The Jamestown settlement in the Colony of Virginia was the first permanent English settlement in the Americas. It was located on the east bank of the James River about 2.5 mi southwest of the center of modern Williamsburg. It was established by the Virginia Company of London as "James Fort" on May 4, 1607 O. S.. It followed several failed attempts, including the Lost Colony of Roanoke, established in 1585 on Roanoke Island. Jamestown served as the capital of the colony of Virginia for 83 years, from 1616 until 1699; the settlement was located within the country of Tsenacommacah, which belonged to the Powhatan Confederacy, in that of the Paspahegh tribe. The natives welcomed and provided crucial provisions and support for the colonists, who were not agriculturally inclined. Relations soured early on, leading to the total annihilation of the Paspahegh in warfare within three years. Mortality was high at Jamestown itself due to disease and starvation, with over 80 percent of the colonists perishing in 1609–10 in what became known as the "Starving Time".
The Virginia Company brought eight Polish and German colonists in 1608 in the Second Supply, some of whom built a small glass factory—although the Germans and a few others soon defected to the Powhatans with weapons and supplies from the settlement. The Second Supply brought the first two European women to the settlement. In 1619, the first documented Africans came to Jamestown—about 50 men and children aboard a Portuguese slave ship, captured in the West Indies and brought to the Jamestown region, they most worked in the tobacco fields as indentured servants. The modern conception of slavery in the United States was formalized in 1640 and was entrenched in Virginia by 1660; the London Company's second settlement in Bermuda claims to be the site of the oldest town in the English New World, as St. George's, Bermuda was established in 1612 as New London, whereas James Fort in Virginia was not converted into James Towne until 1619, further did not survive to the present day. In 1676, Jamestown was deliberately burned during Bacon's Rebellion, though it was rebuilt.
In 1699, the capital was relocated from Jamestown to what is today Williamsburg, after which Jamestown ceased to exist as a settlement, existing today only as an archaeological site. Today, Jamestown is one of three locations composing the Historic Triangle of Colonial Virginia, along with Williamsburg and Yorktown, with two primary heritage sites. Historic Jamestowne is the archaeological site on Jamestown Island and is a cooperative effort by Jamestown National Historic Site and Preservation Virginia. Jamestown Settlement, a living history interpretive site, is operated by the Jamestown Yorktown Foundation, a state agency of the Commonwealth of Virginia. Spain and France moved to establish a presence in the New World, while other European countries moved more slowly; the English did not attempt to found colonies until many decades after the explorations of John Cabot, early efforts were failures—most notably the Roanoke Colony which vanished about 1590. Late in 1606, English colonizers set sail with a charter from the London Company to establish a colony in the New World.
The fleet consisted of the ships Susan Constant and Godspeed, all under the leadership of Captain Christopher Newport. They made a long voyage of four months, including a stop in the Canary Islands and subsequently Puerto Rico, departed for the American mainland on April 10, 1607; the expedition made landfall on April 1607 at a place which they named Cape Henry. Under orders to select a more secure location, they set about exploring what is now Hampton Roads and an outlet to the Chesapeake Bay which they named the James River in honor of King James I of England. Captain Edward Maria Wingfield was elected president of the governing council on April 25, 1607. On May 14, he selected a piece of land on a large peninsula some 40 miles inland from the Atlantic Ocean as a prime location for a fortified settlement; the river channel was a defensible strategic point due to a curve in the river, it was close to the land, making it navigable and offering enough land for piers or wharves to be built in the future.
The most favorable fact about the location was that it was uninhabited because the leaders of the nearby indigenous nations considered the site too poor and remote for agriculture. The island was swampy and isolated, it offered limited space, was plagued by mosquitoes, afforded only brackish tidal river water unsuitable for drinking; the Jamestown settlers arrived in Virginia during a severe drought, according to a research study conducted by the Jamestown Archaeological Assessment team in the 1990s. The JAA analyzed information from a study conducted in 1985 by David Stahle and others, who obtained borings of 800 year-old baldcypress trees along the Nottoway and Blackwater rivers; the lifespan of these trees is up to 1,000 years and their rings offer a good indication of an area's annual amount of rainfall. The borings revealed that the worst drought in 700 years occurred between 1606 and 1612; this severe drought affected the Jamestown colonists and Powhatan tribe's ability to produce food and obtain a safe supply of water.
The settlers arrived too late in the year to get crops planted. Many in the group were either gentlemen unused to work or their manservants, both unaccustomed to the hard labor demanded by the harsh task of carving out a viable colony. One of these was Robert Hunt, a former vicar of Reculver, England who
A cacique is a leader of an indigenous group, derived from the Taíno word kasikɛ for the pre-Columbian tribal chiefs in the Bahamas, the Greater Antilles, the northern Lesser Antilles. In the colonial era, Spaniards extended the word as a title for the leaders of all indigenous groups that they encountered in the Western Hemisphere. In Spanish America, Brazil and Portugal, the term has come to mean a political boss or leader who exercises significant power in the political system known as caciquismo. Cacique comes from the Taíno word kassiquan, meaning "to keep house". In Taíno culture, the cacique rank was established through democratic means, his importance in the tribe was determined by the size of his tribe rather than his warlord skills since the Taínos were a peaceable culture. They enjoyed several privileges for their standing: they lived in a larger rectangular hut in the centre of the village, rather than the circular huts of other villagers, they had a special sitting place for the areytos and the ceremonial ball game.
Spaniards extended the usage of cacique to refer to leaders at the town or village level in all indigenous groups in Spanish America. Caribbean caciques who did not oppose the Spanish were co-opted into being intermediaries between the Spanish and their communities, but their cooperation was transitional and most revolted, resulting in their deaths in battle or by execution. Two famous early colonial-era caciques are Hatuey and Enriquillo who are now national heroes in Cuba and the Dominican Republic. At the base of the monument to Hatuey the historical plaque reads: "To the memory of Chief Hatuey, unforgettable native, precursor of the Cuban fight for freedom, he offered his life, glorifying his ideals while tormented by the flames on 2/2/1512. Monuments Delegation of Yara, 1999". Hatuey was a historical character in the 2010 film Even the Rain. In central Mexico in the colonial era, the Spanish more utilized the leaders of the much more hierarchically organized indigenous peoples to function as intermediaries in the system of colonial rule.
The hierarchy and nomenclature of indigenous leadership there might survive internally within communities, but the Spaniards' designation of caciques did not correspond to the hereditary indigenous system of leadership. Elite indigenous men willing to cooperate with the colonial rule replaced those with hereditary and traditional claims to leadership; the Spanish recognized the indigenous nobility as nobles within newly established colonial system, caciques' status along with their families was reinforced by their being allowed to hold the Spanish noble honorific don and doña. Some caciques had entailed; the records of many of these Mexican estates are held in the Mexican national archives in a section Vínculos. The establishment of Spanish-style town government was used as a mechanism to replace traditional rule. Spanish manipulation of cabildo elections. In some areas the traditional, members hereditary lineages became office holders on the town councils. By the late colonial era in central Mexico, the term cacique had lost its dynastic meaning in many areas.
In a 1769 appeal to the Viceroy of New Spain by a cacique family for restoration of its privileges, they were enumerated: that the cacique should be seated separately from commoners at public functions. With Mexican independence in 1821, the special privileges of colonial-era caciques were abolished. In the Andean region the local term kuraka was used as an alternative to cacique, in contrast the rest of the Spanish Colonial Americas. After conquering the Inca Empire the Spaniards in the Peruvian viceroyalty had allowed the kurakas or caciques to maintain their titles of nobility and perquisites of local rule so long as they were loyal to the Spanish monarch. In the late eighteenth century, a massive uprising, the Tupac Amaru rebellion called the "Great Rebellion", was led by Tupac Amaru II, a kuraka who claimed to be a descendant of the Inca royal line, namely to the last Emperor Thupaq Amaru. At independence in 1825, Simón Bolívar abolished noble titles, but the power and prestige of the kurakas was in decline following the Great Rebellion.
Kuraka rebellions were made since the beginning of the Spanish colonial rule, kurakas from different backgrounds and places of the Andes led uprisings on multiple occasions, being the Tupac Amaru II rebellion, which came after 250 years of colonial rule, the largest of them and the major rebellion in the history of Spain's American empire kuraka revolts would continue years and decades after Tupac Amaru II's uprising such as the Tupac Katari uprising or the Mateo Pumakawa insurrection made during the South American Wars of Independence. An extension of the term cacique, Caciquismo can refer to a political system dominated by the power of local political bosses, the caciques. In the post-independence period in Mexico, the term retained its meaning of "indi
The Pamunkey Indian Tribe is one of 11 Virginia Indian tribes recognized by the Commonwealth of Virginia, the state's first federally recognized tribe, receiving its status in January 2016. Six other Virginia tribes, the Chickahominy, the Eastern Chickahominy, the Upper Mattaponi, the Rappahannock, the Monacan, the Nansemond, were recognized through the passage of the Thomasina E. Jordan Indian Tribes of Virginia Federal Recognition Act of 2017 on January 12, 2018; the historical tribe was part of the Powhatan paramountcy, made up of Algonquian-speaking tribes. The Powhatan paramount chiefdom was made up of over 30 tribes, estimated to total about 10,000–15,000 people at the time the English arrived in 1607; the Pamunkey tribe made up about one-tenth to one-fifteenth of the total, as they numbered about 1,000 persons in 1607. When the English arrived, the Pamunkey were one of the most powerful groups of the Powhatan chiefdom, they inhabited the coastal tidewater of Virginia on the north side of the James River near Chesapeake Bay.
The Pamunkey tribe is one of only two that still retain reservation lands assigned by the 1646 and 1677 treaties with the English colonial government. The Pamunkey reservation is located on some of its ancestral land on the Pamunkey River adjacent to present-day King William County, Virginia; the Mattaponi reservation, the only other in the state, is nearby on the Mattaponi River. The Pamunkey language is assumed to have been Algonquian, but only fourteen words have been preserved, not enough to determine that the language was Algonquian; the words, which were recorded in 1844 by a reverend E. A. Dalrymple, tonshee'son', nucksee'daughter', petucka'cat', kayyo'thankfulness', o-ma-yah'O my Lord', kenaanee'friendship', baskonee'thank you', eeskut'go out dog', nikkut'one', orijak'two', kiketock'three', mitture'four', nahnkitty'five', vomtally'six', talliko'seven', tingdum'eight', yantay'ten. Except for nikkut'one', similar to Powhatan nekut, none of the words correspond to any known Algonquian language, or to reconstructions of proto-Algonquian.
Given the extensive ethnic mixing that occurred among the Pamunkey before 1844, it's possible that Dalrymple's list is from an inter-ethnic pidgin or a language from an otherwise unknown language family, rather than from the original Pamunkey language. The traditional Pamunkey way of life was subsistence living, they lived through a combination of fishing, trapping and farming. The latter was developed in the late Woodland Period of culture 900 CE - 1600 CE; the peoples used the Pamunkey River as a main mode of food source. The river provided access to hunting grounds, other tribes. Access to the river was crucial, because Pamunkey villages were permanent settlements; because the Pamunkey people did not use fertilizers, they moved their fields and homes about every ten years to allow land to lie fallow and recover from cultivation. The Pamunkey, all Virginia tribes, had an intimate, balanced relationship with the animals and the geography of their homeland. Like other native tribes, they had techniques, such as controlled burning, to clear land for cultivation or hunting.
The land belonged to the group as a whole. The chief and council would allot a parcel of cleared ground to a family head for life. Differing concepts of land and farm animal ownership and use caused some conflicts between the Virginia tribes and English colonists. For native tribes, the land was "owned"; the Englishmen had, laws on private property and believed that the land was theirs as soon as the tribe sold it to them. As a result, when Englishmen allowed land to lie fallow, Native Americans assumed they were free to use it for hunting and gathering. Many Englishmen considered both as encroachments on their private property. Pamunkey homes, called yihakans, were narrow, they were structures made from bent saplings lashed together at the top to make a barrel shape. Indians covered the saplings with woven mats or bark; the 17th-century historian William Strachey thought that bark was harder to acquire, as he noticed that only higher-status families owned bark-covered houses. In summer, when the heat and humidity increased, the mats could be rolled up or removed to allow more air circulation.
Inside the house, they built bedsteads along both walls. They were made of posts put about a foot high or more, with small poles attached; the framework was about four feet wide, over. One or more mats were placed on top for bedding; the bedding was stored during the day to make the space available for other functions. The Pamunkey practice of matrilineal succession created some confusion for Englishmen, who in the 1677 Treaty of Middle Plantation recognized the Pamunkey queen; as with other tribes in the Powhatan confederacy, the Pamunkey had a weroance and a tribal council composed of seven members, elected every four years. The chief and council execute all the tribal governmental functions as set forth by their laws. Traditional elections used a basket, as well as peas and corn kernels, in the same number as voters. Members first voted followed by votes for the seven council members. For each candidate, a corn kernel signified approbation and a pea a "no" vote, or if there were but two candidates, each could be indicated by a type of seed.
The same 1896 study noted that tribal laws were concerned with, but not limited to, controlling land use and fighting. Inst
John Smith (explorer)
John Smith was an English soldier, colonial governor, Admiral of New England, author. He played an important role in the establishment of the Jamestown colony, the first permanent English settlement in North America, in the early 17th century. Smith was a leader of the Virginia Colony based at Jamestown between September 1608 and August 1609, led an exploration along the rivers of Virginia and the Chesapeake Bay, during which he became the first English explorer to map the Chesapeake Bay area, he explored and mapped the coast of New England. He was knighted for his services to Sigismund Báthory, Prince of Transylvania, his friend Mózes Székely; when Jamestown was established in 1607, Smith trained the first settlers to farm and work, thus saving the colony from early devastation. He publicly stated "He that will not work, shall not eat", equivalent to the 2nd Thessalonians 3:10 in the Bible. Harsh weather, lack of food and water, the surrounding swampy wilderness, attacks from local Indians destroyed the colony.
With Smith's leadership, Jamestown survived and flourished. Smith was forced to return to England after being injured by an accidental explosion of gunpowder in a canoe. Smith's books and maps were important in encouraging and supporting English colonization of the New World, he gave the name New England to the region, now the Northeastern United States and noted: "Here every man may be master and owner of his owne labour and land... If he have nothing but his hands, he may... by industries grow rich." Smith died in London in 1631. The exact birth date of John Smith is unclear, he was baptized on 6 January 1580 at Willoughby, near Alford, where his parents rented a farm from Lord Willoughby. He claimed descent from the ancient Smith family of Cuerdley and was educated at King Edward VI Grammar School, Louth from 1592 to 1595. After his father died, Smith set off to sea, he served as a mercenary in the army of Henry IV of France against the Spaniards, fighting for Dutch independence from King Philip II of Spain.
He set off for the Mediterranean. There he engaged in both trade and piracy, fought against the Ottoman Turks in the Long Turkish War. Smith was promoted to a cavalry captain while fighting for the Austrian Habsburgs in Hungary in the campaign of Michael the Brave in 1600 and 1601. After the death of Michael the Brave, he fought for Radu Șerban in Wallachia against Ottoman vassal Ieremia Movilă. Smith is reputed to have killed and beheaded three Ottoman challengers in single-combat duels, for which he was knighted by the Prince of Transylvania and given a horse and a coat of arms showing three Turks' heads. However, in 1602, he was wounded in a skirmish with the Crimean Tatars and sold as a slave; as Smith describes it: "we all sold for slaves, like beasts in a market". Smith claimed that his master, a Turkish nobleman, sent him as a gift to his Greek mistress in Constantinople, who fell in love with Smith, he was taken to the Crimea, where he escaped from Ottoman lands into Muscovy on to the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth before traveling through Europe and North Africa, returning to England in 1604.
In 1606, Smith became involved with the Virginia Company of London's plan to colonize Virginia for profit. The expedition set sail in three small ships, the Discovery, the Susan Constant, the Godspeed, on 20 December 1606, his page was a 12-year-old boy named Samuel Collier. During the voyage, Smith was charged with mutiny, Captain Christopher Newport had planned to execute him; these events happened when the expedition stopped in the Canary Islands for resupply of water and provisions. Smith was under arrest for most of the trip. However, upon first landing at what is now Cape Henry on 26 April 1607, unsealed orders from the Virginia Company designated Smith as one of the leaders of the new colony, thus sparing Smith from the gallows. By the summer of 1607, the English colonists were still living in temporary housing; the search for a suitable site ended on 14 May 1607 when Captain Edward Maria Wingfield, president of the council, chose the Jamestown site as the location for the colony. After the four-month ocean trip, their food stores were sufficient only for each to have a cup or two of grain-meal per day.
Due to swampy conditions and widespread disease, someone died every day. By September, more than 60 of the 104 brought by Newport were dead; the men may well have died from poor nutrition. In early January 1608, nearly 100 new settlers arrived with Captain Newport on the First Supply, through carelessness the village was set on fire; that winter the James River froze over, the settlers were forced to live in the burnt ruins. During this time, they wasted much of the three months that Newport and his crew were in port loading their ships with iron pyrite. Food supplies ran low, although the Native Americans brought some food, Smith wrote that "more than half of us died". In 1608, Smith spent that summer exploring Chesapeake Bay waterways and produced a map, of great value to Virginia explorers for more than a century. In October 1608, Newport brought a second shipment of supplies along with 70 new settlers, including the first women; some German and Slovak craftsmen arrived, but they brought no food supplies.
Newport brought with him a list of counterfeit Virginia Company orders which angered John Smith greatly. He wrote an angry letter in response. One of the orders was to crown the Native American leader Powhatan emperor and give him a fancy bedstead. The
Virginia the Commonwealth of Virginia, is a state in the Southeastern and Mid-Atlantic regions of the United States located between the Atlantic Coast and the Appalachian Mountains. Virginia is nicknamed the "Old Dominion" due to its status as the first English colonial possession established in mainland North America and "Mother of Presidents" because eight U. S. presidents were born there, more than any other state. The geography and climate of the Commonwealth are shaped by the Blue Ridge Mountains and the Chesapeake Bay, which provide habitat for much of its flora and fauna; the capital of the Commonwealth is Richmond. The Commonwealth's estimated population as of 2018 is over 8.5 million. The area's history begins with several indigenous groups, including the Powhatan. In 1607 the London Company established the Colony of Virginia as the first permanent New World English colony. Slave labor and the land acquired from displaced Native American tribes each played a significant role in the colony's early politics and plantation economy.
Virginia was one of the 13 Colonies in the American Revolution. In the American Civil War, Virginia's Secession Convention resolved to join the Confederacy, Virginia's First Wheeling Convention resolved to remain in the Union. Although the Commonwealth was under one-party rule for nearly a century following Reconstruction, both major national parties are competitive in modern Virginia; the Virginia General Assembly is the oldest continuous law-making body in the New World. The state government was ranked most effective by the Pew Center on the States in both 2005 and 2008, it is unique in how it treats cities and counties manages local roads, prohibits its governors from serving consecutive terms. Virginia's economy has many sectors: agriculture in the Shenandoah Valley. S. Department of Defense and Central Intelligence Agency. Virginia has a total area of 42,774.2 square miles, including 3,180.13 square miles of water, making it the 35th-largest state by area. Virginia is bordered by Maryland and Washington, D.
C. to the north and east. Virginia's boundary with Maryland and Washington, D. C. extends to the low-water mark of the south shore of the Potomac River. The southern border is defined as the 36° 30′ parallel north, though surveyor error led to deviations of as much as three arcminutes; the border with Tennessee was not settled until 1893, when their dispute was brought to the U. S. Supreme Court; the Chesapeake Bay separates the contiguous portion of the Commonwealth from the two-county peninsula of Virginia's Eastern Shore. The bay was formed from the drowned river valleys of the James River. Many of Virginia's rivers flow into the Chesapeake Bay, including the Potomac, Rappahannock and James, which create three peninsulas in the bay; the Tidewater is a coastal plain between the fall line. It includes major estuaries of Chesapeake Bay; the Piedmont is a series of sedimentary and igneous rock-based foothills east of the mountains which were formed in the Mesozoic era. The region, known for its heavy clay soil, includes the Southwest Mountains around Charlottesville.
The Blue Ridge Mountains are a physiographic province of the Appalachian Mountains with the highest points in the state, the tallest being Mount Rogers at 5,729 feet. The Ridge and Valley region includes the Great Appalachian Valley; the region includes Massanutten Mountain. The Cumberland Plateau and the Cumberland Mountains are in the southwest corner of Virginia, south of the Allegheny Plateau. In this region, rivers flow northwest, into the Ohio River basin; the Virginia Seismic Zone has not had a history of regular earthquake activity. Earthquakes are above 4.5 in magnitude, because Virginia is located away from the edges of the North American Plate. The largest earthquake, at an estimated 5.9 magnitude, was in 1897 near Blacksburg. A 5.8 magnitude earthquake struck central Virginia on August 2011, near Mineral. The earthquake was felt as far away as Toronto and Florida. 35 million years ago, a bolide impacted. The resulting Chesapeake Bay impact crater may explain what earthquakes and subsidence the region does experience.
Coal mining takes place in the three mountainous regions at 45 distinct coal beds near Mesozoic basins. Over 64 million tons of other non-fuel resources, such as slate, sand, or gravel, were mined in Virginia in 2018; the state's carbonate rock is filled with more than 4,000 caves, ten of which are open for tourism, including the popular Luray Caverns and Skyline Caverns. The climate of Virginia is humid subtropical and becomes warmer and more humid farther south and east. Seasonal extremes vary from average lows of 26 °F in January to average highs of 86 °F in July; the Atlantic Ocean has a strong effect on southeastern coastal areas of the state. Influenced by the Gulf Stream, coastal weather is subject to hurricanes, most pronouncedly near the mouth of Chesapeake Bay. In spite of its position adjacent to the Atlantic Ocean the coastal areas have a significant continental influence with quite large temperature differences between summ
The Powhatan people are an Indigenous group traditionally from Virginia. In some instances, The Powhatan may refer to one of the leaders of the people; this is most the case in historical writings by the English. The Powhatans have been known as Virginia Algonquians, as the Powhatan language is an eastern-Algonquian language known as Virginia Algonquian, it is estimated that there were about 14,000–21,000 Powhatan people in eastern Virginia, when the English colonized Jamestown in 1607. In the late 16th and early 17th centuries, a mamanatowick named Wahunsenacawh created a powerful organization by affiliating 30 tributary peoples, whose territory was much of eastern Virginia, they called this area Tsenacommacah. Wahunsenacawh came to be known by the English as "The Powhatan"; each of the tribes within this organization had its own weroance, but all paid tribute to The Powhatan. After Wahunsenacawh's death in 1618, hostilities with colonists escalated under the chiefdom of his brother, who sought in vain to drive off the encroaching English.
His large-scale attacks in 1622 and 1644 met strong reprisals by the English, resulting in the near elimination of the tribe. By 1646, what is called the Powhatan Paramount Chiefdom by modern historians had been decimated. More important than the ongoing conflicts with the English settlements was the high rate of deaths the Powhatan suffered due to new infectious diseases carried to North America by Europeans, such as measles and smallpox; the Native Americans did not have any immunity to these, endemic in Europe and Asia for centuries. The wholesale deaths weakened and hollowed out the Native American societies. By the mid-17th century, the leaders of the colony were desperate for labor to develop the land. Half of the English and European immigrants arrived as indentured servants; as settlement continued, the colonists imported growing numbers of enslaved Africans for labor. By 1700, the colonies had one-twelfth of the population, it was common for black slaves to join the surrounding Powhatan.
Africans and whites lived together. After Bacon's Rebellion in 1676, the colony enslaved Indians for control. In 1691, the House of Burgesses abolished Indian slavery. In the 21st century, eight Indian tribes are recognized by Virginia, as having ancestral ties to the Powhatan confederation; the Pamunkey and Mattaponi are the only two peoples who have retained reservation lands from the 17th century. The competing cultures of the Powhatan and English settlers were united through unions and marriages of members, the most well known of, Pocahontas and John Rolfe, their son Thomas Rolfe was the ancestor of many Virginians. Some survivors of the Powhatan confederacy have relocated elsewhere. Beginning in the late 19th century, individual people identifying collectively as the Powhatan Renape Nation settled a tiny subdivision known as Morrisville and Delair, in Pennsauken Township, New Jersey, their ancestry is from the Rappahannock tribe of Virginia and the related Nanticoke tribe of Delaware. They have been recognized as a tribe by the state of New Jersey.
The name "Powhatan" is the name of the native town of Wahunsenacawh. The title "Chief" or "King" Powhatan, used by the English is believed to have been derived from the name of this site. Although the specific site of his home village is unknown, in modern times the Powhatan Hill neighborhood in the East End portion of the modern-day city of Richmond, Virginia is thought by many to be in the general vicinity of the original village. Tree Hill Farm, situated in nearby Henrico County a short distance to the east, is considered as the possible site. "Powhatan" was the name used by the natives to refer to the river where the town sat at the head of navigation. The English colonists chose to name it for their own leader, King James I; the English colonists named many features in the early years of the Virginia Colony in honor of the king, as well as for his three children, Elizabeth and Charles. Although portions of Virginia's longest river upstream from Columbia were much named for Queen Anne of Great Britain, in modern times, it is called the James River.
It forms at the confluence of the Jackson and Cowpasture rivers near the present-day town of Clifton Forge, flowing east to Hampton Roads.. The only water body in Virginia to retain a name related to the Powhatan peoples is Powhatan Creek, located in James City County near Williamsburg. Powhatan County and its county seat at Powhatan, Virginia were honorific names established years in locations west of the area populated by the Powhatan peoples; the county was formed in March 1777. Various tribes each held some individual powers locally, each had a chief known as a weroance or, more a weroansqua, meaning "commander"; as early as the era of John Smith, the individual tribes of this grouping were recognized by the English as falling under the greater authority of the centralized power led by the chiefdom of Powhatan, whose proper name was Wahunsenacawh or Wahunsunacock. At the time of the 1607 English Settlement at Jamestown, he ruled pr
Powhatan (Native American leader)
Powhatan, whose proper name was Wahunsenacawh, was the paramount chief of Tsenacommacah, an alliance of Algonquian-speaking Virginia Indians in the Tidewater region of Virginia at the time English settlers landed at Jamestown in 1607. Powhatan, alternately called "King" or "Chief" Powahatan by the English, led the main political and military power facing the early colonists, was the older brother of Opchanacanough, who led attacks against the English in 1622 and 1644, he was the father of Pocahontas, who converted to Christianity and married the English colonist John Rolfe. In 1607, the English colonists were introduced to Wahunsenacawh as Powhatan and understood this latter name to come from Powhatan's hometown near the falls of the James River near present-day Richmond, Virginia. Seventeenth-century English spellings were not standardized, representations were many of the sounds of the Algonquian language spoken by Wahunsenacawh and his people. Charles Dudley Warner, writing in the 19th century, but quoting extensively from John Smith's 17th-century writings, in his essay on Pocahontas states: "In 1618 died the great Powhatan, full of years and satiated with fighting and the savage delights of life.
He had many titles. Many variants are used in texts: The place, Powatan, Pohetan, Poughwaton, The description, weroance weroance, wyrounce, werowance, werowans The name, Wahunsunacock Wahunsunacock, Wahunsenacawh, Wahunsenakah The title, Mamanatowick Mamanatowick Little is known of Powhatan's life before the arrival of English colonists in 1607, he inherited the leadership of about 4-6 tribes, with its base at the Fall Line near present-day Richmond. Through diplomacy and/or force, he had assembled a total of about 30 tribes into the Powhatan Confederacy by the early 17th century; the confederacy was estimated to include 10,000-15,000 people. In December 1607, English soldier and pioneer John Smith, one of the Jamestown colony's leaders, was captured by a hunting expedition led by Opchanacanough, the younger brother of Powhatan. Smith was taken to Powhatan's capital along the York River. Smith recounted in 1624 that Pocahontas, one of Powhatan's daughters, kept her father from executing him. However, since Smith's 1608 and 1612 reports omitted this account, many historians have doubted its accuracy.
Some believe that the event Smith recounted as a prelude to his execution was an adoption ceremony by which Smith was ritually accepted as subchief of the town of Capahosic in Powhatan's alliance. As the historian Margaret Williamson Huber has written, "Powhatan calculated that moving Smith and his men to Capahosic would keep them nearby and better under his control."In January 1609, Smith recorded directing some of his men to build an English-style house for Powhatan at Werowocomoco, in exchange for food supplies for the hungry English colony. Both sides looked for opportunities to surprise one another. Smith proceeded to Opchanacanough's village; when ambushed, he held Powhatan at gunpoint before the warriors. When Smith returned to Werowocomoco, he found the place abandoned; the men had deserted to the Powhatan side. At a village now called Wicomico in Gloucester County, the reconstructed ruins of what were traditionally believed to be the chimney and part of the building for Powhatan are known as Powhatan's Chimney.
Since 2003, state officials and researchers have concluded the site of Werowocomoco is further west along the York River at Purtan Bay. There archeologists have found evidence of a large residential settlement dating to 1200, with major earthworks built about 1400, they have found extensive artifacts, including European goods, which indicate interaction with the English in the early 17th century. In 2006 the Werowocomoco Archeological Site was listed on the National Register of Historic Places. Excavations continue by a team headed by the College of Mary. Powhatan made his next capital at Orapake, located about 50 miles west in a swamp at the head of the Chickahominy River; the modern-day interchange of Interstate 64 and Interstate 295 is near this location. Sometime between 1611 and 1614, Powhatan moved further north to Matchut, in present-day King William County on the north bank of the Pamunkey River, near where his younger brother Opchanacanough ruled at Youghtanund. By the time Smith left Virginia in 1609, the fragile peace between colonists and Algonquians was beginning to fray.
Soon conflict led to the First Anglo-Powhatan War, further English expansion beyond Jamestown and into Powhatan's territory. The English destroyed two subtribes, the Kecoughtan and the Paspahegh, at the beginning of this war. Powhatan sent Nemattanew to operate against the English on the upper James River, though they held out at Henricus. With the capture of Pocahontas by Captain Samuel Argall in 1613, Powhatan sued for peace, it came about after her alliance in marriage on April 5, 1614 to John Rolfe, a leading tobacco planter. John Rolfe was one of Pocahontas’s many Jamestown teachers before their marriage. According to various accounts and John Rolfe did, in fact, fall in love with each other—it was a consensual relationship; this might, at least in part, explain Pocahontas’s apparent willingness to assimilate, convert to Christianity an