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In late Egyptian mythology, Wepwawet was a war deity, whose cult centre was Asyut in Upper Egypt. His name means opener of the ways and he is depicted as a wolf standing at the prow of a solar-boat; some interpret that Wepwawet was seen as a scout, going out to clear routes for the army to proceed forward. One inscription from the Sinai states. Wepwawet was seen as a wolf deity, thus the Greek name of Lycopolis, meaning city of wolves, it is the case that Wepwawet was just a symbol of the pharaoh, seeking to associate with wolf-like attributes, that became deified as a mascot to accompany the pharaoh. Wepwawet was said to accompany the pharaoh on hunts, in which capacity he was titled sharp arrow more powerful than the gods alone. Over time, the connection to war, thus to death, led to Wepwawet being seen as one who opened the ways to, through, for the spirits of the dead. Through this, the similarity of the jackal to the wolf, Wepwawet became associated with Anubis, a deity, worshiped in Asyut being considered his son.

Seen as a jackal, he was said to be Set's son. Wepwawet is confused with Anubis; this deity appears in the Temple of Seti I at Abydos. In Egyptian art, Wepwawet was depicted as a wolf or a jackal, or as a man with the head of a wolf or a jackal; when considered a jackal, Wepwawet was shown with grey, or white fur, reflecting his lupine origins. He was depicted dressed as a soldier, as well as carrying other military equipment -- a bow. For what is considered to be lauding purposes of the pharaohs, a myth was circulated claiming that Wepwawet was born at the sanctuary of Wadjet, the sacred site for the oldest goddess of Lower Egypt, located in the heart of Lower Egypt. Wepwawet, who had hitherto been the standard of Upper Egypt alone, formed an integral part of royal rituals, symbolizing the unification of Egypt. In pyramid texts, Wepwawet is called "Ra" who has gone up from the horizon as the "opener" of the sky. In the Egyptian funerary context, Wepwawet assists at the Opening of the mouth ceremony and guides the deceased into the netherworld.

The Egyptian jackal known as the African wolf or wolf jackal is listed as a subspecies of the golden jackal but molecular and osteological data has established that it is a unique species in its own right. It is native to Egypt and Ethiopia, though its post-Pleistocene range once encompassed the Palestine region, its closest relatives are the Abyssinian wolf known as the red wolf and the king jackal, the Indian wolf. The dogs of ancient Egypt were domesticated subspecies of one or more of these enigmatic species. Media related to Wepwawet at Wikimedia Commons

William Bruges

William Bruges was an English officer of arms. He is best remembered as the first person appointed to the post of Garter King of Arms, the highest heraldic office in England. William Bruges was the son of Richard Bruges, Lancaster King of Arms, his wife Katherine; the younger Bruges was appointed Chester Herald on 7 June 1398. He was attached to the household of Henry of Monmouth Prince of Wales, Earl of Chester, Duke of Aquitaine, it is believed that Bruges was promoted to Guyenne King of Arms on the accession of Henry V and was sent to France in that capacity in early 1414. In February 1416, as Aquitaine King of Arms, Bruges was sent to emperor-elect, Sigismund, on royal business. At this time, the titles of Aquitaine and Guyenne were interchangeable; the position of King of Arms of the Order of the Garter known as Garter King of Arms, was created sometime around 1415, Bruges appointed to it. His father's will, dated July 1415, refers to William Bruges as both Guyenne and Garter King of Arms.

After this, the next mention of Bruges in the position is 13 September 1417. It was the first time a king of arms had been appointed for the service of an order of chivalry. By virtue of this office, he held permanent authority over the provincial kings of arms. Bruges's appointment as the first Garter King of Arms coincided with a series of moves to regulate heraldic matters. In June 1417 the king clamped down on the unauthorized wearing of coat armour. In September the duke of Clarence ruled on matters of precedence between the heralds and the serjeants-at-arms. In January 1421 the English heralds held their first chapter and directed that a common seal for that office be made. Resolutions were to govern the office of its members, with chapters summoned by Garter. In the same year, as part of Henry's revival of the Order of the Garter, some statutes of the order were revised and at about the same time many heraldic stall plates of former companions were set up in St. George's Chapel, Windsor.

Bruges was responsible for producing his Bruges Garter Book around 1430, the earliest known armorial of the order. In 1421 Bruges took part in the coronation of Queen Catherine, in the following year he officiated at Henry V's funeral. Under Henry VI there was scarcely a year in which he was not sent on at least one mission, sometimes staying abroad for many months, he was concerned with France, but he visited Normandy and Brittany, Flanders and Holland, Spain and Italy. In about 1450 he rebuilt at his own cost St George's Church in the town of Stamford, in Lincolnshire. In the chancel he set up a series of stained glass windows, at the east end and on either side of the choir, depicting the 25 Founder Knights of the Order of the Garter and of King Edward III the Sovereign of the Order and of St George, the patron saint; when Elias Ashmole visited the church in 1664 he reported concerning the stained glass images "I found so broken and defaced that no tolerable draft of them could be taken fit to exhibit to the reader's satisfaction".

John Anstis reported that only the images of three knights remained. Little remains of the windows today apart from a collection of garter panes in the north chancel window and a few fragments in the south window; however the structure of the church built by Bruges remains intact. He married, before 1415, Agnes Haddon, by whom he had three daughters including: Katherine Bruges, who married John Smert, who succeeded her father as Garter King of Arms. Bruges died on 9 March 1450 on his sizeable estate in Kentish Town, he was buried in St George's Church, the church he rebuilt and to which he bequeathed much property and vessels of gold and silver. College of Arms Citations BibliographyMark Noble, A History of the College of Arms.. Walter H Godfrey and Sir Anthony Wagner, The College of Arms, Queen Victoria Street: being the sixteenth and final monograph of the London Survey Committee.. Hugh Stanford London, The life of William Bruges, The First Garter King of Arms. Harleian Society. 111–12. Sir Anthony Wagner.

Heralds of England: a History of the Office and College of Arms.. Sir Anthony Wagner. A Catalogue of English Mediaeval Rolls of Arms. Harleian Society, 100. P. J. Begent; the Creation of the Office of Garter King of Arms. Coat of Arms, New Series Vol 11 No 172, 134–40; the College of Arms Heraldic List of Officers of Arms

Pieter Smith

Pieter Smith is a South African sprinter, who specialized in the 400 metres. He set his personal best time of 45.63 seconds by winning the 400 metres event at the 2009 South African Championships in Stellenbosch. Smith competed for the men's 4 × 400 m relay at the 2008 Summer Olympics in Beijing, along with his teammates L. J. van Zyl, Ofentse Mogawane, Alwyn Myburgh. He ran with an individual-split time of 45.74 seconds. Smith and his team finished the relay in sixth place for a seasonal best time of 3:01.26, failing to advance into the final. Smith is a varsity member for the Nebraska Huskers Track & Field Team, an economics graduate at the University of Nebraska in Lincoln, Nebraska. Pieter Smith at World Athletics Nebraska profile

High Court of Australia

The High Court of Australia is the highest court in the Australian court hierarchy and the final court of appeal. It has both original and appellate jurisdiction, the power of judicial review over laws passed by the Parliament of Australia and the parliaments of the states and territories, the ability to interpret the Constitution of Australia and thereby shape the development of federalism in Australia; the High Court is mandated by section 71 of the Constitution, which vests in it the judicial power of the Commonwealth of Australia. The Court was constituted by, its first members were appointed under, the Judiciary Act 1903, it now operates under sections 71 to 75 of the Constitution, the Judiciary Act, the High Court of Australia Act 1979. It is composed of seven Justices: the Chief Justice of Australia Susan Kiefel, six other Justices, they are appointed by the Governor-General of Australia on the advice of the federal government, under the Constitution must retire at age 70. The High Court has had a permanent home in Canberra since 1979.

The majority of its sittings are held in the High Court building, situated in the Parliamentary Triangle overlooking Lake Burley Griffin. With an increasing utilisation of video links, sittings are often held in the state capitals; the High Court exercises appellate jurisdiction. The High Court is the court of final appeal with the ability to interpret the common law for the whole of Australia, not just the state or territory in which the matter arose; the High Court's broad jurisdiction is similar to that of the Supreme Court of Canada and unlike the Supreme Court of the United States which has a more limited jurisdiction. As such, the court is able to develop the common law across all the states and territories; this role, alongside its role in constitutional interpretation, is one of the court's most significant. As Sir Owen Dixon said on his swearing in as Chief Justice of Australia: "The High Court's jurisdiction is divided in its exercise between constitutional and federal cases which loom so in the public eye, the great body of litigation between man and man, or man and government, which has nothing to do with the Constitution, and, the principal preoccupation of the court."

This broad array of jurisdiction enables the High Court to take a leading role in Australian law and contributes to a consistency and uniformity among the laws of the different states. The original jurisdiction of the High Court refers to matters that are heard in the High Court; the Constitution confers potential original jurisdiction. Section 75 of the Constitution confers original jurisdiction in regard to "all matters": The conferral of original jurisdiction creates some problems for the High Court. For example, challenges against immigration-related decisions are brought against an officer of the Commonwealth within the original jurisdiction of the High Court. Section 76 provides that Parliament may confer original jurisdiction in relation to matters: Constitutional matters, referred to in section 76, have been conferred to the High Court by section 30 of the Judiciary Act 1903. However, the inclusion of constitutional matters in section 76, rather than section 75, means that the High Court's original jurisdiction regarding constitutional matters could be removed.

In practice, section 75 and section 75 are broad enough that many constitutional matters would still be within jurisdiction. The original constitutional jurisdiction of the High Court is now well established: the Australian Law Reform Commission has described the inclusion of constitutional matters in section 76 rather than section 75 as "an odd fact of history." The 1998 Constitutional Convention recommended an amendment to the constitution to prevent the possibility of the jurisdiction being removed by Parliament. Failure to proceed on this issue suggests that it was considered unlikely that Parliament would take this step; the requirement of "a matter" in section 75 and section 76 of the constitution means that a concrete issue must need to be resolved and the High Court cannot give an advisory opinion. The High Court's appellate jurisdiction is defined under section 73 of the Constitution; the High Court can hear appeals from the Supreme Courts of the states and territories, any federal court or court exercising federal jurisdiction, decisions made by one or more Justices exercising the original jurisdiction of the court.

However, section 73 allows the appellate jurisdiction to be limited "with such exceptions and subject to such regulations as the Parliament prescribes". Parliament has prescribed a large limitation in section 35A of the Judiciary Act 1903; this requires "special leave" to appeal. Special leave is granted only where a question of law is raised, of public importance. Therefore, while the High Court is the final court of appeal, it cannot be considered a general court of appeal; the decision as to whether to grant special leave to appeal is determined by one or more Justices of the High Court. That is, the Court exercises the power to decide which appeal cases it will consider; the issue of appeals from the High Court to the United Kingdom's Judicial Committee of the Privy Council was a significant one during the drafting of the Constitution and it continued to be significant in the years after the

Catherine A. Novelli

Catherine Ann Novelli is president of Listening for America, a non-profit organization in international trade policy. She was a U. S. diplomat who served as Under Secretary of State for Economic Growth and the Environment at the U. S. Department of State from 2014 to 2017, she was the State Department's Senior Coordinator for International Information Technology Diplomacy. Novelli is a graduate of Tufts University, holds a law degree from the University of Michigan and a Master of Laws from the University of London. Novelli served as Assistant U. S. Trade Representative for Europe and the Mediterranean from 1991 to 2005, she served as Vice-President of Worldwide Government Affairs at Apple, Inc. from 2005 to 2013. President Barack Obama nominated Novelli as Under Secretary for Economic Growth and the Environment on September 24, 2013. Novelli was sworn in on February 18, 2014. In 2015, President Obama unsuccessfully nominated Novelli to be United States Alternate Governor of the European Bank for Reconstruction and Development.

Her nomination expired with the income of a new Congress in January 2017. Novelli is married to David J. Apol, the acting Director of the United States Office of Government Ethics, they met in law school and have two children and Daniel Apol


Shadowmaker is the fourteenth studio album by German heavy metal band Running Wild, released on 20 April 2012. It is the band's first studio album since 2005's Rogues en Vogue and the first since the band's return after breaking up in 2009. Since the band's return to the scene, Rolf wrote 10 new tracks for Shadowmaker, among them are the midtempo opener "Piece of the Action", the uptempo number "Shadowmaker" and the monumental eight-minute track "Dracula", based on Bram Stoker's novel and the Christopher Lee movies. In an interview, he talks about the album: "To me, Shadowmaker is a special album because there was no pressure, time wise or otherwise. I feel it's audible that this relaxed attitude helped me to write one of the strongest Running Wild recordings of all time." "Me & the Boys" was composed for Rolf Kasparek's side project Toxic Taste All songs written and composed by Rolf Kasparek The slipcase release contains a DVD with a track-by-track commentary session by Rolf Kasparek The 2x limited edition 12" vinyl release comes with the original CD, a DVD in a black jewel case containing the above features and includes a postcard, stickers, a poster and a 30-page LP format book with the history of the band packaged in a cardboard box, limited to 1,000 copies worldwide Rock'n' Rolf – vocals, guitars Peter Jordan – lead guitar, vocals The bass and drums were recorded by anonymous guests that did not want to be identified.

Jens Reinhold – cover art, artwork Niki Nowy – engineering, mastering Peter Jordan – engineering Rock'n' Rolf – producer Katharina Nowy – additional producing Markus "Max" Chemnitz – photography