Welsh Marches

The Welsh Marches is an imprecisely defined area along the border between England and Wales in the United Kingdom. The precise meaning of the term has varied at different periods; the English term Welsh March was used in the Middle Ages to denote the marches between England and the Principality of Wales, in which Marcher lords had specific rights, exercised to some extent independently of the king of England. In modern usage, "the Marches" is used to describe those English counties which lie along the border with Wales Shropshire and Herefordshire, sometimes adjoining areas of Wales. However, at one time the Marches included all of the historic counties of Cheshire, Herefordshire and Gloucestershire. In this context the word march means a border region or frontier, is cognate with the verb "to march," both derived from Proto-Indo-European *mereg-, "edge" or "boundary". After the decline and fall of the Roman Empire which occupied southern Britain until about AD 410, the area, now Wales comprised a number of separate Romano-British kingdoms, including Powys in the east.

Over the next few centuries, the Angles and others conquered and settled in eastern and southern Britain. The kingdom of Mercia, under Penda, became established around Lichfield, established strong alliances with the Welsh kings. However, his successors sought to expand Mercia further westwards into what is now Cheshire and Herefordshire. Campaigns and raids from Powys led around about AD 820, to the building of Wat's Dyke, a boundary earthwork extending from the Severn valley near Oswestry to the Dee estuary; as the power of Mercia grew, a string of garrisoned market towns such as Shrewsbury and Hereford defined the borderlands as much as Offa's Dyke, a stronger and longer boundary earthwork erected by order of Offa of Mercia between AD 757 and 796. The Dyke still exists, can best be seen at Knighton, close to the modern border between England and Wales. In the centuries which followed, Offa's Dyke remained the frontier between the Welsh and English. Athelstan seen as the first king of a united England, summoned the British kings to a meeting at Hereford in AD 926, according to William of Malmesbury laid down the boundary between Wales and England the disputed southern stretch where he specified that the River Wye should form the boundary.

By the mid-eleventh century, Wales was united under Gruffudd ap Llywelyn of Gwynedd, until his death in 1063. After the Norman Conquest, King William of England installed three of his most trusted confidants, Hugh d'Avranches, Roger de Montgomerie, William FitzOsbern, as Earls of Chester and Hereford with responsibilities for containing and subduing the Welsh; the process was never permanently effective. The term "March of Wales" was first used in the Domesday Book of 1086. Over the next four centuries, Norman lords established small marcher lordships between the Dee and Severn, further west. Military adventurers went to Wales from Normandy and elsewhere and after raiding an area of Wales fortified it and granted land to some of their supporters. One example was Bernard de Neufmarché, responsible for conquering and pacifying the Welsh kingdom of Brycheiniog; the precise dates and means of formation of the lordships varied. The March, or Marchia Wallie, was to a greater or lesser extent independent of both the English monarchy and the Principality of Wales or Pura Wallia, which remained based in Gwynedd in the north west of the country.

By about AD 1100 the March covered the areas which would become Monmouthshire and much of Flintshire, Radnorshire, Glamorgan and Pembrokeshire. This amounted to about two-thirds of Wales. During the period, the Marches were a frontier society in every sense, a stamp was set on the region that lasted into the time of the Industrial Revolution. Hundreds of small castles were built in the border area in the 12th and 13th centuries, predominantly by Norman lords as assertions of power as well as defences against Welsh raiders and rebels; the area still contains Britain's densest concentration of motte-and-bailey castles. The Marcher lords encouraged immigration from all the Norman-Angevin realms, encouraged trade from "fair haven" ports like Cardiff. Peasants went to Wales in large numbers: Henry I encouraged Bretons, Flemings and English settlers to move into the south of Wales. Many new towns were established, some such as Chepstow, Monmouth and Newtown becoming successful trading centres, these tended to be a focus of English settlement.

At the same time, the Welsh continued to attack English soil and supported rebellions against the Normans. The Norman lords each had similar rights to the Welsh princes; each owed personal allegiance, as subjects, to the English king whom they were bound to support in times of war, but their lands were exempt from royal taxation and they possessed rights which elsewhere were reserved to the crown, such as the rights to create forests and boroughs. The lordships were geographically compact and jurisdictionally separate one from another, their privileges differentiated them from English lordships. Marcher lords ruled their lands by their own law—sicut regale as Gilbert de Clare, 7th Earl of Gloucester stated— whereas in England fief-holders were directly accountable to the king; the crown's powers in the Marches were limited to those periods when the king held a lordship in its own hands, such as when it was forfeited for treason or on the

Vasile GoldiÈ™ Western University of Arad

Vasile GoldișWestern University of Arad is a private university located in Arad, Romania. The spiritual patron of the university is Vasile Goldiș, a prominent Romanian politician, publicist, member of the Romanian Academy and a key figure of the Union of Transylvania with Romania in 1918. Subsequent to the union he was a member of the Ion I. C. Brătianu, Artur Văitoianu and Alexandru Averescu cabinets and a deputy in the Romanian Parliament. After his withdrawal from politics he dedicated himself to cultural activities. Between 1923-1932 he was the president of the ASTRA society; the Vasile Goldiș Western University was founded in 1990 with only two faculties at the time: Law and Marketing and Computer Sciences. Subsequently, to the development of the university new faculties appeared completing the initial two. So in 1991 appeared the Faculty of Dentistry, the Faculty of Medicine in 1992, the Faculty of Physical Training and Sport in 1993. Nowadays the University has branches in Satu Mare, Baia Mare, Zalău, Marghita, Bistrița, Alba Iulia.

In 2017, the University had an approximate number of 6,000 students, enrolled in the classic 3 level programs of undergraduate and doctoral degrees. The University is a signatory of the 1999 Bologna Process Charter. Structure of the VGWU Faculty of Law Faculty of Economics, Information Technology and Engineering Faculty of Medicine Institute of Life Sciences Faculty of Pharmacy Faculty of Dentistry Faculty of Humanities, Physical Education and Sport Macea University Botanical GardenVGWU establishes itself on a yearly programme separated in two semesters and spring. Prof. PhD. Aurel Ardelean - President of “Vasile Goldiș” Western University of Arad Prof. PhD. Coralia A. Cotoraci - rector Prof. PhD. Petru Darau – deputy rector Prof. PhD. Anca Hermenean – deputy rector Associate Prof. PhD. Cristian Bente – deputy rector Associate Prof. PhD. Andrei Anghelina – deputy rector Associate Prof. PhD. Aristide Sorin Baschir - president of Senate The University is organized in 6 faculties and 2 departments incorporated into the faculty structure.

Auxiliary to the academic structure, the university developed a system of supporting structures for research and innovation. Official website

Hurricane Alma (1970)

Hurricane Alma was one of only four Atlantic tropical cyclones to reach hurricane status in the month of May. It developed on May 17, 1970, north of Panama, intensified on May 20 to peak winds of 80 mph, near Jamaica and the Cayman Islands, it stalled south of Cuba and deteriorated due to wind shear, by May 22 it weakened to tropical depression status. After progressing northwestward and crossing western Cuba, Alma reorganized in the Gulf of Mexico, although continued shear prevented strengthening, it moved across Florida on May 25, on May 27 it dissipated off the coast of Virginia. The storm first brought heavy rainfall to Jamaica and the Cayman Islands. While it was weakening, Alma produced flooding in central and eastern Cuba, causing seven deaths and forcing 3,000 people to evacuate. Moderate precipitation spread across Florida, while thunderstorms from the storm caused light damage, killing one. Moisture from the storm spread up the Atlantic coast. Late on May 17, the US National Hurricane Center, reported that a tropical depression had formed about 470 miles to the southeast of Kingston, Jamaica.

Over the next couple of days, the depression became better organized as it moved towards the northwest. On May 20 it strengthened into a tropical storm; that day, it strengthened under favorable developmental conditions, which included low wind shear, strong upper-level outflow, apparent eastward inflow. On May 20, a Navy reconnaissance plane recorded winds of 80 mph, which proved to be the peak intensity of Alma, it became one of only four Atlantic hurricanes on record in the month of May. Subsequent to its peak intensity, increasing westerly shear disrupted the storm's circulation and thermal pattern, which caused rapid weakening to tropical storm strength and tropical depression status. By May 22, the low pressure area became poorly defined after stalling south of Cuba; the remnants of Alma continued westward near the Cayman Islands, turned to the north, passing over western Cuba. On May 24, the low pressure area reorganized as spiral rainbands became more evident on radar, Alma was re-classified as a tropical depression.

As the depression approached the Florida coast, radar imagery indicated the system remained well-organized, with a spiral band structure around an eye feature. It turned northeastward and moved across the southeastern United States, becoming extratropical in North Carolina on May 27. After moving off the coast of Virginia, the remnants of Alma were absorbed by an approaching cold front. After Alma weakened from hurricane status, it passed near the Cayman Islands on May 21, where winds of up to 65 mph were recorded. Gale-force winds and heavy rainfall occurred in Jamaica. Heavy rains ahead of the storm caused flash flooding in eastern Cuba. Seven people died as a result, several homes were destroyed; the flooding forced the evacuation of 3,000 people in Oriente Province. Inclement weather closed 16 sugar mills, which stalled harvesting, behind schedule in the country. In Florida, the remnants of Alma brought rainfall across most of the state, with some isolated areas experiencing 5 inches or more.

The highest rainfall from the storm was near Miami, with 6.66 inches of rain. The rainfall was beneficial in alleviating drought conditions, although thunderstorms caused hazardous driving conditions in the Florida Keys and elsewhere in the state. Small craft warnings were posted along the coast. One girl died from lightning in Miami, a thunderstorm near Fort Myers damaged some roofs and outbuildings. In Saint Petersburg, flooding disrupted phonelines in about 400 households. Merritt Island experienced 45 mph wind gusts. In Georgia, South Carolina, North Carolina and Maryland, Alma dropped moderate rainfall, with some isolated areas receiving up to 3 inches. Near Columbia, South Carolina, the remnants of Alma spawned a tornado. List of off-season Atlantic hurricanes List of tropical cyclones List of Atlantic hurricanes 1970 Atlantic hurricane season