Somerville is a city located directly to the northwest of Boston, in Middlesex County, United States. As of 2010, the United States Census lists the city with a total population of 75,754 people, making it the most densely populated municipality in New England; as of 2010, it was the 16th most densely populated incorporated municipality in the country. Somerville was established as a town in 1842. In 2006, the city was named the best-run city in Massachusetts by the Boston Globe. In 1972, in 2009, again in 2015, the city received the All-America City Award, it is home to Tufts University, which has its campus along the Medford border. The territory now comprising the city of Somerville was first settled in 1629 as part of Charlestown. In 1629, English surveyor Thomas Graves led a scouting party of 100 Puritans from the settlement of Salem to prepare the site for the Great Migration of Puritans from England. Graves was attracted to the narrow Mishawum Peninsula between the Charles River and the Mystic River, linked to the mainland at the present-day Sullivan Square.
The area of earliest settlement was based at City Square on the peninsula, though the territory of Charlestown included all of what is now Somerville, as well as Medford, Malden, Melrose, Woburn and parts of Arlington and Cambridge. From that time until 1842, the area of present-day Somerville was referred to as "beyond the Neck" in reference to the thin spit of land, the Charlestown Neck, that connected it to the Charlestown Peninsula; the first European settler in Somerville of whom there is any record was John Woolrich, an Indian trader who came from the Charlestown Peninsula in 1630, settled near Dane Street. Others soon followed Woolrich; the population continued to increase, by 1775 there were about 500 inhabitants scattered across the area. Otherwise, the area was used as grazing and farmland, it was once known as the "Stinted Pasture" or "Cow Commons", as early settlers of Charlestown had the right to pasture a certain number of cows in the area. John Winthrop, the first colonial governor of the Massachusetts Bay Colony, was granted 600 acres of land in the area in 1631.
Named for the ten small knolls located on the property, Ten Hills Farm extended from the Craddock Bridge in present-day Medford Center to Convent Hill in East Somerville. Winthrop lived and raised cattle on the farm, it is where he launched the first ship in Massachusetts, the "Blessing of the Bay". Built for trading purposes in the early 1630s, it was soon armed for use as a patrol boat for the New England coast, it is seen as a precursor to the United States Navy. The neighborhood Ten Hills, located in the northeastern part of the city, has retained the name for over 300 years. New research has found that less than a decade after John Winthrop moved to the farm in 1631, there were enslaved Native American prisoners of war on the property; each successive owner of Ten Hills Farm would depend upon slavery's profits until the 1780s, when Massachusetts abolished the practice. In a short time, the settlers began laying out roads in all directions in search of more land for planting and trade with various Native American tribes in the area.
Laid out as early as the mid-1630s, the earliest highway in Somerville was what is now Washington Street, led from present-day Sullivan Square to Harvard Square. In its earliest days, Washington Street was known as the "Road to Newtowne". During the 1700s and early 1800s, Washington Street, together with Somerville Avenue, comprised "Milk Row", a route favored by Middlesex County dairy farmers as the best way to get to the markets of Charlestown and Boston. Laid out in 1636, Broadway was the second highway built in the area. Called "Menotomie's Road", it ran from the Charlestown Neck to the settlement at Menotomy. Bordered by farmsteads, Broadway would come into its own as a commercial thoroughfare after horse-drawn trolleys were introduced to the highway in 1858. Somerville was home to one of the first hostile acts of the American Revolutionary War; the theft of colonial gunpowder by British soldiers, the massive popular reaction that ensued, are considered to be a turning point in the events leading up to war.
First built by settlers for use as a windmill in the early 1700s, the Old Powder House was sold to the colonial government of Massachusetts for use as a gunpowder magazine in 1747. Located at the intersection of Broadway and College Avenue in present-day Powder House Square, the Old Powder House held the largest supply of gunpowder in all of Massachusetts. General Thomas Gage, who had become the military governor of Massachusetts in May 1774, was charged with enforcement of the unpopular Intolerable Acts, which British Parliament had passed in response to the Boston Tea Party. Seeking to prevent the outbreak of war, he believed that the best way to accomplish this was by secretly removing military stores from storehouses and arsenals in New England. Just after dawn on September 1, 1774, a force of 260 British regulars from the 4th Regiment, under the command of Lieutenant Colonel George Maddison, were rowed in secrecy up the Mystic River from Boston to a landing point near Winter Hill. From there they marched about a mile to the Powder House, after sunrise removed all of the gunpowder.
Most of the regulars returned to Boston the way they had come, but a small contingent marched on to Cambridge, seizing two field pieces from the Cambridge Common. The field pieces and powder were taken from Boston to the British stronghold on Castle Island known as Castle Wi
Meiji-mura is an open-air architectural museum/theme park in Inuyama, near Nagoya in Aichi prefecture, Japan. It was opened on March 18, 1965; the museum preserves historic buildings from Japan's Meiji and early Shōwa periods. Over 60 historical buildings have been moved and reconstructed onto 1 square kilometre of rolling hills alongside Lake Iruka; the most noteworthy building there is the reconstructed main entrance and lobby of Frank Lloyd Wright's landmark Imperial Hotel, which stood in Tokyo from 1923 to 1967, when the main structure was demolished to make way for a new, larger version of the hotel. The Meiji era was a period of rapid change in Japan. After centuries of isolation, Japan began to incorporate ideas from the west, including building styles and construction techniques. Meiji-mura was started by Yoshirō Taniguchi, an architect, Motoo Tsuchikawa vice president and president of Nagoya Railroad. While riding the Yamanote line in Tokyo, Taniguchi lamented the sight of the demolition of the Rokumeikan, a symbol of Meiji era architecture.
He appealed to his college classmate Tsuchikawa to join him in working to preserve western style Meiji era buildings of cultural or historical importance. On July 16, 1962 they formed a foundation for this purpose, with Nagoya Railroad providing the funding. Meiji-mura was opened on March 18, 1965 on the banks of the Lake Iruka reservoir, operated under Nagoya Railroad with Taniguchi as museum director, with 15 buildings. Meiji-mura's goal is to preserve these historic early examples of western architecture mixed with Japanese construction techniques and materials. Incidentally, many of the buildings were saved from demolition during the post World War II period, another time of transition and rapid progress in Japanese history. Though it is still operated by Nagoya Railroad, a subsidiary company was created in 2003 to oversee it and nearby Little World. Due to the recent financial declines with Nagoya Railroad the future of the park is in question. While renovations had been put on hold for a time, work on moving the Shibakawa Yashiki from Nishinomiya, Kobe was begun in January 2005.
Notable buildings of historical or cultural importance including those of eras are preserved, including a few Japanese style buildings. Nine of the buildings are designated as Important Cultural Assets, nearly all the rest are registered as tangible cultural assets; the museum includes buildings from Hawaii and Seattle in the United States, Brazil. A steam locomotive and street car, along with shuttle buses and horse-drawn carriages, provide transportation within the grounds. An operational historic post office is included among the 67 buildings. Though some buildings are somewhat empty, others have displays showing the history of the building and period, period furniture, other displays; the entrance and lobby of the Imperial Hotel was saved and moved from Tokyo between 1967 and 1985. Though only the entrance and lobby remain, it is the largest structure in Meiji Mura. Other structures preserved at Meiji Mura include Lafcadio Hearn's summer house from Shizuoka, St. John's Church from Kyoto designed by James McDonald Gardiner and Kyoto's old St. Francis Xavier Catholic Cathedral.
The former cathedral is available to rent for weddings. One of the traditional merchant houses that survived from Nagoya is the Tōmatsu House, constructed in 1901 in Funairi-chō, Nagoya, it was relocated to the museum in the 1970s. It has been designated by the government as an Important Cultural Property. Famous Japanese actors have served as honorary village chief. Musei Tokugawa Hisaya Morishige Shoichi Ozawa Sawako Agawa Showa-mura Taisho-mura Treaty of Portsmouth, 1905 – see table used by Russian and Japanese negotiators Edo-Tokyo Open Air Architectural Museum Greenfield Village Media related to Meiji-mura at Wikimedia Commons Official Meiji Mura site Article on Meiji Mura from Time Asia 2004/08/30
Demolition, or razing, is the science and engineering in safely and efficiently tearing down of buildings and other man-made structures. Demolition contrasts with deconstruction, which involves taking a building apart while preserving valuable elements for reuse purposes. For small buildings, such as houses, that are only two or three stories high, demolition is a rather simple process; the building is pulled down either manually or mechanically using large hydraulic equipment: elevated work platforms, excavators or bulldozers. Larger buildings may require the use of a wrecking ball, a heavy weight on a cable, swung by a crane into the side of the buildings. Wrecking balls are effective against masonry, but are less controlled and less efficient than other methods. Newer methods may use rotational hydraulic shears and silenced rock-breakers attached to excavators to cut or break through wood and concrete; the use of shears is common when flame cutting would be dangerous. The tallest planned demolition of a building was the 47-story Singer Building in New York City, built in 1908 and torn down in 1967–1968 to be replaced by One Liberty Plaza.
Before any demolition activities can take place, there are many steps that must be carried out beforehand, including performing asbestos abatement, removing hazardous or regulated materials, obtaining necessary permits, submitting necessary notifications, disconnecting utilities, rodent baiting and the development of site-specific safety and work plans. The typical razing of a building is accomplished as follows: Hydraulic excavators may be used to topple one- or two-story buildings by an undermining process; the strategy is to undermine the building while controlling the manner and direction in which it falls. The demolition project manager/supervisor will determine where undermining is necessary so that a building is pulled in the desired manner and direction; the walls are undermined at a building's base, but this is not always the case if the building design dictates otherwise. Safety and cleanup considerations are taken into account in determining how the building is undermined and demolished.
In some cases a crane with a wrecking ball is used to demolish the structure down to a certain manageable height. At that point undermining takes place; however crane mounted demolition balls are used within demolition due to the uncontrollable nature of the swinging ball and the safety implications associated. High reach demolition excavators are more used for tall buildings where explosive demolition is not appropriate or possible. Excavators with shear attachments are used to dismantle steel structural elements. Hydraulic hammers are used for concrete structures and concrete processing attachments are used to crush concrete to a manageable size, to remove reinforcing steel. For tall concrete buildings, where neither explosive nor high reach demolition with an excavator is safe or practical, the "inside-out" method is used, whereby remotely operated mini-excavators demolish the building from the inside, whilst maintaining the outer walls of the building as a scaffolding, as each floor is demolished.
To control dust, fire hoses are used to maintain a wet demolition. Hoses may be secured in fixed location, or attached to lifts to gain elevation. Loaders or bulldozers may be used to demolish a building, they are equipped with "rakes" that are used to ram building walls. Skid loaders and loaders will be used to take materials out and sort steel; the technique of Vérinage is used in France to weaken and buckle the supports of central floors promoting the collapse of the top part of a building onto the bottom resulting in a rapid, collapse. The Japanese company Kajima Construction has developed a new method of demolishing buildings which involves using computer-controlled hydraulic jacks to support the bottom floor as the supporting columns are removed; the floor is lowered and this process is repeated for each floor. This technique is safer and more environmentally friendly, is useful in areas of high population density. To demolish bridges, hoe rams are used to remove the concrete road deck and piers, while hydraulic shears are used to remove the bridge's structural steel.
Large buildings, tall chimneys, smokestacks and some smaller structures may be destroyed by building implosion using explosives. Imploding a structure is fast—the collapse itself only takes seconds—and an expert can ensure that the structure falls into its own footprint, so as not to damage neighboring structures; this is essential for tall structures in dense urban areas. Any error can be disastrous and some demolitions have failed damaging neighboring structures. One significant danger is from flying debris, when improperly prepared for, can kill onlookers. Another dangerous scenario is the partial failure of an attempted implosion; when a building fails to collapse the structure may be unstable, tilting at a dangerous angle, filled with un-detonated but still primed explosives, making it difficult for workers to approach safely. A third danger comes from air overpressure. If the sky is clear, the shock wave, a wave of energy and sound, travels upwards and disperses, but if cloud coverage is low, the shock wave can travel outwards, breaking windows or causing other damage to surrounding buildings.
Stephanie Kegley of CST Environmental described shock waves by saying, "The shock wave is like a water hose. If you put your hand in front of the water as it comes out, it fans to all sides; when cloud coverage is below 1,2
Frank Jones (politician)
Frank Jones was a United States Representative from New Hampshire representing the 1st Congressional District from 1875 to 1879. He was the mayor of Portsmouth, New Hampshire, in 1868 and 1869. Frank Jones was born in Barrington, New Hampshire, on September 15, 1832, he attended the public schools in Barrington. He became a successful merchant and brewer, he owned businesses in Massachusetts. Jones, the mayor of Portsmouth in 1868 and 1869, elected as a Democrat to the Forty-fourth and Forty-fifth Congresses was not a candidate for renomination in 1878, he was the unsuccessful Democratic candidate for Governor of New Hampshire in 1880, losing to Republican Charles Henry Bell by only a few thousand votes, 44,432 to 40,813. Jones became involved with the Republican Party, he was disgusted over William Jennings Bryan's stand on Free Silver. He became interested in hotels. Jones rebuilt the stately Rockingham Hotel in Portsmouth and enlarged the Hotel Wentworth in New Castle. In Portsmouth, Jones built a mansion in the Second Empire style, with gardens and a horse track, completed in 1876.
He was a presidential elector on the Republican ticket in 1900. He died in Portsmouth, New Hampshire, on October 2, 1902, was buried in Harmony Grove Cemetery; the Frank Jones Brewery was one of the largest producers of ale in the United States of America. In 1896, Jones' Portsmouth brewery produced about 250,000 barrels a year. In 1889, Jones put his company's stock on the market in London; the new company was incorporated on May 17, 1889. In 1950, the Frank Jones Brewery closed after 90 years. United States Congress. "Frank Jones". Biographical Directory of the United States Congress. Brighton, Ray. Frank Jones: King of the Alemakers. Hampton, N. H.: Randall."History: Frank Jones Brewery". Retrieved 11 January 2009
The Algonquin Resort St. Andrews By-The-Sea
The Algonquin Resort is a Canadian coastal resort hotel in the Tudor Revival style, in St. Andrews, New Brunswick. An architectural icon of New Brunswick, the hotel is the most famous symbol of St. Andrews and one of the most photographed buildings in the province; the original Algonquin hotel was a massive wooden Shingle Style building built in 1889 by the St. Andrews Land Company, established in 1883 by American businessmen. Designed by a Boston architecture firm, it opened in June of that year. By the late 19th century, the residents of St. Andrews and businessmen from Montreal and New England helped to develop the summer tourism that the hotel was creating among residents of humid inland cities of North America; the entire hotel, except for two wings built in 1908 and 1912, succumbed to a 1914 fire and was destroyed. It was replaced on its same footprint by the present four-story Tudor Revival concrete replacement with a faux half-timbered façade and red slate roof; the architects of the 1914 hotel were Blackadder & Webster of Montreal.
Large additional wings were added in the early 2010s. One of the original Algonquin's best known attractions was its saltwater baths. Saltwater was pumped from Passamaquoddy Bay to the hotel atop the hill overlooking St. Andrews and held in water tanks in the hotel attic. Guests used bathtubs designed with two for fresh water and two for saltwater. In addition to the saltwater baths, the air offered by the Bay of Fundy, along with the local "Samson Spring" were believed to offer healing properties to guests. Advertising proclaiming "No hay fever here" and "A general air of restfulness" attracted many wealthy tourists, some of whom established elaborate summer "cottages" in the town of St. Andrews and its surrounding countryside; the New Brunswick Railway operated the rail line serving St. Andrews. One of the principal private shareholders of the NBR was the first president of the CPR, George Stephen. Stephen started the process which would see CPR purchase the NBR, as well as build a line across Maine from southern Quebec to connect with the rail network - what would be known as the International Railway of Maine.
In 1888, Stephen retired and was replaced by William Cornelius Van Horne, who on July 1, 1890, oversaw the Canadian Pacific Railway's lease of the NBR for 990 years. That summer, Van Horne visited St. Andrews, staying in its resort hotel. Van Horne, a Montreal resident, purchased nearby Minister's Island and soon began construction of his "Covenhoven" estate, which still stands today. Van Horne retired from the presidency in 1899. In 1903, the Canadian Pacific Railway Company purchased The Algonquin and built golf courses as well as bringing the hotel into its hotel chain. A 1902 CPR promotional brochure describes The Algonquin as follows: "an incomparable resting-place and retreat from the cares of business and the heat and dust and bustle of the city" Under CPR ownership, the resort operated with numerous guests during the 20th century; as the majority of guests arrived at St. Andrews by passenger train, CPR built a large transfer station at the junction between the St. Andrews line and the Saint John-Montreal main line in McAdam.
This station included a large 30-room hotel on its second floor built to service the patrons of the St. Andrews resort. In 1970, CPR sold The Algonquin Resort to local interests, it was leased by the Government of New Brunswick in 1973. The property, along with adjacent golf courses and private beach at Katy's Cove was purchased by the provincial government in 1984. Throughout this period of change in ownership of the property, the resort was continuously contracted to operate under and be marketed by Canadian Pacific Hotels and Resorts. In 1999, CPR purchased Resorts. In 2001, Canadian Pacific Hotels and Resorts were consolidated under the Fairmont name; that year in October 2001, Canadian Pacific Limited spun off its subsidiaries, including Fairmont Hotels and Resorts into individually controlled companies. The hotel's guests have included heads of state and royalty, including Presidents of the United States Theodore Roosevelt, Franklin Delano Roosevelt, Lyndon B. Johnson, HRH Prince Charles and Diana, Princess of Wales, as well as Sir John A. Macdonald and every Prime Minister of Canada since its Confederation.
In late 2010, the Fairmont chain asked the government of New Brunswick for a set amount of money in order to refit the property on a large scale. After deliberation, the province took the decision in early 2011 that they would seek different management for the property other than the Fairmont chain. From 31 Dec 2011 the Fairmont web site stated that the Fairmont would no longer be managing the property, that all Fairmont club benefits for guests would cease after that date; the hotel was sold in 2012 to New Castle Hotels and Resorts and Southwest Properties, which formed the Charlotte County Hospitality Partnership, in 2012 underwent renovation and restoration. In 2013 the resort was reopened as a property of Marriott's Autograph Collection, making it the first Canadian hotel in the Marriott chain. Official website The Algonquin: On Passamaquoddy Bay--A History of the Hotel and Town Pillow Talk: The Fairmont Algonquin in St Andrews, New Brunswick
Treaty of Portsmouth
The Treaty of Portsmouth formally ended the 1904–05 Russo-Japanese War. It was signed on September 5, 1905 after negotiations lasting from August 6 to August 30, at the Portsmouth Naval Shipyard in Kittery, United States. U. S. President Theodore Roosevelt was instrumental in the negotiations and won the Nobel Peace Prize for his efforts; the war of 1904–05 was fought between the Empire of Russia, an international power with one of the largest armies in the world, the Empire of Japan, a nation which had only industrialized after two-and-a-half centuries of isolation. A series of battles in the Liaodong Peninsula had resulted in Russian armies being driven from southern Manchuria, the Battle of Tsushima had resulted in a cataclysm for the Imperial Russian Navy; the war was unpopular with the Russian public, the Russian government was under increasing threat of revolution at home. On the other hand, the Japanese economy was strained by the war, with mounting foreign debts, its forces in Manchuria faced the problem of ever-extending supply lines.
No Russian territory had been seized, the Russians continued to build up reinforcements via the Trans-Siberian Railway. Recognizing that a long-term war was not to Japan's advantage, as early as July 1904 the Japanese government had begun seeking out intermediaries to assist in bringing the war to a negotiated conclusion; the intermediary approached by the Japanese side was the United States President Theodore Roosevelt, who had publicly expressed a pro-Japanese stance at the beginning of the war. However, as the war progressed, Roosevelt had begun to show concerns on the strengthening military power of Japan and its impact on long-term United States interests in Asia. In February 1905, Roosevelt sent messages to the Russian government via the US ambassador to St Petersburg; the Russians were unresponsive, with Tsar Nicholas II still adamant that Russia would prove victorious in time. At this point, the Japanese government was lukewarm to a peace treaty, as Japanese armies were enjoying an unbroken string of victories.
However, after the Battle of Mukden, costly to both sides in terms of manpower and resources, Japanese Foreign Minister Komura Jutarō judged that the time was now critical for Japan to push for a settlement. On March 8, 1905, Japanese Army Minister Terauchi Masatake met with the American minister to Japan, Lloyd Griscom, to convey word to Roosevelt that Japan was ready to negotiate. However, from the Russian side, a positive response did not come until after the loss of the Russian fleet at the Battle of Tsushima. Two days after the battle, Tsar Nicholas II met with his grand dukes and military leadership and agreed to discuss peace. On June 7, 1905, Roosevelt met with Kaneko Kentarō, a Japanese diplomat, on June 8 received a positive reply from Russia. Roosevelt chose Portsmouth, New Hampshire, as the site for the negotiations because the talks were to begin in August, the cooler climate in Portsmouth would avoid subjecting the parties to the sweltering Washington, D. C. summer. The Japanese delegation to the Portsmouth Peace Conference was led by Foreign Minister Komura Jutarō, assisted by ambassador to Washington Takahira Kogorō.
The Russian delegation was led by former Finance Minister Sergei Witte, assisted by former ambassador to Japan Roman Rosen and international law and arbitration specialist Friedrich Martens. The delegations arrived in Portsmouth on August 8 and stayed in New Castle, New Hampshire, at the Hotel Wentworth, were ferried across the Piscataqua River each day to the naval base in Kittery, where the negotiations were held; the negotiations took place at the General Stores Building. Mahogany furniture patterned after the Cabinet Room of the White House was ordered from Washington. Before the negotiations began Tsar Nicholas had adopted a hard line, forbidding his delegates to agree to any territorial concessions, reparations, or limitations on the deployment of Russian forces in the Far East; the Japanese demanded recognition of their interests in Korea, the removal of all Russian forces from Manchuria, substantial reparations. They wanted confirmation of their control of Sakhalin, which Japanese forces had seized in July 1905 for use as a bargaining chip in the negotiations.
A total of twelve sessions were held between August 9 and August 30. During the first eight sessions, the delegates were able to reach an agreement on eight points; these included an immediate cease-fire, recognition of Japan's claims to Korea, the evacuation of Russian forces from Manchuria. Russia was required to return its leases in southern Manchuria to China, to turn over the South Manchuria Railway and its mining concessions to Japan. Russia was allowed to retain the Chinese Eastern Railway in northern Manchuria; the remaining four sessions addressed the most difficult issues, those of reparations and territorial concessions. On August 18, Roosevelt proposed that Rosen offer to divide the island of Sakhalin to address the territory issue. On August 23, Witte proposed that the Japanese keep Sakhalin and drop their claims for reparations; when Komura rejected this proposal, Witte warned that he was instructed to cease negotiations and that the war would resume. This ultimatum came as four new Russian divisions arrived in Manchuria, the Russian delegation made an ostentatious show of packing their bags and preparing to depart.
Witte was convinced that the Japanese could not afford to restart the war, applied pressure via the American media and his American hosts to convince the Japanese that monetary compensation was something that Russia would never compromise on. Outmaneuvered by Wit
Marriott International is an American multinational diversified hospitality company that manages and franchises a broad portfolio of hotels and related lodging facilities. Founded by J. Willard Marriott, the company is now led by his son, Executive Chairman Bill Marriott, President and Chief Executive Officer Arne Sorenson. Headquartered in Bethesda, Maryland, in the Washington, D. C. metropolitan area, Marriott International is the largest hotel chain in the world. It has more than 6,500 properties in 127 countries and territories around the world, over 1.2 million rooms, an additional 195,000 rooms in the development pipeline. In 2017, Marriott was ranked #33 on Fortune's "100 Best Companies to Work For" list, its twentieth appearance on the list. Marriott was founded by John Willard Marriott in 1927 when he and his wife, Alice Sheets Marriott, opened a root beer stand in Washington, D. C; as a Latter-day Saint missionary in the humid summers in Washington, D. C. Marriott was convinced; the Marriotts expanded their enterprise into a chain of Hot Shoppes restaurants and the company went public in 1953 as Hot Shoppes, Inc.
The company opened its first hotel, the Twin Bridges Marriott Motor Hotel, in Arlington, Virginia, in 1957. Their second hotel, the Key Bridge Marriott in the Rosslyn neighborhood of the same city, is Marriott International’s longest continuously operating hotel, celebrated its 50th anniversary in 2009, their son, J. W. Marriott, Jr. led the company to spectacular worldwide growth during his more than 50-year career. In March 2012, at age 80, he turned the CEO responsibilities over to Arne Sorenson, while he assumed the title of Executive Chairman. Hot Shoppes, Inc. was renamed the Marriott Corporation in 1967. The company opened two theme parks in 1976. One Marriott's Great America was located outside Chicago, the other Marriott's Great America was located outside San Francisco. Marriott sold both properties in 1984. Marriott International was formed in 1993 when the Marriott Corporation split into two companies, Marriott International and Host Marriott Corporation. In 1995, Marriott was the first hotel company worldwide to offer guests the option to book reservations online, via the company's implementation of MARSHA.
In April 1995, Marriott International acquired a 49% interest in Ritz-Carlton Hotel Company LLC. Marriott International believed that it could increase sales and profit margins for The Ritz-Carlton, a troubled chain with a significant number of properties either losing money or breaking even; the cost to Marriott assumed debt. The next year, Marriott spent $331 million to take over The Ritz-Carlton and buy a majority interest in two properties owned by William Johnson, a real estate developer who had purchased The Ritz-Carlton, Boston in 1983 and expanded his Ritz-Carlton holdings over the next twenty years; the Ritz-Carlton began expansion into the lucrative timeshare market and undertook other new initiatives made financially possible by the deep pockets of Marriott, which lent its own in-house expertise in certain areas. There were other benefits for Ritz-Carlton flowing from its relationship with Marriott, such as being able to take advantage of the parent company's reservation system and buying power.
The partnership was solidified in 1998 when Marriott acquired a majority ownership of The Ritz-Carlton. Today, there are 91 Ritz-Carlton properties around the world; the Marriott World Trade Center was destroyed during the attacks. In 2002 Marriott International began a major restructuring by spinning off many Senior Living Services Communities and Marriott Distribution Services, so that it could focus on hotel ownership and management; the changes were completed in 2003. Marriott International owned Ramada International Hotels & Resorts until its sale on September 15, 2004 to Cendant. In 2005, Marriott International and Marriott Vacation Club International comprised two of the 53 entities that contributed the maximum of $250,000 to the second inauguration of President George W. Bush. On July 19, 2006, Marriott announced that all lodging buildings it operated in the United States and Canada would become non-smoking beginning September 2006. "The new policy includes all guest rooms, lounges, meeting rooms, public space and employee work areas."
There were bombings at the Islamabad Marriott in 2008 and at the Jakarta Marriott in 2009. On November 11, 2010, Marriott announced plans to add over 600 hotel properties by 2015; the bulk of the additions will be in emerging markets: India, where it plans to have 100 hotel properties and Southeast Asia. On January 21, 2011, Marriott said that pornography would not be included in the entertainment offered at new hotels, which will use an Internet-based video on demand system. On December 13, 2011, J. W. Marriott, Jr. announced he would be stepping down as CEO of the company, while assuming the role of executive chairman. It was announced that Arne Sorenson would be taking over as CEO as of March 2012. U. S. Republican presidential candidate Mitt Romney released his 2011 federal income taxes on September 21, 2012, showing that he declared $260,390 in director's fees from Marriott International, despite the fact that news was released on January 13, 2011, that he had stepped down from the Marriott International board to run for president.
His released. In February 2012, Bloomberg reported on Romney's years overseeing tax matters for Marriott, which had included several "scams" (quoting S