$50 billion in sales worldwide; the majority of the integrated circuit manufacturing facilities in Silicon Valley were made by three companies: MicroAire, PureAire, Key Plastics. These competitors made laminar flow units, glove boxes, clean rooms and air showers, along with the chemical tanks and benches used in the'Wet Process' building of integrated circuits; these three companies were the pioneers of the use of Teflon for airguns, chemical pumps, water guns, other devices needed for the production of integrated circuits. William C. McElroy Jr. worked as engineering manager, drafting room supervisor, QA/QC, designer for all three companies and his designs added 45 original patents to the technology of the time. McElroy wrote a four page article for MicroContamination Journal, wet processing training manuals, equipment manuals for wet processing and clean rooms.
Cleanrooms can be large. Entire manufacturing facilities can be contained within a cleanroom with factory floors covering thousands of square meters, they are used extensively in semiconductor manufacturing, the life sciences, other fields that are sensitive to environmental contamination. There are modular cleanrooms; the air entering a cleanroom from outside is filtered to exclude dust, the air inside is recirculated through high-efficiency particulate air and/or ultra-low particulate air filters to remove internally generated contaminants. Staff enter and leave through airlocks, wear protective clothing such as hoods, face masks, gloves and coveralls. Equipment inside the cleanroom is designed to generate minimal air contamination. Only special mops and buckets are used. Cleanroom furniture is easy to clean. Common materials such as paper and fabrics made from natural fibers are excluded, alternatives used. Cleanrooms are not sterile. Particle levels are tested using a particle counter and microorganisms detected and counted through environmental monitoring methods.
Polymer tools used in cleanrooms must be determined to be chemically compatible with cleanroom processing fluids as well as ensured to generate a low level of particle generation. Some cleanrooms are kept at a positive pressure so if any leaks occur, air leaks out of the chamber instead of unfiltered air coming in; some cleanroom HVAC systems control the humidity to such low levels that extra equipment like air ionizers are required to prevent electrostatic discharge problems. Low-level cleanrooms may only require special shoes, with smooth soles that do not track in dust or dirt. However, for safety reasons, shoe soles must not create slipping hazards. Access to a cleanroom is restricted to those wearing a cleanroom suit. In cleanrooms in which the standards of air contamination are less rigorous, the entrance to the cleanroom may not have an air shower. An anteroom is used to put on clean-room clothing; some manufacturing facilities do not use realized cleanrooms, but use some practices or technologies typical of cleanrooms to meet their contamination requirements.
In hospitals, theatres are similar to cleanrooms for surgical patients' operations with incisions to prevent any infections for the patient. Cleanrooms maintain particulate-free air through the use of either HEPA or ULPA filters employing laminar or turbulent air flow principles. Laminar, or unidirectional, air flow systems direct filtered air downward or in horizontal direction in a constant stream towards filters located on walls near the cleanroom floor or through raised perforated floor panels to be recirculated. Laminar air flow systems are employed across 80% of a cleanroom ceiling to maintain constant air processing. Stainless steel or other non shedding materials are used to construct laminar air flow filters and hoods to prevent excess particles entering the air. Turbulent, or non unidirectional, air flow uses both laminar air flow hoods and nonspecific velocity filters to keep air in a cleanroom in constant motion, although not all in the same direction; the rough air seeks to trap particles that may be in the air and drive them towards the floor, where they enter filters and leave the cleanroom environment.
US FDA and EU have laid down guidelines and limit for microbial contamination, s
The Netherlands is a country located in Northwestern Europe. The European portion of the Netherlands consists of twelve separate provinces that border Germany to the east, Belgium to the south, the North Sea to the northwest, with maritime borders in the North Sea with Belgium and the United Kingdom. Together with three island territories in the Caribbean Sea—Bonaire, Sint Eustatius and Saba— it forms a constituent country of the Kingdom of the Netherlands; the official language is Dutch, but a secondary official language in the province of Friesland is West Frisian. The six largest cities in the Netherlands are Amsterdam, The Hague, Utrecht and Tilburg. Amsterdam is the country's capital, while The Hague holds the seat of the States General and Supreme Court; the Port of Rotterdam is the largest port in Europe, the largest in any country outside Asia. The country is a founding member of the EU, Eurozone, G10, NATO, OECD and WTO, as well as a part of the Schengen Area and the trilateral Benelux Union.
It hosts several intergovernmental organisations and international courts, many of which are centered in The Hague, dubbed'the world's legal capital'. Netherlands means'lower countries' in reference to its low elevation and flat topography, with only about 50% of its land exceeding 1 metre above sea level, nearly 17% falling below sea level. Most of the areas below sea level, known as polders, are the result of land reclamation that began in the 16th century. With a population of 17.30 million people, all living within a total area of 41,500 square kilometres —of which the land area is 33,700 square kilometres —the Netherlands is one of the most densely populated countries in the world. It is the world's second-largest exporter of food and agricultural products, owing to its fertile soil, mild climate, intensive agriculture; the Netherlands was the third country in the world to have representative government, it has been a parliamentary constitutional monarchy with a unitary structure since 1848.
The country has a tradition of pillarisation and a long record of social tolerance, having legalised abortion and human euthanasia, along with maintaining a progressive drug policy. The Netherlands abolished the death penalty in 1870, allowed women's suffrage in 1917, became the world's first country to legalise same-sex marriage in 2001, its mixed-market advanced economy had the thirteenth-highest per capita income globally. The Netherlands ranks among the highest in international indexes of press freedom, economic freedom, human development, quality of life, as well as happiness; the Netherlands' turbulent history and shifts of power resulted in exceptionally many and varying names in different languages. There is diversity within languages; this holds for English, where Dutch is the adjective form and the misnomer Holland a synonym for the country "Netherlands". Dutch comes from Theodiscus and in the past centuries, the hub of Dutch culture is found in its most populous region, home to the capital city of Amsterdam.
Referring to the Netherlands as Holland in the English language is similar to calling the United Kingdom "Britain" by people outside the UK. The term is so pervasive among potential investors and tourists, that the Dutch government's international websites for tourism and trade are "holland.com" and "hollandtradeandinvest.com". The region of Holland consists of North and South Holland, two of the nation's twelve provinces a single province, earlier still, the County of Holland, a remnant of the dissolved Frisian Kingdom. Following the decline of the Duchy of Brabant and the County of Flanders, Holland became the most economically and politically important county in the Low Countries region; the emphasis on Holland during the formation of the Dutch Republic, the Eighty Years' War and the Anglo-Dutch Wars in the 16th, 17th and 18th century, made Holland serve as a pars pro toto for the entire country, now considered either incorrect, informal, or, depending on context, opprobrious. Nonetheless, Holland is used in reference to the Netherlands national football team.
The region called the Low Countries and the Country of the Netherlands. Place names with Neder, Nieder and Nedre and Bas or Inferior are in use in places all over Europe, they are sometimes used in a deictic relation to a higher ground that consecutively is indicated as Upper, Oben, Superior or Haut. In the case of the Low Countries / Netherlands the geographical location of the lower region has been more or less downstream and near the sea; the geographical location of the upper region, changed tremendously over time, depending on the location of the economic and military power governing the Low Countries area. The Romans made a distinction between the Roman provinces of downstream Germania Inferior and upstream Germania Superior; the designation'Low' to refer to the region returns again in the 10th century Duchy of Lower Lorraine, that covered much of the Low Countries. But this time the corresponding Upper region is Upper Lorraine, in nowadays Northern France; the Dukes of Burgundy, who ruled the Low Countries in the 15th century, used the term les pays de par deçà for the Low Countries as opposed to les pays de par delà for their original
Food processing is the transformation of agricultural products into food, or of one form of food into other forms. Food processing includes many forms of processing foods, from grinding grain to make raw flour to home cooking to complex industrial methods used to make convenience foods. Primary food processing is necessary to make most foods edible, secondary food processing turns the ingredients into familiar foods, such as bread. Tertiary food processing has been criticized for promoting overnutrition and obesity, containing too much sugar and salt, too little fiber, otherwise being unhealthful. Primary food processing turns agricultural products, such as raw wheat kernels or livestock, into something that can be eaten; this category includes ingredients that are produced by ancient processes such as drying, threshing and milling grain, shelling nuts, butchering animals for meat. It includes deboning and cutting meat and smoking fish and meat and filtering oils, canning food, preserving food through food irradiation, candling eggs, as well as homogenizing and pasteurizing milk.
Contamination and spoilage problems in primary food processing can lead to significant public health threats, as the resulting foods are used so widely. However, many forms of processing contribute to improved food safety and longer shelf life before the food spoils. Commercial food processing uses control systems such as hazard analysis and critical control points and failure mode and effects analysis to reduce the risk of harm. Secondary food processing is the everyday process of creating food from ingredients that are ready to use. Baking bread, regardless of whether it is made at home, in a small bakery, or in a large factory, is an example of secondary food processing. Fermenting fish and making wine and other alcoholic products are traditional forms of secondary food processing. Sausages are a common form of secondary processed meat, formed by comminution of meat that has undergone primary processing. Tertiary food processing is the commercial production of what is called processed food.
These are heat-and-serve foods, such as TV dinners and re-heated airline meals. Food processing dates back to the prehistoric ages when crude processing incorporated fermenting, sun drying, preserving with salt, various types of cooking, Such basic food processing involved chemical enzymatic changes to the basic structure of food in its natural form, as well served to build a barrier against surface microbial activity that caused rapid decay. Salt-preservation was common for foods that constituted warrior and sailors' diets until the introduction of canning methods. Evidence for the existence of these methods can be found in the writings of the ancient Greek, Chaldean and Roman civilizations as well as archaeological evidence from Europe and South America and Asia; these tried and tested processing techniques remained the same until the advent of the industrial revolution. Examples of ready-meals date back to before the preindustrial revolution, include dishes such as Cornish pasty and Haggis.
Both during ancient times and today in modern society these are considered processed foods. Modern food processing technology developed in the 19th and 20th centuries was developed in a large part to serve military needs. In 1809 Nicolas Appert invented a hermetic bottling technique that would preserve food for French troops which contributed to the development of tinning, subsequently canning by Peter Durand in 1810. Although expensive and somewhat hazardous due to the lead used in cans, canned goods would become a staple around the world. Pasteurization, discovered by Louis Pasteur in 1864, improved the quality and safety of preserved foods and introduced the wine and milk preservation. In the 20th century, World War II, the space race and the rising consumer society in developed countries contributed to the growth of food processing with such advances as spray drying, juice concentrates, freeze drying and the introduction of artificial sweeteners, colouring agents, such preservatives as sodium benzoate.
In the late 20th century, products such as dried instant soups, reconstituted fruits and juices, self cooking meals such as MRE food ration were developed. By the 20th century, automatic appliances like microwave oven and rotimatic paved way for convenience cooking. In western Europe and North America, the second half of the 20th century witnessed a rise in the pursuit of convenience. Food processing companies marketed their products towards middle-class working wives and mothers. Frozen foods found their success in sales of juice concentrates and "TV dinners". Processors utilised the perceived value of time to appeal to the postwar population, this same appeal contributes to the success of convenience foods today. Benefits of food processing include toxin removal, easing marketing and distribution tasks, increasing food consistency. In addition, it increases yearly availability of many foods, enables transportation of delicate perishable foods across long distances and makes many kinds of foods safe to eat by de-activating spoilage and pathogenic micro-organisms.
Modern supermarkets would not exist without modern food processing techniques, long voyages would not be possible. Processed foods are less susceptible to early spoilage than fresh foods and are better suited for long-distance transportation from the source to the consumer; when they were first introduced, some processed foods helped to alleviate food shortages and improved th
A puddle is a small accumulation of liquid water, on a surface. It can form either by pooling in a depression on the surface, or by surface tension upon a flat surface. A puddle is shallow enough to walk through, too small to traverse with a boat or raft. Small wildlife may be attracted to puddles. Puddles in natural landscapes and habitats, when not resulting from precipitation, can indicate the presence of a seep or spring. Small seasonal riparian plants and wildflowers can germinate with the ephemeral "head start" of moisture provided by a puddle. Small wildlife, such as birds and insects, can use puddles as a source of essential moisture or for bathing. Raised constructed puddles, bird baths, are a part of domestic and wildlife gardens as a garden ornament and "micro-habitat" restoration. Swallows use the damp loam which gathers in puddles as a form of cement to help to build their nests. Many butterfly species and some other insects, but male butterflies, need puddles for nutrients they can contain, such as salts and amino acids.
In a behaviour known as puddling they seek out the damp mud that can be found around the edge of the puddles. For some smaller forms of life, such as tadpoles or mosquito larvae, a puddle can form an entire habitat. Puddles that do not evaporate can become standing water, which can become polluted by decaying organisms and are home to breeding mosquitos, which can act as vectors for diseases such as malaria and, of more recent concern in certain areas of the world, West Nile Virus. Puddles form during rain, can cause problems for transport. Due to the angle of the road, puddles tend to be forced by gravity to gather on the edges of the road; this can cause splashing as cars drive through the puddles, which causes water to be sprayed onto pedestrians on the pavement. Irresponsible drivers may do this deliberately, which, in some countries, can lead to prosecution for careless driving. Puddles form in potholes in a dirt road, or in any other space with a shallow depression and dirt. In such cases, these are sometimes referred to as mud puddles, because mud tends to form in the bottoms, resulting in dirtied wheels or boots when disturbed.
In order to deal with puddles and pavements are built with a camber, being convex in nature, to force puddles to drain into the gutter, which has storm drain grates to allow the water to drain into the sewers. In addition, some surfaces are made to be porous, allowing the water to drain through the surface to the aquifer below. Due to the action of surface tension, small puddles can form if a liquid is spilt on a level surface. Puddles like this are common on kitchen floors. Puddles tend to evaporate due to the high surface-area-to-volume ratio and tend to be short lived. In cold conditions puddles can form patches of ice which are slippery and difficult to see and can be a hazard to road vehicles and pedestrians. Puddles are a source of recreation for children, who like jumping in puddles as an "up-side" to rain. A children's nursery rhyme records the story of Doctor Foster and his encounter with a puddle in Gloucester. Muddy puddles, the pleasures of splashing mud in them, are a repeated theme in the children's animation Peppa Pig, to the extent of selling character-branded wellington boots.
It has been fashionable for millennia, continues to be fashionable in some circles, to believe the Universe is designed for humans. Some critics of this view reject it as hubris or anthropocentrism and argue instead that through the process of evolution it is humans that have adapted to or been shaped by the Universe. In his book The Salmon of Doubt, Douglas Adams satirizes the belief that the universe is designed for humans: imagine a puddle waking up one morning and thinking,'This is an interesting world I find myself in, an interesting hole I find myself in, fits me rather neatly, doesn't it? In fact, it fits me staggeringly well, must have been made to have me in it!' This is such a powerful idea that as the sun rises in the sky and the air heats up and as the puddle gets smaller and smaller, it's still frantically hanging on to the notion that everything's going to be all right, because this World was meant to have him in it, was built to have him in it. When Walter Raleigh met Queen Elizabeth I, Raleigh is reputed to have thrown his coat over a muddy puddle to allow the Queen to cross without getting her feet wet as an act of chivalry.
Medieval legend spoke of one man, desperate to find building materials for his house, so he stole cobblestones from the road surface. The remaining hole filled with water and a horseman who walked through the'puddle' found himself drowning. A similar legend, of a young boy drowning in a puddle that formed in a Pothole in a major street in the early years of Seattle, Washington, is told as part of the Seattle Underground Tour
Robert Anthony Eden, 1st Earl of Avon, was a British Conservative politician who served three periods as Foreign Secretary and a brief term as prime minister of the United Kingdom from 1955 to 1957. Achieving rapid promotion as a young Member of Parliament, he became Foreign Secretary aged 38, before resigning in protest at Neville Chamberlain's appeasement policy towards Mussolini's Italy, he again held that position for most of the Second World War, a third time in the early 1950s. Having been deputy to Winston Churchill for 15 years, he succeeded him as the leader of the Conservative Party and prime minister in April 1955, a month won a general election. Eden's worldwide reputation as an opponent of appeasement, a "man of peace", a skilled diplomat was overshadowed in 1956 when the United States refused to support the Anglo-French military response to the Suez Crisis, which critics across party lines regarded as an historic setback for British foreign policy, signalling the end of British predominance in the Middle East.
Most historians argue that he made a series of blunders not realising the depth of American opposition to military action. Two months after ordering an end to the Suez operation, he resigned as prime minister on grounds of ill health and because he was suspected of having misled the House of Commons over the degree of collusion with France and Israel. Eden is ranked among the least successful British prime ministers of the 20th century, although two broadly sympathetic biographies have gone some way to shifting the balance of opinion. Biographer D. R. Thorpe described the Suez Crisis as "a tragic end to his premiership, one that came to assume a disproportionate importance in any assessment of his career." Eden was born at Windlestone Hall, County Durham, on 12 June 1897. He was born into a conservative family of landed gentry, he was a younger son of Sir William Eden, 7th and 5th Baronet, a former colonel and local magistrate from an old titled family. Sir William, an eccentric and foul-tempered man, was a talented watercolourist and collector of Impressionists.
Eden's mother, Sybil Frances Grey, was a member of the famous Grey family of Northumberland. Grey had wanted to marry Francis Knollys, who became an important Royal adviser. Although she was a popular figure locally, she had a strained relationship with her children, her profligacy ruined the family fortunes. Eden's elder brother Tim had to sell Windlestone in 1936. Rab Butler would quip that Eden—a handsome but ill-tempered man—was "half mad baronet, half beautiful woman". Eden's great-grandfather was William Iremonger, who commanded the 2nd Regiment of Foot during the Peninsular War and fought under Wellington at Vimiero, he was descended from Governor Sir Robert Eden, 1st Baronet, of Maryland and, through the Calvert Family of Maryland, he was connected to the ancient Roman Catholic aristocracy of the Arundell and Howard families, some of whom were Roman Catholics like the Dukes of Norfolk and others Anglican such as the earls of Carlisle and Suffolk. The Calverts had converted to the Established Church early in the 18th century to regain the proprietorship of Maryland.
He was descendant from the Schaffalitzky de Muckadell family of Denmark, Bie family of Norway. Eden was once amused to learn that one of his ancestors had, like Churchill's ancestor the Duke of Marlborough, been the lover of Barbara Castlemaine. There was speculation for many years that Eden's biological father was the politician and man of letters George Wyndham, but this is considered impossible as Wyndham was in South Africa at the time of Eden's conception, his mother was rumoured to have had an affair with Wyndham. Eden had an elder brother, killed in action in 1914, a younger brother, killed when the battlecruiser HMS Indefatigable blew up and sank at the Battle of Jutland in 1916. Eden was educated at two independent schools; the first was Sandroyd School in Cobham from 1907 to 1910. He started at Eton College in January 1911. There, he won a Divinity prize and excelled at cricket and rowing, winning House colours in the last. Eden learned French and German on continental holidays, as a child is said to have spoken French better than English.
Although Eden was able to converse with Hitler in German in February 1934, with the Chinese premier Chou En-lai in French at Geneva in 1954, he preferred, out of a sense of professionalism, to have interpreters to translate at formal meetings. Although Eden claimed to have had no interest in politics until the early 1920s, his teenage letters and diaries show him to have been obsessed with the subject, he was a strong, partisan Conservative, rejoicing in the defeat of Charles Masterman at a by-election in May 1913, once astonishing his mother on a train journey by telling her the MP and the size of his majority for each constituency through which they passed. By 1914 he was a member of the Eton Society. During the Great War, Eden's elder brother, Lieutenant John Eden, was killed in action on 17 October 1914, at the age of 26, while serving with the 12th Lancers, he is buried in Larch Wood Commonwealth War Graves Commission Cemetery in Belgium. His uncle Robin was shot down and captured whilst serving with the Royal Flying Corps.
Volunteering for service the British Army, as did many others of his generation, Eden served with the 21st Battalion of the King's Royal Rifle Corps, a Kitchener's Army unit recruited from County Durham country labourers, who were replaced by Londoners after losses at
Natural rubber called India rubber or caoutchouc, as produced, consists of polymers of the organic compound isoprene, with minor impurities of other organic compounds, plus water. Thailand and Indonesia are two of the leading rubber producers. Forms of polyisoprene that are used as natural rubbers are classified as elastomers. Rubber is harvested in the form of the latex from the rubber tree or others; the latex is a sticky, milky colloid drawn off by making incisions in the bark and collecting the fluid in vessels in a process called "tapping". The latex is refined into rubber ready for commercial processing. In major areas, latex is allowed to coagulate in the collection cup; the coagulated lumps are processed into dry forms for marketing. Natural rubber is used extensively in many applications and products, either alone or in combination with other materials. In most of its useful forms, it has a large stretch ratio and high resilience, is waterproof; the major commercial source of natural rubber latex is the Pará rubber tree, a member of the spurge family, Euphorbiaceae.
This species is preferred. A properly managed tree responds to wounding by producing more latex for several years. Congo rubber a major source of rubber, came from vines in the genus Landolphia. Dandelion milk contains latex; the latex exhibits the same quality as the natural rubber from rubber trees. In the wild types of dandelion, latex content varies greatly. In Nazi Germany, research projects tried to use dandelions as a base for rubber production, but failed. In 2013, by inhibiting one key enzyme and using modern cultivation methods and optimization techniques, scientists in the Fraunhofer Institute for Molecular Biology and Applied Ecology in Germany developed a cultivar, suitable for commercial production of natural rubber. In collaboration with Continental Tires, IME began a pilot facility. Many other plants produce forms of latex rich in isoprene polymers, though not all produce usable forms of polymer as as the Pará; some of them require more elaborate processing to produce anything like usable rubber, most are more difficult to tap.
Some produce other desirable materials, for example chicle from Manilkara species. Others that have been commercially exploited, or at least showed promise as rubber sources, include the rubber fig, Panama rubber tree, various spurges, the related Scorzonera tau-saghyz, various Taraxacum species, including common dandelion and Russian dandelion, most for its hypoallergenic properties, guayule; the term gum rubber is sometimes applied to the tree-obtained version of natural rubber in order to distinguish it from the synthetic version. The first use of rubber was by the indigenous cultures of Mesoamerica; the earliest archeological evidence of the use of natural latex from the Hevea tree comes from the Olmec culture, in which rubber was first used for making balls for the Mesoamerican ballgame. Rubber was used by the Maya and Aztec cultures – in addition to making balls Aztecs used rubber for other purposes such as making containers and to make textiles waterproof by impregnating them with the latex sap.
The Pará rubber tree is indigenous to South America. Charles Marie de La Condamine is credited with introducing samples of rubber to the Académie Royale des Sciences of France in 1736. In 1751, he presented a paper by François Fresneau to the Académie that described many of rubber's properties; this has been referred to as the first scientific paper on rubber. In England, Joseph Priestley, in 1770, observed that a piece of the material was good for rubbing off pencil marks on paper, hence the name "rubber", it made its way around England. In 1764 François Fresnau discovered. Giovanni Fabbroni is credited with the discovery of naphtha as a rubber solvent in 1779. South America remained the main source of latex rubber used during much of the 19th century; the rubber trade was controlled by business interests but no laws expressly prohibited the export of seeds or plants. In 1876, Henry Wickham smuggled 70,000 Pará rubber tree seeds from Brazil and delivered them to Kew Gardens, England. Only 2,400 of these germinated.
Seedlings were sent to India, British Ceylon, Dutch East Indies and British Malaya. Malaya was to become the biggest producer of rubber. In the early 1900s, the Congo Free State in Africa was a significant source of natural rubber latex gathered by forced labor. King Leopold II's colonial state brutally enforced production quotas. Tactics to enforce the rubber quotas included removing the hands of victims to prove they had been killed. Soldiers came back from raids with baskets full of chopped-off hands. Villages that resisted were razed to encourage better compliance locally. See Atrocities in the Congo Free State for more information on the rubber trade in the Congo Free State in the late 1800s and early 1900s. Liberia and Nigeria started production. In India, commercial cultivation was introduced by British planters, although the experimental efforts to grow rubber on a commercial scale were initiated as early as 1873 at the Calcutta Botanical Gardens; the first commercial Hevea plantations were established at Thattekadu in Kerala in 1902.
In years the plantation expanded to Karnataka, Tamil Nadu and the Andaman and Nicobar Islands of India. India today is the