John Davies (historian)
John Davies was a Welsh historian, a television and radio broadcaster. He taught Welsh at Aberystwyth, he wrote a number of books on Welsh history. Davies was born in the Rhondda and studied at both University College and Trinity College, Cambridge. Davies was married with four children. After teaching Welsh history at the University of Wales, Aberystwyth, he retired to Cardiff, appeared as a presenter and contributor to history programmes on television and radio. In the mid-1980s, Davies was commissioned to write a concise history of Wales by Penguin Books to add to its Pelican series of the histories of nations; the decision by Penguin to commission the volume in Welsh was "unexpected and commendable," wrote Davies."I seized the opportunity to write of Wales and the Welsh. When I had finished, I had a typescript, three times larger than the original commission," wrote Davies; the original voluminous typescript was first published in hardback under the Allen Lane imprint. Davies took a sabbatical from his post at the University College of Wales and wrote most of the chapters while touring Europe.
Davies dedicated Hanes Cymru to Janet Mackenzie Davies. Hanes Cymru was translated into English and published in 1993, as there was "a demand among English-speakers to read what was available to Welsh-speakers," wrote Davies. A revised edition was published in 2007 In 2005, Davies received the Glyndŵr Award for an Outstanding Contribution to the Arts in Wales during the Machynlleth Festival, he won the 2010 Wales Book of the Year for Cymru: Y 100 lle i'w gweld cyn marw. Davies lived in Cardiff. To mark his 75th birthday in 2013, the Welsh language television channel S4C broadcast a programme, Gwirionedd y Galon: Dr John Davies, about his life and his home and in 2014 published his autobiography in Welsh. Davies died at the age of 76 in 2015 and, as a tribute to his longstanding friend, Jon Gower republished Davies' autobiography in English. Cardiff and the Marquesses of Bute, University of Wales Press, January 1980, ISBN 0-7083-0761-2 A History of Wales, Penguin, 1994, ISBN 0-14-014581-8 Broadcasting and the BBC in Wales, University of Wales Press, 1994, ISBN 978-0708312735 The Making of Wales, The History Press, 2nd edition printing: Oct 1, 2009, ISBN 0-7524-5241-X The Celts, Cassell & Co, 2000 ISBN 0-304-35590-9 The Welsh Academy Encyclopaedia of Wales, University of Wales Press, April 17, 2008, ISBN 0-7083-1953-X Wales: 100 Places to See Before You Die, Y Lolfa, 2010, ISBN 978-1847713087 Fy Hanes I: Hunangofiant, Y Lolfa, 2014, ISBN 978-1847719850 A Life in History, Y Lolfa, 2015, ISBN 978-1784612177
BBC Cymru Wales
BBC Cymru Wales is a division of the BBC, the national broadcaster for Wales. Established in 1964, BBC Cymru Wales is based in Cardiff and directly employs some 1,200 people to produce a range of programmes for television and online services in both English and Welsh. BBC Cymru Wales operates two radio stations. Wales raises some £182 million in licence fee resources. BBC Cymru Wales operates two television services, BBC One Wales and BBC Two Wales, which can opt out of the main network feed of BBC One and BBC Two in London to broadcast regional programming; these two channels broadcast a variety of programmes in English, including the flagship news programme BBC Wales Today which broadcasts several bulletins throughout the day including the main evening programme. In addition to these two channels, BBC Cymru Wales is required to provide programmes in Welsh, which it supplies to the Welsh channel S4C free of charge using the BBC Cymru brand; these programmes include a Welsh news service Newyddion, covering Welsh, general UK and international news, a soap opera Pobol y Cwm, the longest running television soap opera made by the BBC.
BBC Cymru Wales operates two radio stations covering the entire country. BBC Radio Wales is the English language network, broadcasting local programmes for 20 hours a day and simulcasting the BBC World Service during the station's down time. BBC Radio Cymru broadcasts Welsh programmes for the same time covering a wide variety of genres: a branded youth section C2 contributes to this by broadcasting songs from the pop and rock genres. While off air, Radio Cymru simulcasts BBC Radio 5 Live's overnight programme. BBC Cymru Wales operates its own mini-site on BBC Online as well as providing news and features for other areas of BBC Online. In addition, news stories are provided for the BBC Red Button interactive service. BBC Cymru Wales employs a full-time orchestra, the BBC National Orchestra of Wales, who give concerts in Cardiff and across Wales; the majority of the orchestra's concerts are recorded for broadcast on BBC Radio 3, BBC Radio Wales and BBC Radio Cymru. Since January 2009 the administrative base of the NOW has been the BBC Hoddinott Hall, in the Wales Millennium Centre, Cardiff.
The first broadcast in Wales was on 13 February 1923 from the radio station 5WA to become part of the BBC Regional Programme and in 1939 the BBC Home Service. During this time, the region was served from a variety of bases around Wales. During World War II, the regional services all ceased and broadcast the Home Service from London, although some Welsh content was included; the BBC's Bangor base played host to the BBC Variety Department during the war, although this fact was never announced. The first television signals in Wales came on 15 August 1952 from the newly constructed Wenvoe transmitter; the transmitter itself broadcast the national BBC Television service. Wales would gain some significance when, in 1957, the BBC West region from Bristol was established including a daily five-minute news bulletin for Wales, followed five years by the launch of the daily magazine programme, Wales Today; the launch of BBC Wales on 9 February 1964 provided a specific television service for the country.
The new service was promoted with animated promos using the sound of Welsh choirs to explain about interference from the mountains. Two years in 1966, BBC Cymru Wales' new headquarters at Broadcasting House in Cardiff opened and the first colour broadcast for Wales followed in 1970. Following the end of the Second World War, the BBC Home Service continued its regional opt-outs, including an opt-out service for Wales; this opt-out continued after the change from the Home Service to Radio 4 and paved the way for two full-time radio services - BBC Radio Cymru in 1977, followed a year by BBC Radio Wales. Prior to 1982, BBC Cymru Wales on television provided programmes in both English and Welsh, with the news programme Heddiw and the long-running serial Pobol y Cwm figuring among the key output. However, this changed with the launch of S4C on 1 November 1982 as all Welsh-language programming on both the BBC and the ITV contractor HTV was transferred to the new channel; as part of a guaranteed ten hours a week of BBC-produced programming, Pobol y Cwm switched to the new channel while a newly expanded news service, was launched.
Into the late 1990s, BBC Cymru Wales continued to expand their services. The first web pages for Wales began to appear on BBC Online in 1997, including a variety of features surrounding programming, community events and other stories; the following year, BBC Wales gained additional air time through the use of a late prime-time to midnight opt-out from new digital channel BBC Choice. This lasted until opt-outs ended on the channel in 2001; this latter service closed on 2 January 2009 – prior to the digital switchover which would have ceased separate broadcasting on analogue and digital. Expansion in the number of drama productions handled by BBC Cymru Wales since 2011 has resulted in the construction and opening on a new studio centre in Cardiff; the current headquarters of BBC Cymru Wales is located within Broadcasting House, Cardiff. The studio centre was built in 1966 and opened the following year as a purpose built location to house the expanding presence of the BBC in Cardiff; the centre contained studios for the news programmes, radio space including
National Assembly for Wales
The National Assembly for Wales is the devolved parliament of Wales, with power to make legislation, vary taxes and scrutinise the Welsh Government. The Assembly comprises AMs. Since 2011, Members are elected for five-year terms under an additional members system, in which 40 AMs represent geographical constituencies elected by the plurality system, 20 AMs represent five electoral regions using the d'Hondt method of proportional representation; the largest party in the Assembly forms the Welsh Government. The Assembly was created by the Government of Wales Act 1998, which followed a referendum in 1997; the Assembly had no powers to initiate primary legislation until limited law-making powers were gained through the Government of Wales Act 2006. Its primary law-making powers were enhanced following a Yes vote in the referendum on 3 March 2011, making it possible for it to legislate without having to consult the UK parliament or the Secretary of State for Wales in the 20 areas that are devolved.
Legislation has been introduced by the Assembly Commission which will change the name of the institution from National Assembly for Wales to the Senedd, which may be known as the Welsh Parliament. An appointed Council for Wales and Monmouthshire was established in 1949 to "ensure the government is adequately informed of the impact of government activities on the general life of the people of Wales"; the council had 27 members nominated by local authorities in Wales, the University of Wales, National Eisteddfod Council and the Welsh Tourist Board. A post of Minister of Welsh Affairs was created in 1951 and the post of Secretary of State for Wales and the Welsh Office were established in 1964 leading to the abolition of the Council for Wales; the establishment of the Welsh Office created the basis for the territorial governance of Wales. The Royal Commission on the Constitution was set up in 1969 by Harold Wilson's Labour Government to investigate the possibility of devolution for Scotland and Wales.
Its recommendations formed the basis of the 1974 White Paper Democracy and Devolution: proposals for Scotland and Wales, which proposed the creation of a Welsh Assembly. However, Welsh voters rejected the proposals by a majority of four to one in a referendum held in 1979. After the 1997 general election, the new Labour Government argued that an Assembly would be more democratically accountable than the Welsh Office. For eleven years prior to 1997 Wales had been represented in the Cabinet of the United Kingdom by a Secretary of State who did not represent a Welsh constituency at Westminster. A second referendum was held in Wales on 18 September 1997 in which voters approved the creation of the National Assembly for Wales with a total of 559,419 votes, or 50.3% of the vote. The following year the Government of Wales Act was passed by the United Kingdom parliament, establishing the Assembly. In July 2002, the Welsh Government established an independent commission, with Lord Richard as chair, to review the powers and electoral arrangements of the National Assembly to ensure that it is able to operate in the best interests of the people of Wales.
The Richard Commission reported in March 2004. It recommended that the National Assembly should have powers to legislate in certain areas, whilst others would remain the preserve of Westminster, it recommended changing the electoral system to the single transferable vote which would produce greater proportionality. In response, the British government, in its Better Governance for Wales White Paper, published on 15 June 2005, proposed a more permissive law-making system for the Welsh Assembly based on the use of Parliamentary Orders in Council. In so doing, the Government rejected many of the cross party Richard Commission's recommendations; this has attracted criticism from opposition others. The Government of Wales Act 2006 received Royal Assent on 25 July 2006, it conferred on the Assembly legislative powers similar to other devolved legislatures through the ability to pass Assembly Measures concerning matters that are devolved. Requests for further legislative powers made through legislative competence requests were subject to the veto of the Secretary of State for Wales, House of Commons or House of Lords.
The Act reformed the assembly to a parliamentary-type structure, establishing the Welsh Government as an entity separate from, but accountable to the National Assembly. It enables the Assembly to legislate within its devolved fields; the Act reforms the Assembly's electoral system. It prevents individuals from standing as candidates in regional seats; this aspect of the act was subject to a great deal of criticism, most notably from the Electoral Commission. The Act was criticised. Plaid Cymru, the Official Opposition in the National Assembly from 1999–2007, attacked it for not delivering a fully-fledged parliament. Many commentators have criticised the Labour Party's partisan attempt to alter the electoral system. By preventing regional Assembly Members from standing in constituency seats the party has been accused of changing the rules to protect constituency representatives. Labour had 29 members in the Assembly at the time; the changes to the Assembly's powers were commenced on 4 May 2007, after the election.
Following a referendum on 3 March 2011, the Welsh Assembly gained direct law making powers, without the need to consult Westminster. The Conservative-Liberal coalition government created the Commission on Devolution in Wales
Cathays Park or Cardiff Civic Centre is a civic centre area in the city centre of Cardiff, the capital city of Wales, consisting of a number of early 20th century buildings and a central park area, Alexandra Gardens. It includes Edwardian buildings such as the Temple of Peace, City Hall, the National Museum and Gallery of Wales and several buildings belonging to the Cardiff University campus, it includes Cardiff Crown Court, the administrative headquarters of the Welsh Government, the more modern Cardiff Central police station. The Pevsner architectural guide to the historic county of Glamorgan judges Cathays Park to be "the finest civic centre in the British Isles"; the area falls within the Cathays electoral ward. Cathays Park was part of Cardiff Castle grounds; the present day character of the area owes much to successive holders of the title the Marquess of Bute, the 3rd Marquess of Bute, an successful and wealthy businessman. They acquired much of the lands in Cathays through investment and by inheritance through a marriage to Charlotte Windsor in 1766.
In 1898, the local council bought 59 acres of land from the 3rd Marquess of Bute to erect a new town hall. As part of the sale, the 3rd Marquis of Bute placed strict conditions on how the land was to be developed; the area was to be used for civic and educational purposes, the avenues were to be preserved. A six month Cardiff Fine Arts and Maritime Exhibition which included specially constructed boating lake, a wooden cycling track and an elctric railway was held in 1896. In 1897 a competition was held for a complex comprising Law Courts and a Town Hall, with Alfred Waterhouse, architect of the Natural History Museum in London, as judge; the winners were the firm of Lanchester and Rickards, who would go on to design the Methodist Central Hall in Westminster. These were the first two buildings of the ensemble, have an uniform façade treatment; the east and west pavilions of both façades are identical in design, except for the attic storeys, which are decorated with allegorical sculptural groups.
On the Crown Court these are Science and Industry, sculpted by Donald McGill, Commerce and Industry, by Paul Raphael Montford, while on the City Hall are Music and Poetry by Paul Montford and Unity and Patriotism by Henry Poole. The third site in this complex went empty until 1910, when the competition for a National Museum of Wales was won by the architects Smith and Brewer; the design parts from the Edwardian Baroque of the Law Courts and City Hall and is more akin to American Beaux-Arts architecture in the entrance hall where a similarity to McKim and White's Metropolitan Museum of Art in New York City has been noted. The Museum site was not bounded to the north by an avenue so there were scarcely any limits on the depth of the building; the First World War, ensured that progress on the building was slow. By 1927 part of the East range, with the lecture theatre funded by William Reardon Smith, was complete. Further extensions came only in the'90s. Due to presence of the Welsh Office building, by the 1990s'Cathays Park' became a metonym for that Government Department.
In addition to the large lawn in front of the City Hall, Cathays Park includes three formal gardens. All of the spaces are within conservation areas and many of the surrounding buildings are listed; the open spaces are important to the image of the city. Several important buildings overlook; each of the three gardens has its own different character and each retains its original layout. Given their location, large numbers of people visit and pass through and they are popular venues for lunchtime breaks. Alexandra Gardens Named after Alexandra of Denmark, the Queen consort of Edward VII, Alexandra Gardens is located at the heart of the civic centre, it consists of 2.5 hectares of beautifully maintained flower beds and grass, with the Welsh National War Memorial standing at its centre. Gorsedd Gardens Situated in front of the National Museum, this garden has as its centrepiece a stone circle constructed in 1899, when the National Eisteddfod of Wales was held in Cardiff; the garden's name refers to the Gorsedd of Welsh Bards, the ceremonial order that governs the Eisteddfod.
The landscaped garden has statues of subjects including David Lloyd George and Lord Ninian Crichton-Stuart. Overlooking Gorsedd Gardens, though not part of the Cathays Park complex, is Park House, an influential work by the Neo-Gothic architect William Burges. Friary Gardens Constructed in honour of the 3rd Marquess of Bute, it contains topiary, a statue standing upon a stone pedestal blazoned with a coat of arms, clipped hedges around the perimeter. Cathays Park has memorials stones dedicated to: Raoul Wallenberg, a Swedish diplomat who, towards the end of the war saved the lives of up to 100,000 people by issuing them with Swedish passports enabling them to flee to safety who would have gone to the Nazi extermination camps; this stone was unveiled on 24 November 1985. The servicemen of Cardiff who served in the Falklands War; those who fought in the International Brigade during the Spanish Civil War, unveiled in October 1992. The inscription reads "Dedicated to the Welsh volunteers for liberty who defended democracy in the Spanish Civil War".
The charity Kidney Wales Foundation, gifted a memorial, called The Gift of Life Stone, to those who donated their organs and tissues to save others. It is located in Alexandra Gardens and stands 1.5 met
Wales is a country, part of the United Kingdom and the island of Great Britain. It is bordered by England to the east, the Irish Sea to the north and west, the Bristol Channel to the south, it had a population in 2011 of 3,063,456 and has a total area of 20,779 km2. Wales has over 1,680 miles of coastline and is mountainous, with its higher peaks in the north and central areas, including Snowdon, its highest summit; the country has a changeable, maritime climate. Welsh national identity emerged among the Britons after the Roman withdrawal from Britain in the 5th century, Wales is regarded as one of the modern Celtic nations. Llywelyn ap Gruffudd's death in 1282 marked the completion of Edward I of England's conquest of Wales, though Owain Glyndŵr restored independence to Wales in the early 15th century; the whole of Wales was annexed by England and incorporated within the English legal system under the Laws in Wales Acts 1535 and 1542. Distinctive Welsh politics developed in the 19th century. Welsh liberalism, exemplified in the early 20th century by Lloyd George, was displaced by the growth of socialism and the Labour Party.
Welsh national feeling grew over the century. Established under the Government of Wales Act 1998, the National Assembly for Wales holds responsibility for a range of devolved policy matters. At the dawn of the Industrial Revolution, development of the mining and metallurgical industries transformed the country from an agricultural society into an industrial nation. Two-thirds of the population live in South Wales, including Cardiff, Swansea and the nearby valleys. Now that the country's traditional extractive and heavy industries have gone or are in decline, Wales' economy depends on the public sector and service industries and tourism. Although Wales shares its political and social history with the rest of Great Britain, a majority of the population in most areas speaks English as a first language, the country has retained a distinct cultural identity and is bilingual. Over 560,000 Welsh language speakers live in Wales, the language is spoken by a majority of the population in parts of the north and west.
From the late 19th century onwards, Wales acquired its popular image as the "land of song", in part due to the eisteddfod tradition. At many international sporting events, such as the FIFA World Cup, Rugby World Cup and the Commonwealth Games, Wales has its own national teams, though at the Olympic Games, Welsh athletes compete as part of a Great Britain team. Rugby union is seen as an expression of national consciousness; the English words "Wales" and "Welsh" derive from the same Germanic root, itself derived from the name of the Gaulish people known to the Romans as Volcae and which came to refer indiscriminately to all non-Germanic peoples. The Old English-speaking Anglo-Saxons came to use the term Wælisc when referring to the Britons in particular, Wēalas when referring to their lands; the modern names for some Continental European lands and peoples have a similar etymology. In Britain, the words were not restricted to modern Wales or to the Welsh but were used to refer to anything that the Anglo-Saxons associated with the Britons, including other non-Germanic territories in Britain and places in Anglo-Saxon territory associated with Britons, as well as items associated with non-Germanic Europeans, such as the walnut.
The modern Welsh name for themselves is Cymry, Cymru is the Welsh name for Wales. These words are descended from the Brythonic word combrogi, meaning "fellow-countrymen"; the use of the word Cymry as a self-designation derives from the location in the post-Roman Era of the Welsh people in modern Wales as well as in northern England and southern Scotland. It emphasised that the Welsh in modern Wales and in the Hen Ogledd were one people, different from other peoples. In particular, the term was not applied to the Cornish or the Breton peoples, who are of similar heritage and language to the Welsh; the word came into use as a self-description before the 7th century. It is attested in a praise poem to Cadwallon ap Cadfan c. 633. In Welsh literature, the word Cymry was used throughout the Middle Ages to describe the Welsh, though the older, more generic term Brythoniaid continued to be used to describe any of the Britonnic peoples and was the more common literary term until c. 1200. Thereafter Cymry prevailed as a reference to the Welsh.
Until c. 1560 the word was spelt Kymry or Cymry, regardless of whether it referred to the people or their homeland. The Latinised forms of these names, Cambrian and Cambria, survive as lesser-used alternative names for Wales and the Welsh people. Examples include the Cambrian Mountains, the newspaper Cambrian News, the organisations Cambrian Airways, Cambrian Railways, Cambrian Archaeological Association and the Royal Cambrian Academy of Art. Outside Wales, a related form survives as the name Cumbria in North West England, once a part of Yr Hen Ogledd; the Cumbric language, thought to
Narberth is a town and community in Pembrokeshire, southwest Wales. It was founded around a Welsh court, but became a Norman stronghold on the Landsker Line, it became the headquarters of the hundred of Narberth. It was once a marcher borough. George Owen described it in 1603 as one of nine Pembrokeshire "boroughs in decay"; the town, close to the A40 trunk road, holds a number of events throughout the year and is twinned with Ludlow, Shropshire. Narberth was founded around a Welsh court, but became a Norman stronghold on the Landsker Line, it became the headquarters of the hundred of Narberth. It was once a marcher borough. George Owen described it in 1603 as one of nine Pembrokeshire "boroughs in decay"; the town plays a high-profile role in Welsh mythology, where it is the chief palace of Pwyll, Prince of Dyfed, a key setting in both the first and third branches of the Mabinogi. A drama specially adapted for children based on the story of Culhwch and Olwen from the Mabinogion was staged at Narberth Castle when it was reopened to the public in 2005.
Narberth is a mile south of the A40 trunk road and Narberth railway station is on the main line between Swansea and Pembroke. The population was 2,150. Sir Thomas Foley was born near Narberth. A contemporary of Lord Nelson, he was a senior naval officer at the battles of the Nile and Copenhagen; the footballer Joe Allen was educated in the town. Attractions in the town include several art galleries, the Narberth Museum, the former town hall which still houses the cell where the leaders of the Rebecca Riots were imprisoned and a ruined castle. Narberth has a range of independent shops, including a Daily Telegraph sponsored'Best Traditional Business', national award-winning butcher, women's boutiques, gift shops and has developed a reputation as an antiques centre. In 2014 The Guardian called it "not only a gastronomic hub for west Wales but one of the liveliest, most likable little towns in the UK". Other attractions near to Narberth include Blackpool Mill, at the highest tidal reach of the River Cleddau, where otters and other wildlife may be seen and Oakwood Theme Park.
The town's cultural and arts centre, the Queen's Hall, has played host to live bands such as Therapy?, The Blockheads, The Automatic, Sonic Boom Six, Send More Paramedics and Enter Shikari. Concerts and many classes, such as Kung Fu, yoga and line dancing are held there and it has a contemporary art gallery and a restaurant; the Grove hotel provides restaurant facilities as well as accommodation and caters for special events. The Bloomfield House Community Centre, a Community association and a registered charity is located in Narberth. Narberth was named one of the best places to live in Wales in 2017. Narberth elects a Town Council, which in turn elects a First Citizen annually. Current Mayor: Cllr. Elizabeth Rogers / Deputy Mayor: Cllr. Christopher Walters A county councillor is elected to Pembrokeshire County Council every five years from each of Narberth's two local government wards and Narberth Rural. In the May 2017 election, independent candidate Elwyn Morse was elected unopposed as county councillor for Narberth Rural.
Narberth is in the Carmarthen West and South Pembrokeshire constituencies, for elections to the UK and Wales governments. Narberth is twinned with the English town of Ludlow, both towns celebrate an annual food festival. Narberth is home to several sporting teams, including Narberth Rugby Football Club who play in the Welsh Championship, Narberth Football Club, a cricket club. Narberth Food Festival takes place on the fourth weekend of September every year. In September 2018 it celebrated its 20th birthday; the festival features celebrity chefs, cookery demonstrations, music and children's activities. Narberth Civic Week is held during the last full week of July and includes a parade through the town to one of the churches, where a service is held to welcome the newly appointed Mayor. In 2008, the Civic Service was held in the grounds of Narberth Castle for the first time. During Civic Week, there are various activities arranged for children and visitors to the town; the culmination of Civic Week is the annual Carnival Day Parade, a tradition dating back over 100 years.
Narberth's Winter Carnival, held in December, was revived after a break of 4 years. The town is home to the Narberth A Cappella Voice Festival, which began in 2008 and is described as Wales' only a cappella festival, it celebrated its tenth anniversary in May 2018. Photographs of Narberth and surrounding area on Geograph Historical information on GENUKI
Bangor is a city and community in Gwynedd, northwest Wales. It is the oldest city in Wales, one of the smallest cities in the United Kingdom. In Caernarfonshire, it is a university city with a population of 18,808 at the 2011 census, including around 10,500 students at Bangor University, it is one of only six places classed as a city in Wales, although it is only the 25th-largest urban area by population. At the 2001 census, 46.6% of the non-student resident population spoke Welsh. The origins of the city date back to the founding of a monastic establishment on the site of Bangor Cathedral by the Celtic saint Deiniol in the early 6th century AD. Bangor itself is an old Welsh word for a wattled enclosure, such as the one that surrounded the cathedral site; the present cathedral is a somewhat more recent building and has been extensively modified throughout the centuries. While the building itself is not the oldest, not the biggest, the bishopric of Bangor is one of the oldest in the UK. Another claim to fame is that Bangor has the longest High Street in Wales and the United Kingdom.
Friars School was founded as a free grammar school in 1557, the University College of North Wales was founded in 1884. In 1877, the former HMS Clio became a school ship, moored on the Menai Strait at Bangor, had 260 pupils. Closed after the end of hostilities of World War I, she was sold for scrap and broken up in 1919. During World War II, parts of the BBC evacuated to Bangor during the worst of the Blitz. In June 2012 Bangor was the first city in the UK to impose a city centre wide night time curfew on under-16s; the six-month trial was brought in by Gwynedd Council and North Wales police, but opposed by civil rights groups. Bangor has been unique outside of England in using the title of'city' by ancient prescriptive right, due to its long-standing cathedral. However, city status was conferred on it by the Queen in 1974. By means of various measures, it is one of the smallest cities in the UK. Using 2011 statistics, comparing Bangor to: Population of city council areas in Wales, is third with St Davids and St Asaph City council area size within Wales, is the second smallest city behind St Asaph Urban areas within Wales, is third placed behind St Davids and St Asaph City council area size within the UK, is fourth after the City of London, Wells and St Asaph Urban areas within the UK, is fifth placed Population of city council areas within the UK, is sixth.
Bangor lies on the coast of North Wales near the Menai Strait which separates the island of Anglesey from Gwynedd unitary authority, the town of Menai Bridge lying just over the strait. The combined population of the two amounts to 22,184 people as of the 2011 census. Bangor Mountain lies to the east of the main part of the city, but the large housing estate of Maesgeirchen built as council housing, is to the east of the mountain near Port Penrhyn. Bangor Mountain casts a shadow across the High Street, Glan Adda and Hirael areas, so that from November to March some parts of the High Street in particular receive no direct sunlight. Another ridge rises to the north of the High Street, dividing the city centre from the south shore of the Menai Strait. Bangor has two rivers within its boundaries; the River Adda is a culverted watercourse which only appears above ground at its western extremities near the Faenol estate, whilst the River Cegin enters Port Penrhyn at the eastern edge of the city. Port Penrhyn was an important port in the 19th century, exporting the slates produced at the Penrhyn Quarry.
Bangor railway station is located on the North Wales Coast Line from Chester to Holyhead. The A55 runs to the south of Bangor, providing a route to Holyhead and Chester; the nearest airport with international flights is 83 miles by road. Bangor lies at the western end of the North Wales Path, a 60 miles long-distance coastal walking route to Prestatyn. Bangor is on routes NCR 8 and NCR 85 of the National Cycle Network. Classical music is performed in Bangor, with concerts given in the Powis and Prichard-Jones Halls as part of the university's Music at Bangor concert series; the city is home to Storiel. A new arts centre complex, the replacement for Theatr Gwynedd, was scheduled for completion in the summer of 2014, but the opening was delayed until November 2015. Bangor hosted the National Eisteddfod in 1890, 1902, 1915, 1931, 1940, 1943, 1971 and 2005, as well as an unofficial National Eisteddfod event in 1874. Garth Pier is the second longest pier in Wales, the ninth longest in the British Isles, at 1,500 feet in length.
It was opened in 1893 and was a promenade pier, for the amusement of holiday-makers who could stroll among the pinnacle-roofed kiosks. In 1914 it was struck by a vessel; the damaged section was repaired temporarily by the Royal Engineers, but when in 1922, a permanent repair was contemplated, it was found that the damage was more severe than had been thought. The repairs were made at considerable cost and the pier remained open until 1974 when it was nearly condemned as being in poor condition, it was sold for a nominal price to Arfon Borough Council who proposed to demolish it, but the County Council, encouraged by local support, ensured that it survived by obtaining Grade II Listed building status for it. When it was listed that year, the British Listed Buildings inspector considered it to be "the best in Britain of t