Welwyn Garden City is a town in Hertfordshire, England. It is located 20 miles from Kings Cross, London. Welwyn Garden City was one of the first new towns, it is unique in being both a garden city and a new town and exemplifies the physical and cultural planning ideals of the periods in which it was built. Welwyn Garden City was founded by Sir Ebenezer Howard in 1920 following his previous experiment in Letchworth Garden City. Howard had called for the creation of planned towns that were to combine the benefits of the city and the countryside and to avoid the disadvantages of both; the Garden Cities and Town Planning Association had defined a garden city as "a town designed for healthy living and industry of a size that makes possible a full measure of social life but not larger, surrounded by a rural belt. On 29 April 1920 a company, Welwyn Garden City Limited, was formed to plan and build the garden city, chaired by Sir Theodore Chambers. Louis de Soissons was appointed as architect and town planner, C.
B Purdom as finance director and Frederic Osborn as secretary. The first house was occupied just before Christmas 1920; the town is laid out along tree-lined boulevards with a neo-Georgian town centre. It has its own environmental protection legislation, the Scheme of Management for Welwyn Garden City; every road has a wide grass verge. The spine of the town is Parkway, a central mall or scenic parkway a mile long; the view along Parkway to the south was once described as one of the world's finest urban vistas. Older houses are on the west side of Parkway and newer houses on the east sideThe original planners intended that all the residents of the garden city would shop in one shop and created the Welwyn Stores, a monopoly which caused some local resentment. Commercial pressures have since ensured much more competition and variety, the Welwyn Stores were in 1984 taken over by the John Lewis Partnership. In 1948, Welwyn Garden City was designated a new town under the New Towns Act 1946 and the Welwyn Garden City company handed its assets to the Welwyn Garden City Development Corporation.
Louis de Soissons remained as its planning consultant. That year The Times compared Welwyn Garden City with Hatfield, it described Welwyn Garden City as a world-famous modern new town developed as an experiment in community planning and Hatfield as an unplanned settlement created by sporadic building in the open country. "Welwyn, though far from perfect, made the New Towns Act possible, just as Hatfield, by its imperfection, made it necessary." In 1966, the Development Corporation was handed over to the Commission for New Towns. The housing stock, neighbourhood shopping and green spaces were passed to Welwyn Hatfield District Council between 1978 and 1983. There was a large general hospital in the town, the Queen Elizabeth II Hospital, but in 2014 emergency and inpatient services were transferred to the Lister Hospital in Stevenage. A new hospital, completed in June 2015, offers outpatient and ante/postnatal services. A shopping mall, the Howard Centre, was built in the 1980s, incorporating a replacement for the original "temporary" railway station.
There is a resurgence of interest in the ethos of the garden city and the type of neighbourhood and community advocated by Howard, prompted by the problems of metropolitan and regional development and the importance of sustainability in government policy. On the outskirts of Old Welwyn village Roman baths are preserved in a steel vault underneath junction 6 of the A1 and are open to visitors; the local civic society, which aims to preserve and conserve the garden city ethos, is the Welwyn Garden City Society. The international ecumenical Focolare movement has its British headquarters at Welwyn Garden City. In 2008, during construction of a site for HSBC, 60 unsecured argonite fire suppressant cylinders discharged, killing one person, injuring six others and causing substantial damage. Three firms were convicted of health and safety offences. Welwyn Garden City had a population of 46,619 in 2011, 51,735 in 2016. Welwyn Garden City comprises seven local authority wards, it is in the parliamentary constituency of Welwyn Hatfield.
The MP for Welwyn Hatfield is Grant Shapps. The nearby town of Hatfield and the village of Welwyn have parish councils with limited responsibilities, but Welwyn Garden City has none, although it had one between 1921 and 1927. Welwyn Garden City experiences a maritime or oceanic climate, in common with the rest of the United Kingdom; the town experiences cool winters. Since its inception as a garden city, Welwyn Garden City has attracted a strong commercial base with several designated employment areas. Among the companies trading in the town are: Henleys Medical Supplies Ltd Baxters British Lead Mills Cashbrokers The Danish Bacon Company Emis Professional Publishing Figleaves.com HSBC's high-security global data centre Roche Ocado PayPoint Ratcliff Palfinger Duncan Print Group Sigma Corporation Tesco has its head office at Shire Park, a business park in the north-east of the town. The site was. Tesco moved there from the late 1990s and has now closed its original Cheshunt head office in favour of additional Shire Park buildings.
The Dutchess is the debut studio album by American singer Fergie. It was released on September 13, 2006 through A&M Records and the will.i.am Music Group as her first solo album since the break from her band The Black Eyed Peas. The album was recorded between The Black Eyed Peas' tour in 2005, the songs were written throughout the last eight years that preceded its release. While developing the album, Fergie wanted to create an autobiographical album that would be more intimate between her and the listener. By doing so, the album experiments with different music genres, including pop, hip hop, R&B, punk rock and soul. Lyrically, The Dutchess has themes about love and critics, while dealing with her drug abuse and addiction. Upon its release, The Dutchess received mixed reviews from music critics, with many praising its production, calling it one of the most eclectic and adventurous albums of 2006, but some criticized the album's lyrical content and believed the material was not strong enough for her voice.
It became a commercial success, reaching number two on the US Billboard 200 and spending ninety-four weeks inside the chart, while topping the Australian Albums Chart and becoming a worldwide success, reaching platinum status in over eight countries. It has sold nearly 4 million copies over 6 million copies worldwide; the album produced five top five singles in the United States, including three number-one hits on the US Billboard Hot 100, "London Bridge", "Big Girls Don't Cry", "Glamorous", as well as the number two single "Fergalicious" and the number five single "Clumsy". All five of the aforementioned singles have sold over two million digital downloads each in the United States, thus setting a new record in the digital era for the most multi-platinum singles from one album. Fergie held this record until 2012, when Katy Perry achieved six multi-platinum singles with her album Teenage Dream. After ten years with the band Wild Orchid, Fergie joined the hip-hop group The Black Eyed Peas in 2002, replacing Kim Hill and receiving a prominent role in the group.
Fergie's debut album with the band, was the group's breakthrough, spawning the worldwide hit singles "Where Is the Love?" and "Shut Up", selling over 8 million copies worldwide and receiving four Grammy nominations. While releasing her second effort with the group, the more successful Monkey Business, which features the hit singles "Don't Phunk with My Heart" and "My Humps" and sold 10 million copies worldwide, the singer announced that she and the other members of the group were working on solo projects, with her debut album being announced for a 2006 release. In an interview for Jam! Canoe, Fergie claimed, "We've been working on it, Will and I," she says. "And I'm so happy with the way it's turning out, but we just felt after'Elephunk' that we needed to make another Black Eyed Peas record." Regarding the album's musical direction she said, "It'll be a deeper look. Soundwise, it'll be eclectic like the Peas but I'll get to experiment with more of the different sounds of my voice. I like to use my voice as an instrument sometimes and I'll be able to show that on that album."
The Dutchess was recorded in 2005, among promotion from The Black Eyed Peas' album Monkey Business. Great part of the album was recorded on the John Lennon studio bus while touring with the band; as stated by Fergie, "We'd go in a couple of hours before going on stage and that's how it got done. The songs span a seven-year period; some were done before I was in the Black Eyed Peas – we just updated them, some were done in this one-month span that we took off from touring, rare for us. Will and I moved into this studio house in Malibu called Morningview. It's like a ranch, it was serene-complete opposite to the chaos of touring. I was alone a lot, something that doesn't happen to me on tour, so I got to find these emotions that are a little bit deeper than the surface.'The Makeup Song' and'Velvet' are intimate lyrically and feeling-wise. I wanted to sound like velvet feels-very smooth-and I wanted it to be sensual."According to Fergie, the songs on the album are "from a seven-year period, but Jimmy Iovine heard some and was like,'This is great, let's put it out'.
One of the album's executive producers and fellow Black Eyed Peas member will.i.am stated that she was "writing about her personal struggles and casting her demons away and feminine power. Her singing for young girls to be strong, what they're going through in life, just growing up in this world of uncertainty." Ludacris, John Legend, B Real from Cypress Hill and Rita Marley, Bob Marley's widow, were confirmed on the album. B Real was set to appear on a track called "Thriller Man", an homage to Cypress Hill's "How I Could Just Kill a Man,", with B Real stating, "It's pretty hot, she took the song and switched the story around to suit it to her and put the female touch on it. She did the same chorus, she did my same rhyme style, but she sung it. It's hard to describe it, you just got to hear it – she did it justice." However, "Thriller Man" was not included on the album. Ron Fair and DJ Mormile were the album's executive producers, with Fair, chairman of Geffen Records, expressing, "Once people get this album and hear what she's capable of as a singer and writer, I think that's when the roof blows off it.
That's when she's not just a little trifling pop girl doing disposable hits." It was announced that the album would feature samples from Little Richard, The Commodores and The Temptations. The album's title, The Dutchess, is a derivation of the noble tit
Eldia was a steel freighter, blown ashore in East Orleans, Massachusetts on March 29, 1984. The ship, owned by the Greek company Thenamaris Inc. and registered in Malta, was refloated two months by the salvage company Donjon Marine who received title to the ship as payment. A year the ship was scrapped. After delivery of its load of Colombian sugar in Saint John, New Brunswick Eldia was hit by a storm delivering 80-mile-per-hour winds; this storm was part of a period of extreme weather which caused President Ronald Reagan to pledge federal disaster relief. Running for the open sea without cargo or ballast, therefore riding high on the waves, Eldia was unable to match the strength of the storms, her captain, Ernesto Garces, was hampered by her lack of contemporary electronic technology for monitoring the weather, which had enabled other ships in the area to anticipate the problems that would come with the storm and take appropriate action. He was forced onto Nauset Beach at around 4 pm. Two hours the ship was abandoned by its crew of 23 Filipinos, who were rescued by a helicopter from Air Station Cape Cod.
Due to the ease of access to the area New England residents crowded to see the sight when the weather improved. One estimation is that 150,000 did so; the town collected US$81,693 by charging $2 a day for visitors' car parking, many businesses conducted a lot of additional trade during this curious period. The wreck was drawn back off the beach on May 17, 1984, taken to a scrap-yard in Rhode Island and on to another at Staten Island; the ship was cut up in either 1985 or 1989. The Orleans public library maintains a collection of memorabilia related to Eldia including photos and official records. A local coffeehouse and market in East Orleans was named after the famous ship but was closed in 2006; the original owners of the shop donated their collection of Eldia images, original paintings, newspaper articles and personal accounts to the Orleans Historic Society. Wakabasan Maru - 1966 to June 4, 1975 Ellinora - 1975 to January 24, 1981 John - 1981 to November 21, 1982 Salvage of the Eldia at YouTube.com Location of grounding on Google Maps