Anna von Schweidnitz
Anna of Schweidnitz was Queen of Bohemia, German Queen, Empress of the Holy Roman Empire. She was the third wife of Emperor Charles IV. Anne was the daughter of Polish Duke Henry II of Świdnica-Jawor from the Silesian branch of the Piast dynasty, her mother was Katherine of the daughter of Charles I of Hungary. In his autobiography written in Latin, which covers only his youth prior to getting married to Anna, emperor Charles mentions civitatem Swidnitz and dux Swidnicensis, as depicted in the coat of arms room of his Wenzelschloss castle at Lauf an der Pegnitz near Nuremberg. Anne's father died when she was four years old, her childless uncle, Bolko II, Duke of Świdnica-Jawor became her guardian, she was educated by her mother at Visegrád in Hungary. At the age of 11, Anne had been promised to Wenceslaus, newborn son and successor to Charles IV. After the infant Wenceslaus and his mother Anna of the Palatinate died, the now-widowed Emperor asked to marry Anne himself; the planned marriage was part of the strategies devised by Charles and his then-deceased father John to gain control of the Piast Duchies of Silesia as vedlejší země for the Kingdom of Bohemia.
Anne's uncle, Louis of Hungary, the future King of Poland, was able to assist her by renouncing his rights to Świdnica in favor of the House of Luxemburg. At the instigation of archbishop Arnošt of Pardubice, Pope Innocent VI issued a dispensation for the marriage, required because of the degree of relationship between the bride and groom; the two were married on 27 May 1353, when Anne was 14. The wedding was attended by Anne's guardian Bolko II of Świdnica, Duke Albert II of Austria, King Louis of Hungary, Margrave Louis of Brandenburg, Duke Rudolf of Saxony, an envoy of King Casimir III of Poland, an envoy of the Republic of Venice. On 28 July 1353, Anna was crowned Queen of Bohemia in Prague by Archbishop Arnošt of Pardubice. On 9 February 1354, in Aachen, she was crowned German queen; as part of the coronation of Charles as Holy Roman Emperor on 5 April 1355, in the Roman Basilica of Saint Peter, Anne was crowned Empress of the Holy Roman Empire. She was thereby the first Queen of Bohemia to become Empress.
In 1358, Anne bore a daughter, named after Elisabeth of Bohemia. In February 1361 she became mother of the desired successor to the throne, born in Nuremberg, baptized on 11 April in the Sebalduskirche by the Archbishops of Prague and Mainz, she did not live to see the coronation of the two-year-old Wenceslaus, however. At age 23, she died in childbirth on 11 July 1362, she is buried in St. Vitus Cathedral; the emperor married Elisabeth of Pomerania one year later. The Duchies of Świdnica and Jawor passed to Bohemia after Bolko's death in 1368. Thilo Vogelsang, "Anna von Schweidnitz und Jauer", Neue Deutsche Biographie, 1, Berlin: Duncker & Humblot, pp. 299–299 Andreas Rüther: Anna von Schweidnitz und Jauer. In: Schlesische Lebensbilder, Bd. VIII, ISBN 3-7686-3501-5 Peter Moraw: Anna von Schweidnitz und Jauer. In: Lexikon des Mittelalters, Bd. I, München 1980, Sp. 655 F. Machilek: Anna von Schweidnitz. In: Schweidnitz im Wandel der Zeiten, Würzburg 1990, S. 317-322 genealogie-mittelalter.de http://www.boehm-chronik.com/grundherrschaft/landbuch.htm
Cheb is a town in the Karlovy Vary Region of the Czech Republic, with about 33,000 inhabitants. It is at the foot of the Smrčiny near the border with Germany. Before the 1945 expulsion of the German speaking population, the town was the centre of the German-speaking region known as Egerland, part of the Northern Austro-Bavarian dialect area; the name of the town was in 1061 recorded as Egire. From 1850 it was given the twin official names of Cheb. From 1938 to 1945 it was one of the municipalities in Sudetenland; the twin towns of Cheb are Hof in Germany, Rheden in the Netherlands, Nizhny Tagil in Russia and Bắc Ninh in Vietnam. The earliest settlement in the area was a Slavic stronghold at what is now known as the Cheb Castle complex, north of the town-centre. In 807 the district of today's Cheb was included in the new margraviate of East Franconia, which belonged at first to the Babenbergs, but from 906 to the margraves of Vohburg. Depold II of Vohburg built the castle about which the town grew.
In 1179 town status was achieved. In 1149, by the marriage of Adelheid of Vohburg to the emperor Frederick I, Eger came into the possession of the House of Swabia, remained in the hands of the emperors until the early 13th century, during which time it became an Imperial Free City. In 1265, it was taken by the king Ottokar II of Bohemia. After being transferred from the one power to the other, according to the preponderance of Bohemia or the empire, the town and territory were incorporated into Bohemia in 1322, under John of Bohemia. Several imperial privileges, continued to be enjoyed by the town until 1849. On 5 May 1389, during a Reichstag between King Wenceslaus and a group of Imperial Free Cities of south-west Germany, the Peace of Eger was agreed upon, after Wenceslaus had failed to secure his interests in the city, it suffered during the Hussite Wars, during the Swedish invasion in 1631 and 1647, in the War of the Austrian Succession in 1742. In 1634, during the Thirty Years' War, Albrecht von Wallenstein was killed here.
George of Podebrady died 1471? gave away his daughter in marriage and fathered two sons in the city. From the Middle Ages until 1945, the lands around the town were known by the German name Egerland. In 1723, Cheb became a free royal town; the northern quarter of the town was devastated by a large fire in 1809, many middle-age buildings were irreplaceably destroyed. Until 1851, the renowned spa-town of Františkovy Lázně belonged to the Magistrate of Cheb; the carbonated mineral water coming from these springs was delivered to spa visitors residing in Cheb. Geographers of the Austro-Hungarian monarchy proclaimed the nearby 939m high Tillen as the geographical centre of Europe; this claim was documented on a copper plaque mounted at the summit. Austrian National Socialism and hence German National Socialism can trace its origins to Cheb when Franko Stein transferred a small newspaper from Vienna to Cheb in 1897. There he organized a German workers congress called the Deutschvölkischer Arbeitertag, which published the 25-point program.
The terms of the 1919 Treaty of St. Germain triggered civil unrest between the Sudeten German population and the new Czechoslovak administration, just as in the rest of the Sudetenland; as elsewhere, protests in the town – now named Cheb – were suppressed by force. On 3 October 1938, the town was visited by Adolf Hitler. From 1938 until 1945, the town was annexed to Germany. On 1 May 1939, the town split away from the surrounding district to form its own municipal district together with the settlement of Matzelbach, gave its name to the most westerly of the three administrative regions of the Sudetenland; the administrative seat of the Regierungspräsident lay in Karlsbad, however. Cheb was liberated by the 97th Infantry Division of the US Army on 25 April, 1945. After the end of World War II the region was returned to Czechoslovakia. Under the Beneš decrees of the same year, the German-speaking majority of the town was dispossessed of their homes and property, was forcibly expelled from the country.
In 1954, the town of Amberg in Germany adopted the expelled Sudeten German population from Cheb and the surrounding districts. On 24 August 2001, German Chancellor Gerhard Schröder and Czech Prime Minister Miloš Zeman visited the Euregio Egrensis, received the Freedom of the City of Cheb. In 2004, a town-twinning agreement was made with Hof in Bavaria. Since the fall of the Iron Curtain, Cheb has had cordial relationships with the neighbouring German towns of Waldsassen and Marktredwitz. 15th century – 7,300 inhabitants with about 400 houses, plus 200 in suburbs 1930 – 31,406 inhabitants, of whom 3,493 were Czech. 1945 – 45,000 inhabitants 1947 – 14,533 inhabitants, due to the expulsion of ethnic Germans and resettlement of Czechs 1990 – 29,962 inhabitants 2005 – 33,462 inhabitantsThe current population includes a large group of Vietnamese, whose families were invited to the country as guest workers during the Communist era, Romani, who were resettled after the Second World War. On the rock, to the north-west of the city center, lies Cheb castle, built in the 12th century, now in ruins.
The main attractions are the Chapel of St Erhard and Ursula, the Black Tower and the ruins of a pa
A coronation is the act of placement or bestowal of a crown upon a monarch's head. The term also refers not only to the physical crowning but to the whole ceremony wherein the act of crowning occurs, along with the presentation of other items of regalia, marking the formal investiture of a monarch with regal power. Aside from the crowning, a coronation ceremony may comprise many other rituals such as the taking of special vows by the monarch, the investing and presentation of regalia to the monarch, acts of homage by the new ruler's subjects and the performance of other ritual deeds of special significance to the particular nation. Western-style coronations have included anointing the monarch with holy oil, or chrism as it is called; the monarch's consort may be crowned, either with the monarch or as a separate event. Once a vital ritual among the world's monarchies, coronations have changed over time for a variety of socio-political and religious factors. In the past, concepts of royalty and deity were inexorably linked.
In some ancient cultures, rulers were considered to be divine or divine: the Egyptian pharaoh was believed to be the son of Ra, the sun god, while in Japan, the emperor was believed to be a descendant of Amaterasu, the sun goddess. Rome promulgated the practice of emperor worship. Coronations were once a direct visual expression of these alleged connections, but recent centuries have seen the lessening of such beliefs. Coronations are still observed in the United Kingdom and several Asian and African countries. In Europe, most monarchs are required to take a simple oath in the presence of the country's legislature. Besides a coronation, a monarch's accession may be marked in many ways: some nations may retain a religious dimension to their accession rituals while others have adopted simpler inauguration ceremonies, or no ceremony at all; some cultures use bathing or cleansing rites, the drinking of a sacred beverage, or other religious practices to achieve a comparable effect. Such acts symbolise the granting of divine favour to the monarch within the relevant spiritual-religious paradigm of the country.
Coronation in common parlance today may in a broader sense, refer to any formal ceremony in relation to the accession of a monarch, whether or not an actual crown is bestowed, such ceremonies may otherwise be referred to as investitures, inaugurations, or enthronements. The date of the act of ascension, however precedes the date of the ceremony of coronation. For example, the Coronation of Elizabeth II took place on 2 June 1953 sixteen months after her accession to the throne on 6 February 1952 on the death of her father George VI; the coronation ceremonies in medieval Christendom, both Western and Eastern, are influenced by the practice of the Roman Emperors as it developed during Late Antiquity, indirectly influenced by Biblical accounts of kings being crowned and anointed. The European coronation ceremonies best known in the form they have taken in Great Britain, descend from rites created in Byzantium, Visigothic Spain, Carolingian France and the Holy Roman Empire and brought to their apogee during the Medieval era.
In non-Christian states, coronation rites evolved from a variety of sources related to the religious beliefs of that particular nation. Buddhism, for instance, influenced the coronation rituals of Thailand and Bhutan, while Hindu elements played a significant role in Nepalese rites; the ceremonies used in modern Egypt, Malaysia and Iran were shaped by Islam, while Tonga's ritual combines ancient Polynesian influences with more modern Anglican ones. Coronations, in one form or another, have existed since ancient times. Egyptian records show coronation scenes, such as that of Seti I in 1290 BC. Judeo-Christian scriptures testify to particular rites associated with the conferring of kingship, the most detailed accounts of which are found in II Kings 11:12 and II Chronicles 23:11; the corona radiata, the "radiant crown" known best on the Statue of Liberty, worn by the Helios, the Colossus of Rhodes, was worn by Roman emperors as part of the cult of Sol Invictus, part of the imperial cult as it developed during the 3rd century.
The origin of the crown is thus religious, comparable to the significance of a halo, marking the sacral nature of kingship, expressing that either the king is himself divine, or ruling by divine right. The precursor to the crown was the browband called the diadem, worn by the Achaemenid rulers, was adopted by Constantine I, was worn by all subsequent rulers of the Roman Empire. Following the assumption of the diadem by Constantine and Byzantine emperors continued to wear it as the supreme symbol of their authority. Although no specific coronation ceremony was observed at first, one evolved over the following century; the emperor Julian was hoisted upon a shield and crowned with a gold necklace provided by one of his standard-bearers. Emperors were crowned and acclaimed in a similar manner, until the momentous decision was taken to permit the Patriarch of Constantinople to physically place the crown on the emperor's head. Historians debate when this first took place, but the precedent was established by the reign of Leo II, crowned by the Patriarch Acacius in 473.
This ritual in
House of Luxembourg
The House of Luxembourg was a late medieval European royal family, whose members between 1308 and 1437 ruled as King of the Romans and Holy Roman Emperors as well as Kings of Bohemia and Hungary. Their rule over the Holy Roman Empire was twice interrupted by the rival House of Wittelsbach; the Luxembourg line was a cadet branch of the ducal House of Limburg–Arlon, when in 1247 Henry, younger son of Duke Waleran III of Limburg inherited the County of Luxembourg upon the death of his mother Countess Ermesinde, a scion of the House of Namur. Her father, Count Henry IV of Luxembourg, was related on his mother's side to the Ardennes-Verdun dynasty, which had ruled the county since the late 10th century. Count Henry V's grandson Henry VII, Count of Luxembourg upon the death of his father Henry VI at the 1288 Battle of Worringen, was elected Rex Romanorum in 1308; the election was necessary after the Habsburg king Albert I of Germany had been murdered, Henry, backed by his brother Archbishop-Elector Baldwin of Trier, prevailed against Charles, Count of Valois.
Henry arranged the marriage of his son John with the Přemyslid heiress Elisabeth of Bohemia in 1310, through whom the House of Luxembourg acquired the Kingdom of Bohemia, enabling that family to compete more for power with the Habsburg and Wittelsbach dynasties. One year after being crowned Holy Roman Emperor at Rome, Henry VII, still on campaign in Italy, died in 1313; the prince-electors, perturbed by the rise of the Luxembourgs, disregarded the claims raised by Henry's heir King John, the rule over the Empire was assumed by the Wittelsbach duke Louis of Bavaria. John instead concentrated on securing his rule in Bohemia and vassalized the Piast dukes of adjacent Silesia from 1327 until 1335, his son Charles IV, in 1346 mounted the Imperial throne. His Golden Bull of 1356 served as a constitution of the Empire for centuries. Charles not only acquired the duchies of Brabant and Limburg in the west, but the former March of Lusatia and the Margraviate of Brandenburg in 1373 under the Kingdom of Bohemia.
The family's decline began under Charles' son King Wenceslaus, deposed by the prince-electors in 1400 who chose the Wittelsbach Elector Palatine Rupert. In 1410 rule was assumed by Wenceslaus' brother Sigismund, who once again stabilized the rule of the Luxembourgs and contributed to end the Western Schism in 1417, he was succeeded by his son-in-law, the Habsburg archduke Albert V of Austria. The Habsburgs prevailed as Luxembourg heirs, ruling the Empire until the extinction of their senior branch upon the death of Maria Theresa in 1780. Henry VII — elected King of the Romans in 1308 succeeding assassinated Albert of Habsburg, crowned Holy Roman Emperor in 1312, he was succeeded by Louis IV from the House of Wittelsbach. Baldwin — brother of Henry, Prince-Archbishop of Trier and thereby Archchancellor of Burgundy 1307–54. John the Blind — only son of Henry, he was enfeoffed with Bohemia by his father in 1310, married the Přemyslid heiress Elisabeth of Bohemia and deposed the Bohemian king Henry the Carinthian.
Charles IV — eldest son of John. He was elected King of the Romans in opposition to Louis IV in 1346 and succeeded his father as king of Bohemia in the same year, crowned Holy Roman Emperor in 1355. John Henry, Margrave of Moravia — younger brother of Charles, he married Margaret, Countess of Tyrol, daughter of Henry the Carinthian in 1330. Jobst of Moravia — eldest son of John Henry. Margrave of Brandenburg 1388–1411, elected King of the Romans in 1410. Wenceslaus — eldest surviving son of Charles; as Margrave of Brandenburg from 1373 to 1378, he was elected King of the Romans in 1376 and succeeded his father as King of Bohemia in 1378. Declared deposed by the prince-electors in 1400, he was succeeded by Rupert of Wittelsbach. Sigismund — younger son of Charles. Margrave of Brandenburg from 1378 to 1388, he was King of Hungary from 1387 in right of his wife Mary of Anjou, was elected King of the Romans in 1411, succeeding his brother as King of Bohemia in 1419, being crowned Holy Roman Emperor in 1433 yet he left no heirs male.
Jacquetta of Luxembourg — Mother of Queen Consort, Elizabeth Woodville and subsequent ancestress of all English and British monarchs since Henry VIII including the current monarch, Elizabeth II. Elizabeth of Luxembourg, only child of Emperor Sigismund, married Archduke Albert V of Austria from the Albertinian line of the House of Habsburg in 1422, becoming queen consort of Hungary from 1437 as well as Queen of the Romans and queen consort of Bohemia from 1438 until Albert's death in 1439: she was the heiress who conveyed the major portion of the Luxembourg inheritance to the Habsburgs and the Jagiellons through her daughter Elisabeth of Austria. According to the Salic law, the succession could have been disputed, in which case it would have passed collaterally to the cadet branch of Ligny; that branch descended from a younger son of Henry V, was headed by Louis de Luxembourg, Count of Saint-Pol, before he was executed for treason by Louis XI of France. The first instance of the house of Luxembourg seems to be: Two houses descended from the women of the counts of Luxembourg, the Counts of Loon and the Counts of Grandpré, wear a shield barry.
Both families had a place in relation to the succession of the House of Ardennes. Indeed, the Count of Grandpré was the next heir of Conrad II of Luxembourg, the last representative of the Ardennes dynasty, but Emperor Frederick Barbarossa preferred that Luxembourg was held by a lord Germanic rather than French and attributed the co
Wenceslaus I, Duke of Luxembourg
Wenceslaus I was the first Duke of Luxembourg from 1354. He was the son of John the Blind, King of Bohemia, Beatrice of Bourbon. Beatrice of Bourbon, gave birth to her only child, Duke Wenceslaus I, on Feb. 25, 1337. In 1353 Charles IV King of Bohemia, Count of Luxembourg and elected Holy Roman King, entrusted the county, their father's inheritance, to his half-brother Wenceslaus. In 1352, Wenceslaus married Joanna, daughter of John III, Duke of Brabant and Limburg, Marie d'Évreux. In 1354 Charles raised Luxembourg to the status of a duchy. In 1355, Joanna inherited Limburg. In order to guarantee the indivisibility of Brabant, Wenceslaus signed the Joyous Entry, but had to fight against his brother-in-law Louis II of Flanders, who asserted his share of the duchy, he failed to prevent the seizure of Brussels by the Flemings, but a certain Everard't Serclaes succeeded by an audacious coup in driving them out of the city. Thereafter, Wenceslaus had to face internal disorders. In 1371, he overestimated his military capacities and waged war with William II, Duke of Jülich, resulting in humiliating defeat at the Baesweiler, losing a part of his army, several noblemen.
He was suffered 11 months of captivity. Wenceslaus died in Luxembourg, leaving Joanna as sole ruler of Brabant, was succeeded by Wenceslaus II as duke of Luxembourg. There are speculations, his last wish was his heart to be sent to his wife. He is buried in a crypt at the now-ruined Orval Abbey in Belgium. Wenceslaus I of Luxembourg wrote the lyric poetry interpolated in Jean Froissart's Méliador, identified as his by Auguste Longnon in the 1890s, his lyric output comprises 79 poems. Boehm, Barbara Drake. Prague: The Crown of Bohemia, 1347-1437. Yale University Press. Vaughan, Richard. Philip the Bold; the Boydell Press. Killgrove, Historians Question Medieval C-Section'Breakthrough,' Criticize New York Times Coverage, retrieved 30 May 2017
St. Vitus Cathedral
The Metropolitan Cathedral of Saints Vitus and Adalbert is a Roman Catholic metropolitan cathedral in Prague, the seat of the Archbishop of Prague. Until 1997, the cathedral was dedicated only to Saint Vitus, is still named only as St. Vitus Cathedral; this cathedral is a prominent example of Gothic architecture and is the largest and most important church in the country. Located within Prague Castle and containing the tombs of many Bohemian kings and Holy Roman Emperors, the cathedral is under the ownership of the Czech government as part of the Prague Castle complex. Cathedral dimensions are 124 by 60 metres, the main tower is 102.8 metres high, front towers 82 metres, arch height 33.2 metres. The current cathedral is the third of a series of religious buildings at the site, all dedicated to St. Vitus; the first church was an early Romanesque rotunda founded by Wenceslaus I, Duke of Bohemia in 930. This patron saint was chosen because Wenceslaus had acquired a holy relic – the arm of St. Vitus – from Emperor Henry I.
It is possible that Wenceslaus, wanting to convert his subjects to Christianity more chose a saint whose name sounds much like the name of Slavic solar deity Svantevit. Two religious populations, the increasing Christian and decreasing pagan community, lived in Prague castle at least until the 11th century. In the year 1060, as the bishopric of Prague was founded, prince Spytihněv II embarked on building a more spacious church, as it became clear the existing rotunda was too small to accommodate the faithful. A much larger and more representative Romanesque basilica was built in its spot. Though still not reconstructed, most experts agree it was a triple-aisled basilica with two choirs and a pair of towers connected to the western transept; the design of the cathedral nods to Romanesque architecture of the Holy Roman Empire, most notably to the abbey church in Hildesheim and the Speyer Cathedral. The southern apse of the rotunda was incorporated into the eastern transept of the new church because it housed the tomb of St. Wenceslaus, who had by now become the patron saint of the Czech princes.
A bishop's mansion was built south of the new church, was enlarged and extended in the mid 12th-century. Construction of the present-day Gothic Cathedral began on 21 November 1344, when the see of Prague was elevated to an archbishopric. King John of Bohemia laid the foundation stone for the new building; the patrons were the chapter of cathedral, the Archbishop Arnost of Pardubice, above all, Charles IV, King of Bohemia and a soon-to-be Holy Roman Emperor, who intended the new cathedral to be a coronation church, family crypt, treasury for the most precious relics of the kingdom, the last resting place cum pilgrimage site of patron saint Wenceslaus. The first master builder was a Frenchman Matthias of Arras, summoned from the Papal Palace in Avignon. Matthias designed the overall layout of the building as an import of French Gothic: a triple-naved basilica with flying buttresses, short transept, five-bayed choir and decagon apse with ambulatory and radiating chapels. However, he lived to build only the easternmost parts of the choir: the ambulatory.
The slender verticality of Late French Gothic and clear rigid respect of proportions distinguish his work today. After Matthias' death in 1352, 23-year-old Peter Parler assumed control of the cathedral workshop as master builder, he was son of the architect of the Heilig-Kreuz-Münster in Schwäbisch Gmünd. Parler only worked on plans left by his predecessor, building the sacristy on the north side of the choir and the chapel on the south. Once he finished all that Matthias left unfinished, he continued according to his own ideas. Parler's bold and innovative design brought in a unique new synthesis of Gothic elements in architecture; this is best exemplified in the vaults he designed for the choir. The so-called Parler's vaults or net-vaults have double diagonal ribs that span the width of the choir-bay; the crossing pairs of ribs create a net-like construction, which strengthens the vault. They give a lively ornamentation to the ceiling, as the interlocking vaulted bays create a dynamic zigzag pattern the length of the cathedral.
While Matthias of Arras was schooled as a geometer, thus putting an emphasis on rigid systems of proportions and clear, mathematical compositions in his design, Parler was trained as a sculptor and woodcarver. He treated architecture as a sculpture as if playing with structural forms in stone. Aside from his bold vaults, the peculiarities of his work can be seen in the design of pillars, the ingenious dome vault of new St Wenceslaus chapel, the undulating clerestory walls, the original window tracery and the blind tracery panels of the buttresses. Architectural sculpture was given a considerable role while Parler was in charge of construction, as can be seen in the corbels, the passageway lintels, in the busts on the triforium, which depict faces of the royal family, Prague bishops, the two master builders, including Parler himself. Work on the cathedral, proceeded because the Emperor commissioned Parler with many other projects, such as the construction of the new Charles Bridge in Prague and many churches throughout the Czech realm.
By 1397, when Peter Parler died, only the choir and parts of the transept were finished. A
Czech nobility consists of the noble families of the historical states of the Czech Republic that include Bohemian nobility, Moravian nobility and Silesian nobility. These are connected with the history of Great Moravia, Duchy of Bohemia Kingdom of Bohemia, Margraviate of Moravia, the Duchies of Silesia and the lands of the Bohemian Crown, the constitutional predecessor state of the modern-day republic. Aristocracy was abolished by law in December 1918, shortly after the establishment of the independent Czechoslovak Republic. Von Dobrá Voda, Adalbert Král. Der Adel von Böhmen, Mähren und Schlesien. Prag: I. Taussig. Retrieved February 14, 2016. Von Meraviglia-Crivelli, Rudolf Johann. Der böhmische Adel. Nürnberg: Bauer und Raspe. Retrieved February 14, 2016. Von Kadich, Heinrich Edlen. Der mährische Adel. Nürnberg: Bauer und Raspe. Retrieved February 14, 2016. Blažek, Conrad. Der abgestorbene Adel der Provinz Schlesien und der O. Lausitz. I–III. Nürnberg: Bauer und Raspe. Pilnáček, Josef. Rody starého Slezska.
Brno: Ivo Sperát. ISBN 978-80-904312-3-2