Wembley Stadium

Wembley Stadium is a football stadium in Wembley, which opened in 2007, on the site of the original Wembley Stadium, demolished from 2002 to 2003. The stadium hosts major football matches including home matches of the England national football team, the FA Cup Final; the stadium was the temporary home of Premier League football club Tottenham Hotspur between August 2017 and March 2019, while White Hart Lane was being demolished and their new stadium was constructed. Wembley Stadium is owned by the governing body of English football, the Football Association, through its subsidiary Wembley National Stadium Ltd; the FA headquarters are in the stadium. With 90,000 seats, it is the largest football stadium in England, the largest stadium in the UK and the second-largest stadium in Europe. Designed by Populous and Foster and Partners, the stadium is crowned by the 134-metre-high Wembley Arch which serves aesthetically as a landmark across London as well as structurally, with the arch supporting over 75% of the entire roof load.

The stadium was built by Australian firm Multiplex at a cost of £798 million. Contrary to popular belief, Wembley Stadium does not have a retractable roof which covers the playing surface. Two retractable roof structures over the east and west end of the stadium can be opened to allow sunlight and aid pitch growth. In addition to England home games and the FA Cup final, the stadium hosts other major games in English football, including the season-opening FA Community Shield, the League Cup final, the FA Cup semi-finals, the Football League Trophy, the Football League play-offs, the FA Trophy, the FA Vase and the National League play-offs. A UEFA category four stadium, Wembley hosted the 2011 and 2013 UEFA Champions League Finals, will host seven games at UEFA Euro 2020, as well as the 2023 UEFA Champions League Final; the stadium hosted. The stadium hosts rugby league's Challenge Cup final, NFL London Games and music concerts. In 2014, Wembley Stadium entered into a six-year sponsorship agreement with mobile provider EE Limited, under which it provides technology and infrastructure services for the venue.

Under the agreement, the facility is referred to as "Wembley Stadium connected by EE". Wembley was designed by architects Foster + Partners and HOK Sport and with engineers Mott Stadium Consortium, who were a collection of three structural engineering consultants in the form of Mott MacDonald, Sinclair Knight Merz and Aurecon; the design of the building services was carried out by Mott MacDonald. The construction of the stadium was managed by Australian company Multiplex and funded by Sport England, WNSL, the Football Association, the Department for Culture Media and Sport and the London Development Agency, it is one of the most expensive stadia built at a cost of £798 million, has the largest roof-covered seating capacity in the world. Nathaniel Lichfield and Partners was appointed to assist Wembley National Stadium Limited in preparing the scheme for a new stadium and to obtain planning and listed building permission for the development; the all-seater stadium is a bowl design with a capacity of 90,000, protected from the elements by a sliding roof that does not enclose it.

It can be adapted as an athletic stadium by erecting a temporary platform over the lowest tier of seating. The stadium's signature feature is a circular section lattice arch of 7 m internal diameter with a 315 m span, erected some 22° off true, rising to 133 m, it supports all the weight of the north roof and 60% of the weight of the retractable roof on the southern side. The archway is the world's longest unsupported roof structure. A "platform system" has been designed to convert the stadium for athletics use, but its use would decrease the stadium's capacity to 60,000. No athletics events have taken place at the stadium, none are scheduled; the conversion for athletics use was a condition of part of the lottery funding the stadium received, but to convert it would take weeks of work and cost millions of pounds. The initial plan for the reconstruction of Wembley was for demolition to begin before Christmas 2000, for the new stadium to be completed some time during 2003, but this work was delayed by a succession of financial and legal difficulties.

In 2004, London Mayor Ken Livingstone and Brent Council announced wider plans for the regeneration of Wembley, taking in the arena and the surrounding areas as well as the stadium, to be implemented over two or three decades. Demolition began on 30 September 2002, with the Twin Towers being dismantled in December 2002. Delays to the construction project started as far back as 2003. In December 2003, the constructors of the arch, subcontractors Cleveland Bridge & Engineering Company of Darlington, warned Multiplex about rising costs. Cleveland Bridge withdrew from the project and replaced by Dutch firm Hollandia with all the attendant problems of starting over. 2004 saw errors, most notably a fatal accident involving carpenter Patrick O'Sullivan for which construction firm PC Harrington Contractors were fined £150,000 in relation to breaches of health and safety laws. In October 2005, Sports Minister Richard Caborn announced: "They say the Cup Final will be there, barring six feet of snow or something like that".

By November 2005, WNSL were still hopeful of a handover date of 31 March, in time for the cup final on 13 May. However, in December 2005, the builders admitted that there was a "material r

Education in Birmingham

This article is about education in Birmingham, England. As in the rest of England and Wales, education is compulsory in Birmingham between the ages of 5 and 16; the majority of children are educated in state schools. Schools follow the National Curriculum although this is not compulsory for some types of schools, such as academies; these schools are divided into primary schools for children from Reception to Year 6 and secondary schools for children from Year 7 to Year 11. Most secondary schools in Birmingham have a sixth form, but sixth form education is provided in a number of sixth form colleges and further education colleges. There are a small number of "all-through" schools, a number of special schools and some alternative provision schools; the majority of Birmingham's primary schools are maintained schools under the control of the local education authority. However, 48 of Birmingham's 79 secondary state schools are now academies. There are a large number of voluntary aided schools within the state system Roman Catholic schools, but schools whose religious basis is Anglican and Islamic and schools which are non-denominational.

Some have become part of multi-academy trusts. There are approximately 31 free schools in the Birmingham area. Most state secondary schools in Birmingham are comprehensive, but a number of historic grammar schools, among them Bishop Vesey's Grammar School, Handsworth Grammar School and Sutton Coldfield Grammar School for Girls and the grammar schools of the Foundation of the Schools of King Edward VI, survived the policy of moving to a comprehensive system in the 1960s and 1970s - due to the historical accident of their exact legal relationship with the LEA. A minority of Birmingham's children attend private schools which range from small institutions to historic schools of national prestige such as King Edward's School. Forty-eight secondary schools in the Birmingham Local Authority are open academies as of August 2017; these are 19 SATs. A further six schools are in the pipeline to become converter academies and three are in the pipeline to become sponsored academies. 109 Primary schools are open academies as of August 2017 with three in the converter pipeline and two in the sponsored academy pipelines.

There are two all-through schools which have become academies and three special schools. One all-through school is in the sponsored academy pipeline. Birmingham has several colleges of further education funded by the Learning and Skills Council, including City College, Josiah Mason College, Cadbury College, Queen Alexandra College, Bournville College, Birmingham Metropolitan College. Several of these offer courses in higher education in conjunction with external colleges and universities. University College Birmingham specialises in vocational courses in both the Higher Education and Further Education sectors. In addition to the numerous institutions which offer education to full-time students and to those pursuing vocational development, there are a wide number of courses aimed at part-time and recreational learners; the city council's Birmingham Adult Educational Service offers around 4000 different courses each year at around 70 different centres in diverse subjects such as foreign languages, information technology, mathematics and various types of creative arts.

Some courses allow the students to achieve qualifications such as A-levels. BAES provides teaching in English for Speakers of Other Languages for the many inhabitants of the city who do not speak English as a mother-tongue. Similar courses are offered by many of the city's further education colleges, various arts organisations such as the mac offer workshops in the creative arts. Experienced musicians from ground roots enterprises such as Punch Records in The Custard Factory host many'Urban Workshops' for modern music including street-level DJ mixing tuition and dance. Birmingham is home to six universities University of Birmingham Aston University Birmingham City University Newman University University College Birmingham The University of Law Birmingham City University in particular has a significant role in higher education in the arts in Birmingham; the Royal Birmingham Conservatoire, now part of the university, was formed as the Birmingham School of Music in 1859 and constituted in 1886.

It is one of only nine conservatoires in the United Kingdom and the only one, a university faculty. The conservatoire has strong links with the City of Birmingham Symphony Orchestra whose former conductor, Simon Rattle, is the conservatoire's president; the conservatoire moved from their location in Adrian Boult Hall to their new state-of-the-art building on the city centre campus of the university. The Birmingham Institute of Art and Design, another faculty of BCU, is one of the largest faculties of art and media education in the United Kingdom. BIAD includes the Bournville Centre for Visual Arts, the Birmingham School of Art and the School of Jewellery, which highlights the importance of jewellery manufacture in the city. Birmingham School of Acting, founded in 1936, is one of the United Kingdom's leading vocational drama schools, offering higher education courses in drama as well as a range of part-time, summer schools and short courses for adults and children, its merger with BCU was announced in June 2005.

Elmhurst Ballet School is the oldest vocational dance school in the United Kingdom and offers dance training and academi

Charles Samuel Franklin

Charles Samuel Franklin, who published as C. S. Franklin, was a noted British radio pioneer. Franklin was born in London, the youngest of a family of 13, educated at Finsbury Technical College in Finsbury, under Silvanus P. Thompson. After graduation in 1899 he joined the Marconi Company where he spent his entire professional career, he was first sent to South Africa to provide equipment for the Boer War spent 2 years in Russia. After his return to the UK, he invented a number of important radio devices including the variable capacitor, ganged tuning, variable coupling, coaxial cable, the Franklin oscillator. Today Franklin is best known for his shortwave antenna. From the Marconi company's Poldhu station in 1923 and 1924, he sent shortwave transmissions to Guglielmo Marconi on his yacht Electra in the South Atlantic. Franklin was active in early television development. In 1935 the trustees leased part of Alexandra Palace to the BBC, which used it as the production and transmission center for their new BBC Television Service.

Franklin designed its antenna, the world's first public broadcasts of high-definition television were made from this site in 1936. Franklin received the 1922 IRE Morris N. Liebmann Memorial Award "for his investigations of short wave directional transmission and reception", he died at Buckhurst Hill, aged 85. Franklin received British patent 242342 in 1924 for "a pronounced directional effect from aerials of the type that are electrically long in comparison with the signal wavelength"; the antenna is so physically tall that its use is restricted to frequencies of 1400 kHz and above, with one example at 1500 kHz and two examples at 1530 kHz. Pseudo-Franklins have been employed below 1400 kHz, however, to good effect, but no where near as good as a true Franklin. A true Franklin has an efficiency of about 510 mV/m/kW at 1 km. A pseudo-Franklin has an efficiency of about 470 mV/m/kW at 1 km. Another pseudo-Franklin has an efficiency of about 430 mV/m/kW at 1 km; as a conventional antenna of 225 degrees has an efficiency of about 440 mV/m/kW at 1 km, exceeding that of a 120 over 120 degree pseudo-Franklin, one might assume that a 225 degree antenna would be preferred, but this is not the case for powers above about 5 kW as a self-cancellation effect occurs in the fringe reception area.

For 10 kW and above, 195 degrees is optimum, or a pseudo-Franklin or a Franklin may be employed, where each of these avoids or reduces this self-cancellation. In some cases, a station's efficiency may be restricted to 362.10 mV/m/kW at 1 km for Class A stations, to 281.63 mV/m/kW at 1 km for Class B stations or to 241.40 mV/m/kW at 1 km for Class C stations, unless a higher efficiency was "grandfathered". If so restricted a high-efficiency antenna, such as a Franklin, could be employed only if the transmitter power was reduced accordingly. Older, "legacy" stations are more to be so "grandfathered" rather than newer, post-"Rio" stations, hence older, "legacy" stations are more to employ Franklin, pseudo-Franklin or other high-efficiency transmitting antennas. For practical reasons, 90 degrees is taken to be the "gold standard", but shorter or taller are found. For practical reasons, 199 feet antennas with "top loading", are specified as this is the maximum height in order to avoid tower lighting, in a number of cases tower painting, for aviation obstruction purposes.

K. G. Beauchamp, History of Telegraphy, IET, 2001, page 234. ISBN 0-85296-792-6. W. J. Baker, History of the Marconi Company 1874-1965, Routledge, 1996, Page 280. ISBN 0-415-14624-0. Oxford Dictionary of National Biography Radio Marconi memorial Kuehnel, Richard. "Notable Patents on Antenna Design". Aktuellum. Retrieved 2011-12-26. CS1 maint: extra text: authors list Patent 242342