National Diet Library
The National Diet Library is the national library of Japan and among the largest libraries in the world. It was established in 1948 for the purpose of assisting members of the National Diet of Japan in researching matters of public policy; the library is similar in scope to the United States Library of Congress. The National Diet Library consists of two main facilities in Tōkyō and Kyōtō, several other branch libraries throughout Japan; the National Diet Library is the successor of three separate libraries: the library of the House of Peers, the library of the House of Representatives, both of which were established at the creation of Japan's Imperial Diet in 1890. The Diet's power in prewar Japan was limited, its need for information was "correspondingly small"; the original Diet libraries "never developed either the collections or the services which might have made them vital adjuncts of genuinely responsible legislative activity". Until Japan's defeat, the executive had controlled all political documents, depriving the people and the Diet of access to vital information.
The U. S. occupation forces under General Douglas MacArthur deemed reform of the Diet library system to be an important part of the democratization of Japan after its defeat in World War II. In 1946, each house of the Diet formed its own National Diet Library Standing Committee. Hani Gorō, a Marxist historian, imprisoned during the war for thought crimes and had been elected to the House of Councillors after the war, spearheaded the reform efforts. Hani envisioned the new body as "both a'citadel of popular sovereignty'", the means of realizing a "peaceful revolution"; the Occupation officers responsible for overseeing library reforms reported that, although the Occupation was a catalyst for change, local initiative pre-existed the Occupation, the successful reforms were due to dedicated Japanese like Hani. The National Diet Library opened in June 1948 in the present-day State Guest-House with an initial collection of 100,000 volumes; the first Librarian of the Diet Library was the politician Tokujirō Kanamori.
The philosopher Masakazu Nakai served as the first Vice Librarian. In 1949, the NDL became the only national library in Japan. At this time the collection gained an additional million volumes housed in the former National Library in Ueno. In 1961, the NDL opened at its present location in Nagatachō, adjacent to the National Diet. In 1986, the NDL's Annex was completed to accommodate a combined total of 12 million books and periodicals; the Kansai-kan, which opened in October 2002 in the Kansai Science City, has a collection of 6 million items. In May 2002, the NDL opened a new branch, the International Library of Children's Literature, in the former building of the Imperial Library in Ueno; this branch contains some 400,000 items of children's literature from around the world. Though the NDL's original mandate was to be a research library for the National Diet, the general public is the largest consumer of the library's services. In the fiscal year ending March 2004, for example, the library reported more than 250,000 reference inquiries.
As Japan's national library, the NDL collects copies of all publications published in Japan. Moreover, because the NDL serves as a research library for Diet members, their staffs, the general public, it maintains an extensive collection of materials published in foreign languages on a wide range of topics; the NDL has eight major specialized collections: Modern Political and Constitutional History. The Modern Political and Constitutional History Collection comprises some 300,000 items related to Japan's political and legal modernization in the 19th century, including the original document archives of important Japanese statesmen from the latter half of the 19th century and the early 20th century like Itō Hirobumi, Iwakura Tomomi, Sanjō Sanetomi, Mutsu Munemitsu, Terauchi Masatake, other influential figures from the Meiji and Taishō periods; the NDL has an extensive microform collection of some 30 million pages of documents relating to the Occupation of Japan after World War II. This collection include the documents prepared by General Headquarters and the Supreme Commander of the Allied Powers, the Far Eastern Commission, the United States Strategic Bombing Survey Team.
The Laws and Preliminary Records Collection consists of some 170,000 Japanese and 200,000 foreign-language documents concerning proceedings of the National Diet and the legislatures of some 70 foreign countries, the official gazettes, judicial opinions, international treaties pertaining to some 150 foreign countries. The NDL maintains a collection of some 530,000 books and booklets and 2 million microform titles relating to the sciences; these materials include, among other things, foreign doctoral dissertations in the sciences, the proceedings and reports of academic societies, catalogues of technical standards, etc. The NDL has a collection of 440,000 maps of Japan and other countries, including the topographica
Rhodes College is a private liberal arts college in Memphis, Tennessee. Accredited by the Southern Association of Colleges and Schools, Rhodes enrolls 2,000 students; the campus sits on a wooded site in the heart of historic Midtown Memphis. Due to the campus' natural beauty and distinctive Collegiate Gothic architecture, The Princeton Review named Rhodes the #1 Most Beautiful College Campus in America in its 2017 edition of The Best 381 Colleges. Rhodes has been named America's #1 Service-Oriented College by Newsweek, has been recognized by The Princeton Review, U. S. News, Fiske Guide to Colleges and Forbes. Rhodes is included in Colleges That Change Lives and The Princeton Review's Colleges That Create Futures: 50 Schools That Launch Careers By Going Beyond the Classroom. In the 2017 edition of The Princeton Review's Colleges That Pay You Back, Rhodes ranked #16 for Best Schools for Internships. Rhodes College was founded in 1848 in Clarksville, Tennessee as the Masonic University of Tennessee and was renamed Stewart College in 1850 in honor of its president, William M. Stewart.
Under Stewart's leadership in 1855, control of the college passed to the Presbyterian Church. The college's early growth paused during the American Civil War, during which its buildings served as a headquarters for the Union Army throughout the federal occupation of Clarksville; the war was costly for the young institution, as the campus suffered extensive damage and looting. The sad condition of campus and the slow recovery of the Southern economy made getting the college back on its feet a slow and difficult process. However, renewed support from the Presbyterian Church gave the college new life, leading Stewart College to be renamed Southwestern Presbyterian University in 1879. In 1885, the college added an undergraduate School of Theology under the leadership of Dr. Joseph R. Wilson, father of President Woodrow Wilson, which operated until 1917. However, by the early 20th century, the college had still not recovered from the Civil War and faced dwindling financial support and inconsistent enrollment.
Hoping to reverse the institution's fortunes, the board of directors hired Charles E. Diehl, the pastor of Clarksville's First Presbyterian Church, to take over as president. In order to revive the college, Diehl implemented a number of reforms: the admission of women in 1917, an honor code for students in 1918, the recruitment of Oxford-trained scholars to lead the implementation of an Oxford-Cambridge style of education. Diehl's application of an Oxbridge-style tutorial system, in which students study subjects in individual sessions with their professors, allowed the college to join Harvard as the only two colleges in the United States employing such a system. During Diehl's tenure as president, he would add more than a dozen Oxford-educated scholars to the faculty, their style of teaching would form the foundation of the modern Rhodes curriculum. However, President Diehl's most significant change to the college came in 1925, when he orchestrated the movement of Rhodes' campus from Clarksville to its present location in Memphis, Tennessee.
The move provided an increase in financial contributions and student enrollment, despite the Great Depression and World War II, the college began to grow. In 1945, the college adopted the name Southwestern at Memphis in order to distinguish itself from other colleges and universities containing the name "Southwestern."Charles Diehl retired in 1948, the Board of Trustees unanimously chose physics professor Dr. Payton N. Rhodes as his successor. During Rhodes' sixteen-year presidency the college admitted its first black students. In 1984, the Board of Trustees decided the name "Southwestern" needed to be retired, the college's name was changed to Rhodes College to honor the man who had served the institution for more than fifty years. Since 1984, Rhodes has grown into a nationally ranked liberal sciences college. Under the leadership of Dr. James Daughdrill and Dr. William E. Troutt, the college's physical expansion continued, Rhodes now offers more than 50 majors, interdisciplinary majors and academic programs.
Additionally, the school has built partnerships with numerous Memphis institutions to provide students with a network of research and internships opportunities. Today, Rhodes has the largest, most academically talented, diverse student body in its history. In July 2017, Dr. Marjorie Hass began her tenure as the 20th president of Rhodes College and is the college's first female president; the academic environment at Rhodes centers around small classes, faculty mentorship, an emphasis on student research and writing. The average class size is 14, the college has a 10:1 student-to-faculty ratio. In 2017, The Princeton Review ranked Rhodes #9 for Most Accessible Professors. Rhodes is featured perennially on the US News and Forbes lists of the Top 50 Liberal Arts Universities and has been hailed by Forbes as one of the Top 20 Colleges in the South. Through 18 academic departments and 13 interdisciplinary programs, Rhodes offers more than 50 majors, interdisciplinary majors and academic programs. If students are unable to find a major that meets their specific interests, the college may allow them to design their own major, better tailored to their goals.
Although the college is focused on undergraduate education, Rhodes offers graduate degrees
Schwab Foundation for Social Entrepreneurship
The Schwab Foundation for Social Entrepreneurship provides platforms at the country and global levels to promote social entrepreneurship. The Foundation is a not-for-profit organization, founded in 1998, its purpose is to "advance social entrepreneurship and to foster social entrepreneurs as an important catalyst for societal innovation and progress." The Foundation is under the legal supervision of the Swiss Federal Government. Its headquarters are in Switzerland; each year the Foundation selects 20-25 Social Entrepreneurs through a global “ Social Entrepreneur of the Year” competition. In 1998, Klaus and Hilde Schwab decided to create the independent not-for-profit Schwab Foundation for Social Entrepreneurship in 1998, its mission was to promote social innovation. It was a complementary foundation to the World Economic Forum which Klaus Schwab had founded in 1971. Pamela Hartigan, who joined in October 2000, was its first managing director; the Foundation is financed from the initial endowment provided by Klaus and Hilde Schwab plus grants and fees for services provided to individuals, foundations or companies.
The Foundation encourages community building between the activists it identifies.. It tries to encourage the spread of ideas and providing backing from corporations and political and communication leaders; the chosen social entrepreneurs are included in the Forum's initiatives and they serve on the Forum’s Global Agenda Councils. The Foundation works with selected companies to advance activities of social entrepreneurs and initiatives that support social entrepreneurship; the Foundation identifies rising social entrepreneurs under the age of 40 through its Forum of Young Global Leaders. Scholarship opportunities for executive education opportunities are offered to selected social entrepreneurs in conjunction with Harvard and Stanford Universities and INSEAD. Case studies on specific social entrepreneurs are provided to leading academic institutions to incorporate into undergraduate and graduate level courses; as of January 2015, the Foundation Board consisted of: Hilde Schwab Klaus Schwab Rick Aubry Paulo Coelho David Gergen Princess Mathilde of Belgium Zanele Mbeki Muhammad Yunus Schwab Foundation website
Georgetown University is a private research university in the Georgetown neighborhood of Washington, D. C. Founded in 1789 as Georgetown College, the university has grown to comprise nine undergraduate and graduate schools, among which are the School of Foreign Service, School of Business, Medical School, Law School. Located on a hill above the Potomac River, the school's main campus is identifiable by its flagship Healy Hall, a National Historic Landmark. Georgetown offers degree programs in forty-eight disciplines, enrolling an average of 7,500 undergraduate and 10,000 post-graduate students from more than 130 countries. Georgetown is the oldest Catholic and Jesuit-affiliated institution of higher education in the United States; the Jesuits have participated in the university's academic life, both as scholars and as administrators, since 1805. The majority of Georgetown students are not Catholic. Georgetown's notable alumni include U. S. President Bill Clinton, U. S. Supreme Court Justice Antonin Scalia, CIA Director George Tenet, King Felipe of Spain, as well as the royalty and heads of state of more than a dozen countries.
In 2015, Georgetown had 1190 alumni working as diplomats for the U. S. Foreign Service, more than any other university. In 2014, Georgetown ranked second in the nation by the average number of graduates serving in the U. S. Congress. Georgetown is a top feeder school for careers in consulting and investment banking on Wall Street. Georgetown is home to the country's largest student-run business, largest student-run financial institution, the oldest continuously running student theatre troupe, one of the oldest debating societies in the United States; the school's athletic teams are nicknamed the Hoyas and include a men's basketball team that has won a record-tying seven Big East championships, appeared in five Final Fours, won a national championship in 1984. The university has a co-ed sailing team that holds thirteen national championships and one world championship title. Jesuit settlers from England founded the Province of Maryland in 1634. However, the 1646 defeat of the Royalists in the English Civil War led to stringent laws against Roman Catholic education and the extradition of known Jesuits from the colony, including missionary Andrew White, the destruction of their school at Calverton Manor.
During most of the remainder of Maryland's colonial period, Jesuits conducted Catholic schools clandestinely. It was not until after the end of the American Revolution that plans to establish a permanent Catholic institution for education in the United States were realized; because of Benjamin Franklin's recommendation, Pope Pius VI appointed former Jesuit John Carroll as the first head of the Roman Catholic Church in the United States though the papal suppression of the Jesuit order was still in effect. Carroll began meetings of local clergy in 1783 near Annapolis, where they orchestrated the development of a new university. On January 23, 1789, Carroll finalized the purchase of the property in Georgetown on which Dahlgren Quadrangle was built. Future Congressman William Gaston was enrolled as the school's first student on November 22, 1791, instruction began on January 2, 1792. During its early years, Georgetown College suffered from considerable financial strain; the Maryland Society of Jesus began its restoration in 1805, Jesuit affiliation, in the form of teachers and administrators, bolstered confidence in the college.
The school relied on private sources of funding and the limited profits from local lands, donated to the Jesuits. To raise money for Georgetown and other schools in 1838, Maryland Jesuits conducted a mass sale of some 272 slaves to two Deep South plantations in Maringouin, Louisiana from their six in Maryland, ending their slaveholding. President James Madison signed into law Georgetown's congressional charter on March 1, 1815, creating the first federal university charter, which allowed it to confer degrees, with the first bachelor's degrees being awarded two years later. In 1844, the school received a corporate charter, under the name "The President and Directors of Georgetown College", affording the growing school additional legal rights. In response to the demand for a local option for Roman Catholic students, the Medical School was founded in 1851; the U. S. Civil War affected Georgetown as 1,141 students and alumni enlisted in one army or the other, the Union Army commandeered university buildings.
By the time of President Abraham Lincoln's May 1861 visit to campus, 1,400 troops were living in temporary quarters there. Due to the number of lives lost in the war, enrollment levels remained low until well after the war. Only seven students graduated in 1869, down from over 300 in the previous decade; when the Georgetown College Boat Club, the school's rowing team, was founded in 1876 it adopted two colors: blue, used for Union uniforms, gray, used for Confederate uniforms. These colors signified the peaceful unity among students. Subsequently, the school adopted these as its official colors. Enrollment did not recover until during the presidency of Patrick Francis Healy from 1873 to 1881. Born in Georgia as a slave by law and mixed-race by ancestry, Healy was the first head of a predominantly white American university of acknowledged African descent, he identified as Irish Catholic, like his father, was educated in Catholic schools in the United States and France. He is credited with reforming the undergraduate curriculum, lengthening the medical and law programs, creating the Alumni Association.
One of his largest undertakings was the construction of a major new building, subsequently named Healy Hall in his honor. For his work, Healy is known as the school's "second fo
John Glenn College of Public Affairs
The John Glenn College of Public Affairs is a public policy and management school at The Ohio State University. The Glenn College offers undergraduate and doctoral programs in public affairs; the Glenn College provides research and technical assistance to state and nonprofit organizations. The college is named after Astronaut John Glenn. On January 30, 2015, the Ohio State University Board of Trustees approved a change of status of the former John Glenn School of Public Affairs making the new John Glenn College of Public Affairs the 15th college at The Ohio State University; the school was formed through a June 30, 2006 merger of the John Glenn Institute and the university's School of Public Policy and Management. The John Glenn Institute was founded in 1998 as a public service and professional development institute; the School of Public Policy and Management was a part of the College of Commerce College of Social and Behavioral Sciences after its 1969 founding. The Glenn College is home to the Battelle Center for Science & Technology Policy and the Ohio Education Research Center.
The college has a Washington, D. C. office that works with government agencies and NGOs and is the headquarters of the college's Washington Academic Internship Program. According to the U. S. News & World Report in 2018, the Glenn College, is ranked No. 18 among the 282 public affairs schools nationwide and No. 1 in Ohio. Additionally, five of the College's graduate specialties have been ranked in the top 10% by U. S. News & World Report; these specialties are Nonprofit Management, Public Management and Leadership, Urban Policy, Public Policy Analysis and Public Budgeting and Finance. The Glenn College was ranked No. 13 in Public Administration by Academic Ranking of World Universities. According to the College 600 students participate in the Glenn College. Students of the Master's degree programs in 2018 were about 51% males and 49% females, with Underrepresented minorities making up nearly 21%; the Undergraduate degree programs have an underrepresented minority rate of 25%. The average GPA of the graduate admissions is 3.6 with an average GRE Quantitative percentile of 56.6.
The college offers a Bachelor of Arts in Public Management and Policy and a Bachelor of Science in Public Policy Analysis. The college offers a Master of Arts in Public Policy and Management and Master of Public Administration, a PhD in Public Policy and Management; the Glenn College is located in Page Hall, a building opened in 1903 and occupied by the law school, the business school, offices of the Ohio Department of Health, the old College of Commerce and Journalism, the College of Music. The predecessor John Glenn Institute moved into Page Hall after its 2003–2005 renovation; the $16 million renovation gutted the interior. A crowd of nearly 500 watched the rededication on March 3, 2005, with speeches delivered by former Senator John Glenn, Columbus Mayor Michael B. Coleman, Ohio Supreme Court Chief Justice Thomas J. Moyer, Ohio State President Karen A. Holbrook and Tami Longaberger, chair of the Ohio State Board of Trustees. There are over 3,000 graduates of the school's various degree programs.
The following is a list of some notable graduates. Sherrod Brown, U. S. Senator Michael R. White, Former Mayor Cleveland, Ohio Glenn Hahn Cope and Vice Chancellor for Academic Affairs at University of Missouri–St. Louis, former President of the American Society for Public Administration, former Vice Dean of the Lyndon B. Johnson School of Public Affairs Dan Crippen, former Director of the Congressional Budget Office H. Brinton Milward, Associate Dean and Director of the School of Public Administration and Policy at the Eller College of Management, University of Arizona Hal G. Rainey, Alumni Foundation Distinguished Professor, Department of Public Administration and Policy at The University of Georgia Paolo DeMaria, Ohio Superintendent of Public Instruction "Senate approves new John Glenn School of Public Affairs". OnCampus. 2006-03-15. Retrieved 2007-01-22. Dawn, Kurkot. "Kiplinger journalists visit, study at Ohio State". The Lantern. Retrieved 2007-01-22. DiGiulio, Laura. "New center to examine sports and society".
The Lantern. Retrieved 2007-01-22. Aly, R. H.. "New home for historic degree: OSU Journalism's Kiplinger program gets kick start at Glenn Institute". The Lantern. Retrieved 2007-01-22. Reese, Jeff. "Glenn Institute hosts talk". The Lantern. Retrieved 2007-01-22. John Glenn College of Public Affairs Battelle Center for Science and Technology Policy
Marquette University is a private research university in Milwaukee, Wisconsin. Established by the Society of Jesus as Marquette College on August 28, 1881, it was founded by John Martin Henni, the first Bishop of Milwaukee; the university was named after 17th-century missionary and explorer Father Jacques Marquette, with the intention to provide an affordable Catholic education to the area's emerging German immigrant population. An all-male institution, Marquette became the first coed Catholic university in the world in 1909, when it began admitting its first female students. Marquette is one of 28 member institutions of the Association of Jesuit Universities; the university is accredited by the Higher Learning Commission and has a student body of about 12,000. Marquette is one of the largest Jesuit universities in the United States, the largest private university in Wisconsin. Marquette is organized into 11 schools and colleges at its main Milwaukee campus, offering programs in the liberal arts, communications, engineering and various health sciences disciplines.
The university administers classes in suburbs around the Milwaukee area and in Washington, DC. While most students are pursuing undergraduate degrees, the university has over 68 doctoral and masters degree programs, a law school, a dental school, 22 graduate certificate programs; the university's varsity athletic teams, known as the Golden Eagles, are members of the Big East Conference and compete in the NCAA's Division I in all sports. In 2019, U. S. News & World Report ranked Marquette #89 among national universities. Forbes ranked Marquette #86 among American research universities and #173 on its top colleges list in 2017. Marquette University was founded 138 years ago on August 28, 1881, as Marquette College by John Martin Henni, the first Catholic bishop of the Archdiocese of Milwaukee, with the assistance of funding from Belgian businessman Guillaume Joseph DeBuey; the university was named after explorer Father Jacques Marquette. The highest priority of the newly established college was to provide an affordable Catholic education to the area's emerging German immigrant population.
The first five graduates of Marquette College received their bachelor of arts degrees in 1887. Between 1891 and 1906, the college employed one full-time lay professor, with many classes being taught by master's students. By 1906, Marquette had awarded 186 students the Bachelor of Arts, 38 the Master of Arts, one student Bachelor of Science. Marquette College became a university in 1907, after it became affiliated with a local medical school and moved to its present location. Johnston Hall, which now houses the university's College of Communication, was the first building erected on the new campus grounds. Marquette University High School the preparatory department of the university, became a separate institution the same year. In 1908, Marquette opened an engineering college and purchased two law schools, which would become the foundation of its current law program. An all-male institution, Marquette University became the first coed Catholic university in the world, when it admitted its first female students in 1909.
By 1916 its female students had increased to 375. Marquette acquired the Wisconsin College of Physicians and Surgeons in 1913, leading to the formation of the Marquette University School of Medicine. During the 1920s and again during the post-World War II years, Marquette expanded, opening a new library, athletics facilities, classroom buildings, residence halls; the student population increased markedly as well, met by the construction of buildings for the schools of law, business and the liberal arts. Marquette is credited with offering the first degree program specializing in hospital administration in the United States, graduated the first two students in 1927. Despite the promising growth of the university, financial constraints led to the School of Medicine separating from Marquette in 1967 to become the Medical College of Wisconsin. Marquette's Golden Avalanche football team was disbanded in December 1960, basketball became the leading spectator sport at the university. Graduate programs in the liberal arts and sciences, for which planning had begun in the preceding decade, were opened in the 1970s.
In 1977, the university celebrated the victory of their men's basketball team over the University of North Carolina to win the NCAA Championship title. In 1994, then-President Albert J. DiUlio made a controversial decision to discontinue the use of the "Warriors" nickname for the university's sports teams, citing growing pressure on schools to end the use of Native American mascots. Backlash from alumni and students ensued, though the administration and Marquette community settled on the nickname "Golden Eagles." The mascot controversy again boiled over in 2005 when the university's leadership changed the nickname to "the Gold," only to return to the "Golden Eagles" a week later. During the 1990s, the university invested in the neighborhood surrounding Marquette with its $50 million Campus Circle Project, it opened a Washington, D. C.-based study center called the Les Aspin Center for Government, named after the former Secretary of Defense. MBA programs and the College of Professional Studies, with programs aimed at adult education, were founded during the mid-1990s.
In 1996, Robert A. Wild was installed as the university's 22nd president and shortly thereafter began a fundraising campaign that culminated in a major campus beautification effort and the construction of
Sociology is the scientific study of society, patterns of social relationships, social interaction, culture of everyday life. It is a social science that uses various methods of empirical investigation and critical analysis to develop a body of knowledge about social order and change or social evolution. While some sociologists conduct research that may be applied directly to social policy and welfare, others focus on refining the theoretical understanding of social processes. Subject matter ranges from the micro-sociology level of individual agency and interaction to the macro level of systems and the social structure; the different traditional focuses of sociology include social stratification, social class, social mobility, secularization, sexuality and deviance. As all spheres of human activity are affected by the interplay between social structure and individual agency, sociology has expanded its focus to other subjects, such as health, economy and penal institutions, the Internet, social capital, the role of social activity in the development of scientific knowledge.
The range of social scientific methods has expanded. Social researchers draw upon a variety of quantitative techniques; the linguistic and cultural turns of the mid-20th century led to interpretative and philosophic approaches towards the analysis of society. Conversely, the end of the 1990s and the beginning of the 2000s have seen the rise of new analytically and computationally rigorous techniques, such as agent-based modelling and social network analysis. Social research informs politicians and policy makers, planners, administrators, business magnates, social workers, non-governmental organizations, non-profit organizations, people interested in resolving social issues in general. There is a great deal of crossover between social research, market research, other statistical fields. Sociological reasoning predates the foundation of the discipline. Social analysis has origins in the common stock of Western knowledge and philosophy, has been carried out from as far back as the time of ancient Greek philosopher Plato, if not before.
The origin of the survey, i.e. the collection of information from a sample of individuals, can be traced back to at least the Domesday Book in 1086, while ancient philosophers such as Confucius wrote about the importance of social roles. There is evidence of early sociology in medieval Arab writings; some sources consider Ibn Khaldun, a 14th-century Arab Islamic scholar from North Africa, to have been the first sociologist and father of sociology. The word sociology is derived from both Greek origins; the Latin word: socius, "companion". It was first coined in 1780 by the French essayist Emmanuel-Joseph Sieyès in an unpublished manuscript. Sociology was defined independently by the French philosopher of science, Auguste Comte in 1838 as a new way of looking at society. Comte had earlier used the term social physics, but that had subsequently been appropriated by others, most notably the Belgian statistician Adolphe Quetelet. Comte endeavoured to unify history and economics through the scientific understanding of the social realm.
Writing shortly after the malaise of the French Revolution, he proposed that social ills could be remedied through sociological positivism, an epistemological approach outlined in The Course in Positive Philosophy and A General View of Positivism. Comte believed a positivist stage would mark the final era, after conjectural theological and metaphysical phases, in the progression of human understanding. In observing the circular dependence of theory and observation in science, having classified the sciences, Comte may be regarded as the first philosopher of science in the modern sense of the term. Comte gave a powerful impetus to the development of sociology, an impetus which bore fruit in the decades of the nineteenth century. To say this is not to claim that French sociologists such as Durkheim were devoted disciples of the high priest of positivism, but by insisting on the irreducibility of each of his basic sciences to the particular science of sciences which it presupposed in the hierarchy and by emphasizing the nature of sociology as the scientific study of social phenomena Comte put sociology on the map.
To be sure, beginnings can be traced back well beyond Montesquieu, for example, to Condorcet, not to speak of Saint-Simon, Comte's immediate predecessor. But Comte's clear recognition of sociology as a particular science, with a character of its own, justified Durkheim in regarding him as the father or founder of this science, in spite of the fact that Durkheim did not accept the idea of the three states and criticized Comte's approach to sociology. Both Auguste Comte and Karl Marx set out to develop scientifically justified systems in the wake of European industrialization and secularization, informed by various key movements in the philosophies of history and science. Marx rejected Comtean positivism but in attempting to develop a science of society came to be recognized as a founder of sociology as the word gained wider meaning. For Isaiah Berlin, Marx may be regarded as the "true father" of modern sociology, "in so far as anyone can claim the title."To have given clear and unified answers in familiar empirical terms to those theor