The Crusades were a series of religious wars sanctioned by the Latin Church in the medieval period. The most known Crusades are the campaigns in the Eastern Mediterranean aimed at recovering the Holy Land from Muslim rule, but the term "Crusades" is applied to other church-sanctioned campaigns; these were fought for a variety of reasons including the suppression of paganism and heresy, the resolution of conflict among rival Roman Catholic groups, or for political and territorial advantage. At the time of the early Crusades the word did not exist, only becoming the leading descriptive term around 1760. In 1095, Pope Urban II called for the First Crusade in a sermon at the Council of Clermont, he encouraged military support for the Byzantine Empire and its Emperor, Alexios I, who needed reinforcements for his conflict with westward migrating Turks colonizing Anatolia. One of Urban's aims was to guarantee pilgrims access to the Eastern Mediterranean holy sites that were under Muslim control but scholars disagree as to whether this was the primary motive for Urban or those who heeded his call.
Urban's strategy may have been to unite the Eastern and Western branches of Christendom, divided since the East–West Schism of 1054 and to establish himself as head of the unified Church. The initial success of the Crusade established the first four Crusader states in the Eastern Mediterranean: the County of Edessa, the Principality of Antioch, the Kingdom of Jerusalem and the County of Tripoli; the enthusiastic response to Urban's preaching from all classes in Western Europe established a precedent for other Crusades. Volunteers became Crusaders by taking a public vow and receiving plenary indulgences from the Church; some were hoping for a mass ascension into heaven at Jerusalem or God's forgiveness for all their sins. Others participated to satisfy feudal obligations, obtain glory and honour or to seek economic and political gain; the two-century attempt to recover the Holy Land ended in failure. Following the First Crusade there were numerous less significant ones. After the last Catholic outposts fell in 1291, there were no more Crusades.
The Wendish Crusade and those of the Archbishop of Bremen brought all the North-East Baltic and the tribes of Mecklenburg and Lusatia under Catholic control in the late 12th century. In the early 13th century the Teutonic Order created a Crusader state in Prussia and the French monarchy used the Albigensian Crusade to extend the kingdom to the Mediterranean Sea; the rise of the Ottoman Empire in the late 14th century prompted a Catholic response which led to further defeats at Nicopolis in 1396 and Varna in 1444. Catholic Europe was in chaos and the final pivot of Christian–Islamic relations was marked by two seismic events: the fall of Constantinople to the Ottomans in 1453 and a final conclusive victory for the Spanish over the Moors with the conquest of Granada in 1492; the idea of Crusading continued, not least in the form of the Knights Hospitaller, until the end of the 18th-century but the focus of Western European interest moved to the New World. Modern historians hold varying opinions of the Crusaders.
To some, their conduct was incongruous with the stated aims and implied moral authority of the papacy, as evidenced by the fact that on occasion the Pope excommunicated Crusaders. Crusaders pillaged as they travelled, their leaders retained control of captured territory instead of returning it to the Byzantines. During the People's Crusade, thousands of Jews were murdered in what is now called the Rhineland massacres. Constantinople was sacked during the Fourth Crusade. However, the Crusades had a profound impact on Western civilisation: Italian city-states gained considerable concessions in return for assisting the Crusaders and established colonies which allowed trade with the eastern markets in the Ottoman period, allowing Genoa and Venice to flourish; the Crusades reinforced a connection between Western Christendom and militarism. The term crusade used in modern historiography at first referred to the wars in the Holy Land beginning in 1095, but the range of events to which the term has been applied has been extended, so that its use can create a misleading impression of coherence regarding the early Crusades.
The term used for the campaign of the First Crusade was iter "journey" or peregrinatio "pilgrimage". The terminology of crusading remained indistinguishable from that of pilgrimage during the 12th century, reflecting the reality of the first century of crusading where not all armed pilgrims fought, not all who fought had taken the cross, it was not until the late 12th to early 13th centuries that a more specific "language of crusading" emerged. Pope Innocent III used the term negotium crucis "affair of the cross" for the Eastern Mediterranean crusade, but was reluctant to apply crusading terminology to the Albigensian crusade; the Song of the Albigensian Crusade from about 1213 contains the first recorded vernacular use of the Occitan crozada. This term was adopted into French as croisade and in English as crusade; the modern spelling crusade dates to c. 1760. Sinibaldo Fieschi used the terms crux transmarina for crusades in Outremer against Muslims and crux cismarina for crusades in Europe against other enemies of the church.
The Crusades in the Holy Land are traditionally counted as nine distinct campaigns, numbered from the First Crusade of 1095–99 to the Ninth Crusade of 1271–72. This conv
Battle of Nicopolis
The Battle of Nicopolis took place on 25 September 1396 and resulted in the rout of an allied crusader army of Hungarian, Bulgarian, French, Burgundian and assorted troops at the hands of an Ottoman force, raising of the siege of the Danubian fortress of Nicopolis and leading to the end of the Second Bulgarian Empire. It is referred to as the Crusade of Nicopolis as it was one of the last large-scale Crusades of the Middle Ages, together with the Crusade of Varna in 1443–1444. There were many minor crusades in the 14th century, undertaken by individual knights. Most there had been a failed crusade against Tunisia in 1390, there was ongoing warfare in northern Europe along the Baltic coast. After their victory at the Battle of Kosovo in 1389, the Ottomans had conquered most of the Balkans, had reduced the Byzantine Empire to the area surrounding Constantinople, which they proceeded to besiege. In 1393 the Bulgarian tsar Ivan Shishman had lost Nicopolis — his temporary capital — to the Ottomans, while his brother, Ivan Stratsimir, still held Vidin but had been reduced to an Ottoman vassal.
In the eyes of the Bulgarian boyars and other independent Balkan rulers, the crusade was a great chance to reverse the course of the Ottoman conquest and free the Balkans from Islamic rule. In addition, the frontline between Islam and Christianity had been moving towards the Kingdom of Hungary; the Kingdom of Hungary was now the frontier between the two religions in Eastern Europe, the Hungarians were in danger of being attacked themselves. The Republic of Venice feared that an Ottoman control of the Balkan peninsula, which included Venetian territories like parts of Morea and Dalmatia, would reduce their influence over the Adriatic Sea, Ionian Sea and Aegean Sea; the Republic of Genoa, on the other hand, feared that if the Ottomans were to gain control over River Danube and the Turkish Straits, they would obtain a monopoly over the trade routes between Europe and the Black Sea, where the Genoese had many important colonies like Caffa and Amasra. The Genoese owned the citadel of Galata, located at the north of the Golden Horn in Constantinople, to which Bayezid had laid siege in 1395.
In 1394, Pope Boniface IX proclaimed a new crusade against the Turks, although the Western Schism had split the papacy in two, with rival popes at Avignon and Rome, the days when a pope had the authority to call a crusade were long past. The two decisive factors in the formation of the last crusade were the ongoing Hundred Years' War between Richard II's England and Charles VI's France and the support of Philip II, Duke of Burgundy. In 1389, the war had ground to one of its periodic truces. Further, in March 1395, Richard II proposed a marriage between himself and Charles VI's daughter Isabella in the interests of peace and the two kings met in October 1396 on the borders of Calais to agree to the union and agree to lengthen the Truce of Leulinghem; the support of Burgundy, among the most powerful of the French nobles was vital. In 1391, trying to decide between sending a crusade to either Prussia or Hungary, sent his envoy Guy de La Trémoille to Venice and Hungary to evaluate the situation.
Burgundy envisioned a crusade led by himself and the Dukes of Orléans and Lancaster, though none would join the eventual crusade. It was unlikely that defense against the Turks was considered a important goal of the crusade. Burgundy's interest in sponsoring the crusade was in increasing his and his house's prestige and power and, historian Barbara Tuchman notes, "since he was the prince of self-magnification, the result was that opulent display became the dominant theme. In 1394, Burgundy extracted 120,000 livres from Flanders, sufficient to begin preparations for a crusade, in January 1395 sent word to King Sigismund of Hungary that an official request to the King of France would be accepted. In August, Sigismund's delegation of four knights and a bishop arrived in the court of Paris to paint a description of how "40,000" Turks were despoiling and imperiling Christian lands and beg, on Sigismund of Hungary's behalf, for help. Charles VI, having secured a peace with England through the marriage of his daughter, was able to reply that it was his responsibility to protect Christianity and punish Sultan Bayezid.
French nobility responded enthusiastically to the declaration. The number of combatants is contested in historical accounts. Historian Tuchman notes, "Chroniclers habitually matched numbers to the awesomeness of the event," and the Battle of Nicopolis was considered so significant that the number of combatants given by medieval chroniclers ranges as high as 400,000, with each side insisting that the enemy outnumbered them two-to-one, which for the crusaders offered some solace for their defeat and for the Turks increased the glory of their victory; the oft-given figure of 100,000 crusaders is dismissed by Tuchman, who notes that 100,000 men would have taken a month to cross the Danube at Iron Gate, while the crusaders took eight days. The closest record to a first-person account was made by Johann Schiltberger, a German follower of a Bavarian noble, who witnessed the battle at the age of 16 and was captured and enslaved for 30 years by the
Bishopric of Merseburg
The Bishopric of Merseburg was an episcopal see on the eastern border of the medieval Duchy of Saxony with its centre in Merseburg, where Merseburg Cathedral was constructed. The see was founded in 967 by Emperor Otto I at the same time in the same manner as those of Meissen and Zeitz, all suffragan dioceses of the Archbishopric of Magdeburg as part of a plan to bind the adjacent Slavic lands in the Saxon Eastern March beyond the Saale River more to the Holy Roman Empire; the prince-bishopric was re-established by King Henry II of Germany in 1004. It covered a considerable small territory stretching from the Saale up to the Mulde River and the Margraviate of Meissen in the east. About 919 Otto's father King Henry the Fowler had a Kaiserpfalz erected in Merseburg in the Eastphalian Hassegau, hometown of his first wife Hatheburg of Merseburg; the establishment of the diocese traced back to a vow Otto took before his victory against the Hungarians at the Battle of Lechfeld on Saint Laurence day, 10 August 955.
Confirmed by Pope John XIII at the 968 synod in Ravenna, the first Merseburg bishop was Boso, a Bavarian monk descending from St. Emmeram's Abbey in Regensburg distinguished by his missionary labours among the pagan Sorbs. Boso's successor Gisilher, a confidant of the new Emperor Otto II, from 971 procured the suppression of the see in favour of his aims to become Archbishop of Magdeburg reached through the Emperor's power over Pope Benedict VII in 981; however this step was against the interests of the Church and the position of Magdeburg archbishopric was decisively enfeebled after the Great Slav Rising of 983, therefore the dissolution was revoked by the papacy in 998 or early in 999 at a Roman synod. Upon Archbishop Gisilher's death in 1004, King Henry II re-established the prince-bishopric. Under Bishop Thietmar the erection of Merseburg Cathedral began, it was consecrated in 1021 in presence of Emperor Henry II. During the Investiture Controversy the Merseburg bishops sided with Pope Gregory VII and joined the Great Saxon Revolt, however, could not stop the dwindling importance of the small diocese.
From the 13th century onwards, the bishops had to deal with rising power of the Meissen margraves of the Wettin dynasty, from 1423 Electors of Saxony, who by denying Merseburg's Imperial immediacy attempted to acquire the overlordship. By the 1485 Treaty of Leipzig the Wettins allocated the protectorate over Merseburg to Duke Albert III of Saxony; the bishopric's fate was sealed with the Protestant Reformation, enforced here during the episcopate of Prince Adolph II of Anhalt, driven out of office by his uprising subjects during the German Peasants' War in 1525. In 1544 Elector Augustus of Saxony assumed the rule as Protestant administrator, with Prince George III of Anhalt as Coadjutor bishop. In 1561 the Saxon elector installed his minor son Alexander as administrator, who died four years whereafter the Bishopric of Merseburg was incorporated by the Saxon electorate. From 1652 to 1738 the descendants of the Wettin duke Christian I held the title of a "Duke of Saxe-Merseburg". At the 1815 Congress of Vienna, three-fourths of the former diocesan territory was assigned to the Kingdom of Prussia, the rest remaining Saxon.
967–970: Boso 971–981: Gisilher 981–1004: diocese dissolved 1004–1009: Wigbert 1009–1018: Thietmar of Walbeck 1019–1036: Bruno of Merseburg 1036–1050: Hunold 1050–1053: Alberich 1053: Winther 1053–1057: Ezzelin I 1057–1062: Offo 1062–1063: Günther 1063–1093: Werner of Wolkenburg 1075: Eberhard 1093–1097: sede vacante 1097–1112: Albuin 1112–1120: Gerard 1120–1126: Arnold 1126–1140: Megingoz 1140–1140: Henry I 1140–1143: Ezzelin II 1143–1151: Raynard of Querfurt 1151–1170: John I 1171–1201: Count Eberhard of Seeburg 1201–1215: Derek of Meissen 1215–1240: Ekkehard Rabil 1240–1244: Rudolph of Webau 1244–1265: Henry II of Waren 1265: Albert I of Borna 1265–1283: Frederick I of Torgau 1283–1300: Henry III von Ammendorf 1300–1319: Henry IV 1320–1340: Gebhard of Schrapelau 1341–1357: Henry V, Count of Stolberg 1357–1382: Frederick II of Hoym 1382–1384: Burkhard of Querfurt 1382–1385: Andreas Dauba 1384–1393: Henry VI, Count of Stolberg 1393–1403: Henry VII, treasurer from Orlamünde 1403–1406: Otto of Honstein 1406: Bishop Elect Henry, Count of Stolberg 1407–1411: Walter von Köckeritz 1411–1431: Nicholas Lubich 1431–1463: John II of Bose 1464–1466: John III of Bose 1466–1514: Thilo of Trotha 1514–1526: Adolph of Anhalt 1526–1535: Vincent of Schleinitz 1535–1544: Sigismund of Lindenau 1544–1548: Augustus of Saxony, as administrator 1544–1549: George of Anhalt, as Lutheran coadjutor 1549–1561: Michael Helding 1561–1565: Alexander of Saxony In 1565 the prince-bishopric was annexed to the Electorate of Saxony This article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain: Jackson, Samuel Macauley, ed..
"article name needed". New Schaff–Herzog Encyclopedia of Religious Knowledge. London and New York: Funk and Wagnalls
Margravate of Meissen
The Margravate of Meissen was a medieval principality in the area of the modern German state of Saxony. It was a frontier march of the Holy Roman Empire, created out of the vast Marca Geronis in 965. Under the rule of the Wettin dynasty, the margravate merged with the former Duchy of Saxe-Wittenberg into the Saxon Electorate by 1423. In the mid 9th century, the area of the margravate was part of an eastern frontier zone of the Carolingian Empire called Sorbian March, after Sorbian tribes of Polabian Slavs settling beyond the Saale river. In 849, a margrave named, his title is rendered as dux Sorabici limitis, "duke of the Sorbian frontier", but he and his East Frankish successors were known as duces Thuringorum, "dukes of the Thuringians", as they set about establishing their power over the older Duchy of Thuringia in the west. The Sorbian march had lost its importance around 900 AD. Conrad himself was replaced by Burchard, whose title in 903 was marchio Thuringionum, "margrave of the Thuringians".
Due to scarce sources, the geographical extent of the Frankish march east of the Saale is a matter of ongoing debate among historians. These territories were under constant attacks by the East Frankish rulers. By 928/29, the main Glomacze fortress on the Jahna river was destroyed and their lands up to the Dresden Basin incorporated into the Marca Geronis. In 928 and 929, during the final campaign against the Glomacze tribes, Henry the Fowler, East Frankish king since 919, chose a rock above the confluence of the Elbe and Triebisch rivers to erect a new fortress, called Misni Castle after the nearby Meisa stream; the fortifications were renamed Albrechtsburg in the 15th century. A town soon developed around the castle. King Henry, made no attempts to Germanise the Slavs or to create a chain of burgwards around his fortress. Sat alone, like Brandenburg, with few defenses or towns around it; the town beneath the fortress grew, however becoming one of the most important cities in the vast Marca Geronis, covering the Slavic lands east of the Saxon stem duchy.
King Henry, on his son and successor Otto I, continued the Slavic campaigns into the lands of the Polabian Milceni tribes around Bautzen, with their gained territory being incorporated into the Saxon Eastern March. When the Marca Geronis was divided in 965 upon the death of Margrave Gero, Meissen became the center of a new march with the goal of controlling the local Slavic population; the first Meissen margrave, Wigbert, is mentioned in a 968 charter of the Archdiocese of Magdeburg. That same year, the Meissen fortress became the see of the newly created Bishopric of Meissen. In 978, the Saxon count Rikdag became the Margrave of Meissen, incorporated the marches of Merseburg and Zeitz into Meissen. By 982, the territory of the march had extended as far as the Kwisa river to the east and as far as the slopes of the Ore Mountains to the south, where it shared a border with the Přemyslid duchy of Bohemia. In 983, following the defeat of Emperor Otto II at the Battle of Stilo, the Slavic Lutici tribes bordering eastern Saxony rebelled in the Great Slav Rising.
The newly established bishoprics of Havelberg and Brandenburg as well as the March of Zeitz were overrun by Lutici tribes. Margrave Rikdag joined forces with the Margraves of Lusatia and the Northern March, the Bishop of Halberstadt, the Archbishop of Magdeburg and defeated the Slavs in the gau of Balsamgau near Stendal. Large territories of the Northern March were lost, the German forces were pushed back west of the Elbe. Margrave Eckard I from Thuringia succeeded Rikdag as Margrave of Meissen in 985, his descendants of the Ekkeharding noble family would keep the margravial title until 1046. Upon his appointment, Eckard allied with Duke Mieszko I of Poland in order to reconquer Meissen Castle from Duke Boleslaus II of Bohemia whose forces occupied it the year before; when Eckard was assassinated in 1002, Mieszko's son, the Polish king Bolesław I Chrobry, took the occasion to conquer the margravial lands east of the Elbe and demanded the surrender of Meissen. The following German–Polish War ended with the 1018 Peace of Bautzen, whereby Meissen had to cede the Milceni region to Poland.
In 1031 however, King Conrad II of Germany was able to reconquer the Milceni lands, which were returned to Meissen. In 1046, Count Otto of Weimar-Orlamünde became margrave, followed by Egbert II of the Brunonids upon his death in 1067. Egbert II entered into a longstanding conflict with Emperor Henry IV, because of which he had to renounce the Milceni lands to Duke Vratislaus II of Bohemia in 1076, was deposed during the Investiture Controversy in 1089. Emperor Henry IV granted Meissen to Count Henry of Eilenburg of the Wettin dynasty; the margravate would remain under Wettin rule for the rest of its existence. Under Wiprecht von Groitzsch in the 1120s, Meissen underwent a process of Germanisation, he was succeeded by Conrad the Great, Otto the Rich, Dietrich the Hard-Pressed, under whom the march would expand and develop. By Meissen had become a strong
Mecklenburg is a historical region in northern Germany comprising the western and larger part of the federal-state Mecklenburg-Vorpommern. The largest cities of the region are Rostock, Neubrandenburg, Wismar and Güstrow; the name Mecklenburg derives from a castle named "Mikilenburg", located between the cities of Schwerin and Wismar. In Slavic language it was known as Veligrad, which means "big castle", it was the ancestral seat of the House of Mecklenburg. Linguistically Mecklenburgers use many features of Low German vocabulary or phonology; the adjective for the region is Mecklenburgian. Mecklenburg is known for its flat countryside. Much of the terrain is boggy, with ponds and fields as common features, with small forests interspersed; the terrain changes as one moves north towards the Baltic Sea. Under the peat of Mecklenburg are sometimes found deposits of ancient lava flows. Traditionally, at least in the countryside, the stone from these flows is cut and used in the construction of homes in joint use with cement and wood, forming a unique look to the exterior of country houses.
Mecklenburg has productive farming. Mecklenburg is the site of many prehistoric dolmen tombs, its earliest organised inhabitants may have had Celtic origins. By no than 100 BC the area had been populated by pre-Christian Germanic peoples; the traditional symbol of Mecklenburg, the grinning steer's head, with an attached hide, a crown above, may have originated from this period. It represents what early peoples would have worn, i.e. a steers's head as a helmet, with the hide hanging down the back to protect the neck from the sun, overall as a way to instill fear in the enemy. From the 7th through the 12th centuries, the area of Mecklenburg was taken over by Western Slavic peoples, most notably the Obotrites and other tribes that Frankish sources referred to as "Wends"; the 11th century founder of the Mecklenburgian dynasty of Dukes and Grand Dukes, which lasted until 1918, was Nyklot of the Obotrites. In the late 12th century, Henry the Lion, Duke of the Saxons, conquered the region, subjugated its local lords, Christianized its people, in a precursor to the Northern Crusades.
From 12th to 14th century, large numbers of Germans and Flemings settled the area, importing German law and improved agricultural techniques. The Wends who survived all warfare and devastation of the centuries before, including invasions of and expeditions into Saxony and Liutizic areas as well as internal conflicts, were assimilated in the centuries thereafter. However, elements of certain names and words used in Mecklenburg speak to the lingering Slavic influence. An example would be the city of Schwerin, called Zuarin in Slavic. Another example is the town of Bresegard, the'gard' portion of the town name deriving from the Slavic word'grad', meaning city or town. Since the 12th century, the territory remained stable and independent of its neighbours. During the reformation the Duke in Schwerin would convert to Protestantism and so would follow the Duchy of Mecklenburg. Like many German territories, Mecklenburg was sometimes partitioned and re-partitioned among different members of the ruling dynasty.
In 1621 it was divided into the two duchies of Mecklenburg-Güstrow. With the extinction of the Güstrow line in 1701, the Güstrow lands were redivided, part going to the Duke of Mecklenburg-Schwerin, part going to the new line of Mecklenburg-Strelitz. In 1815, the two Mecklenburgian duchies were raised to Grand Duchies, the Grand Duchy of Mecklenburg-Schwerin and the Grand Duchy of Mecklenburg-Strelitz, subsequently existed separately as such in Germany under enlightened but absolute rule until the revolution of 1918. Life in Mecklenburg could be quite harsh. Practices such as having to ask for permission from the Grand Duke to get married, or having to apply for permission to emigrate, would linger late into the history of Mecklenburg, long after such practices had been abandoned in other German areas; as late as the half of the 19th century the Grand Duke owned half of the countryside. The last Duke abdicated in 1918; the Duke's ruling house reigned in Mecklenburg uninterrupted from its incorporation into the Holy Roman Empire until 1918.
From 1918 to 1933, the duchies were free states in the Weimar Republic. Traditionally Mecklenburg has always been one of the poorer German areas, the poorer of the provinces, or Länder, within a unified Germany; the reasons for this may be varied, but one factor stands out: agriculturally the land is poor and can not produce at the same level as other parts of Germany. The two Mecklenburgs made attempts at being independent states after 1918, but this failed as their dependence on the rest of the German lands became apparent. After three centuries of partition, Mecklenburg was united on 1 January 1934 by the Nazi government; the Wehrmacht assigned Mecklenburg and Pomerania to Wehrkreis II under the command of General der Infanterie Werner Kieni
Electorate of Mainz
The Electorate of Mainz known in English as Mentz and by its French name Mayence, was one of the most prestigious and influential states of the Holy Roman Empire. In the Roman Catholic hierarchy, the Archbishop-Elector of Mainz was the Primate of Germany, a purely honorary dignity, unsuccessfully claimed from time to time by other archbishops. There were only two other ecclesiastical Prince-electors in the Empire: the Electorate of Cologne and the Electorate of Trier; the Archbishop-Elector of Mainz was archchancellor of Germany and, as such, ranked first among all ecclesiastical and secular princes of the Empire, was second only to the Emperor. His political role as an intermediary between the Estates of the Empire and the Emperor, was considerable; the episcopal see was established in ancient Roman times in the city of Mainz, a Roman provincial capital, Moguntiacum. The first bishops before the 4th century have legendary names, beginning with Crescens; the first verifiable Bishop of Mainz was Martinus in 343.
The ecclesiastical and secular importance of Mainz dates from the accession of St. Boniface to the see in 747. Boniface was an archbishop though without an assigned see, but that ecclesiastical status did not devolve upon the see itself until his successor Lullus. Another early bishop of Mainz was Aureus of Mainz; the territory of the Electorate included several non-contiguous blocks of territory: lands near Mainz on both the left and right banks of the Rhine. As was the case in the Holy Roman Empire, the territory of a prince-bishopric or archbishopric differed from that of the corresponding diocese or archdiocese, the purely spiritual jurisdiction of the prince-bishop or archbishop. During the early modern age, the archdiocese of Mainz was the largest ecclesiastical province of Germany, covering Mainz and 10 suffragant dioceses. In 1802, Mainz lost its archiepiscopal character. In the secularizations that accompanied the Reichsdeputationshauptschluss of 1803, the seat of the elector, Karl Theodor von Dalberg, was moved to Regensburg, the electorate lost its left bank territories to France, its right bank areas along the Main below Frankfurt to Hesse-Darmstadt and the Nassau princes, Eichsfeld and Erfurt to the Kingdom of Prussia.
Dalberg retained the Aschaffenburg area as the Principality of Aschaffenburg. In 1810 Dalberg merged Aschaffenburg, Wetzlar and Fulda, to form the new Grand Duchy of Frankfurt in 1810. Dalberg resigned in 1813 and in 1815 the Congress of Vienna divided his territories between the Kingdom of Bavaria, the Electorate of Hesse-Kassel, the Grand Duchy of Hesse and the Free City of Frankfurt; the modern Roman Catholic Diocese of Mainz was founded in 1802 when Mainz lost its archdiocese status and its territory west of the Rhine River became a mere diocese within the territory of France. In 1814 its jurisdiction was extended over the territory of Hesse-Darmstadt. Since it has had two cardinals and via various concordats was allowed to retain the medieval tradition of the cathedral chapter electing a successor to the bishop. Elector of Mainz Mainz Cathedral Primas Germaniae Roman Catholic Diocese of Mainz Official website of the modern Diocese Map of the Archbishopric of Mainz in 1789
Malchow is a municipality in the Mecklenburgische Seenplatte district, in Mecklenburg-Western Pomerania, Germany. It is situated on the river Elde, 25,5 km west of Waren, 35 km north of Wittstock; the site of Malchow was a center for Slavic paganism during the Middle Ages. It was sacked by Saxons during the 1147 Wendish Crusade against the Polabian Slavs; the German town of Malchow, founded on an island between the Plauer See and Fleesensee, was first mentioned in writing in 1147 and received a town charter under Schwerin Law in 1235. In 1298, Malchow Abbey, a Cistercian nunnery, moved to the south shore of the Malchower See, opposite the island. Over several following centuries, the town expanded to the mainland in the northwest, to which the original settlement was linked by a succession of bridges, this mainland settlement came to predominate. A munitions factory of the Alfred Nobel Co. was established in Malchow in 1938, during the Nazi period, during World War II hundreds of prisoners of war and women and children were used as forced labor there.
In 1943, the Ravensbrück concentration camp extended to Malchow, during the next two years many inmates, including numerous Hungarian Jewish women, lost their lives there under appalling conditions. After the war, Soviet Occupation authorities accused some 30 teen-aged Malchow residents of anti-Soviet activities, 12 of these lost their lives in Soviet captivity or were executed. After the reunification of Germany in 1990, the historic town center of Malchow was extensively restored. Today the former Cistercian abbey houses the Mecklenburg Organ Museum; the town is surrounded by the lakes of the Mecklenburgische Seenplatte and the woods of the Müritz National Park. Dietrich von Müller, Generalleutnant of the Wehrmacht Media related to Malchow at Wikimedia Commons