The flame robin is a small passerine bird native to Australia. It is a moderately common resident of the coolest parts of south-eastern Australia, including Tasmania. Like the other two red-breasted Petroica robins—the scarlet robin and the red-capped robin—it is simply called the robin redbreast. Like many brightly coloured robins of the Petroicidae, it is sexually dimorphic. Measuring 12 -- 14 cm long, the flame robin has a small thin black bill; the male has a brilliant orange-red chest and throat, a white patch on the forehead above the bill. Its upper parts are iron-grey with white bars, its tail black with white tips; the female is a nondescript grey-brown. Its song has been described as the most musical of its genus; the position of the flame robin and its Australian relatives on the passerine family tree is unclear. The flame robin is predominantly insectivorous, pouncing on prey from a perch in a tree, or foraging on the ground. A territorial bird, the flame robin employs song and plumage displays to mark out and defend its territory.
Classified by BirdLife International as Near Threatened, the species has suffered a marked decline in the past 25 years. The flame robin was first described by the French naturalists Jean René Constant Quoy and Joseph Paul Gaimard in 1830 as Muscicapa chrysoptera; the specific epithet, "chrysoptera", is derived from the Ancient Greek words chrysos "golden", pteron "feather". John Gould placed the flame robin in its current genus as Petroica phoenicea in his 1837 description, it was this latter binomial name, used since that time. Given this and Gaimard's name was declared a nomen oblitum; the generic name is derived from the Ancient Greek words petros "rock" and oikos "home", from the birds' habit of sitting on rocks. The specific epithet is derived from Ancient Greek, from the adjective phoinikes "red", it is one of five red- or pink-breasted species colloquially known as "red robins", as distinct from the "yellow robins" of the genus Eopsaltria. Although named after the European robin, is not related to it or the American robin.
The Australian robins were placed in the Old World flycatcher family Muscicapidae, the whistler family Pachycephalidae, before being classified in their own family Petroicidae, or Eopsaltridae. Sibley and Ahlquist's DNA-DNA hybridisation studies placed the robins in a Corvida parvorder comprising many tropical and Australian passerines including pardalotes, fairy-wrens and honeyeaters as well as crows. However, subsequent molecular research places the robins as a early offshoot of the Passerida, or "advanced" songbirds, within the songbird lineage. No subspecies are recognised, the degree of geographic variation is unclear. Adult male birds which breed on the mainland have been reported as having lighter upperparts and underparts than their Tasmanian relatives, females are said to be browner, but these differences may result from worn plumage. Furthermore, migration across the Bass Strait by some birds obfuscates the issue. Mainland and Tasmanian birds are the same size. Ornithologists Richard Schodde and Ian Mason argued that the poor quality of museum collections and migratory habits meant that discrete subspecies could not be distinguished on the basis of the observed variation within the species.
Flame-breasted robin was the common name used for the species, it was abbreviated to flame robin. Other names recorded include bank robin and robin redbreast. "Flame Robin" is the preferred vernacular name of the International Ornithological Congress. The largest of the red robins, the flame robin is 12–14 cm long, it has a more slender build than other members of the genus Petroica, with long wings and neck and small head. The male is distinguished by the bright orange-red plumage of the throat and abdomen; the crown, ear coverts and sides of neck are dark grey, lores and chin are a grey-black. The grey feathers of the sides of the crown may be suffused with dull orange; the rest of the upperparts, comprising the wings and tail, are dark grey. There is a small white frontal spot above the bill, the wing bar and outer tail shafts are white; the feathers of the posterior belly and vent are white with grey-black bases. The female is plainly coloured—pale brown overall, a lighter buff underneath; the posterior belly and vent are off-white.
As in the male, feathers on the side of the crown may be suffused with a dull orange, this may occur with breast feathers. There are small off-white marks above the bill; the bill, legs and claws are black, the eyes dark brown. A flame robin with an all lemon-yellow breast and otherwise female plumage was observed in a small flock of flame robins near Swansea in eastern Tasmania in September 1950. Nestlings have brown down, cream to grey bills, cream gapes and orange throats; the plumage of juvenile birds in their first moult resembles that of the adult female, but the head and upperparts are streaked and darker. Soon after fledging, juveniles moult into their first immature plumage, more resemble the adult female; the breasts of male birds may have some orange feathers. Birds in their second year moult into a second immature phase, some males of which may resemble adult males, while others retain a more immature brown plumage. Determining the age and sex of birds in brown plumage can be difficult.
Information on exact timing of moulting is lacking, but the replacement of primar
The tiger quoll known as the spotted-tail quoll, the spotted quoll, the spotted-tail dasyure or the tiger cat, is a carnivorous marsupial of the quoll genus Dasyurus native to Australia. With males and females weighing around 3.5 and 1.8 kg it is mainland Australia's largest carnivorous marsupial, the world's longest extant carnivorous marsupial. Two subspecies are recognised; the tiger quoll is a member of the family Dasyuridae, which includes most carnivorous marsupial mammals. This quoll was first described in 1792 by Robert Kerr, the Scottish writer and naturalist, who placed it in the genus Didelphis, which includes several species of American opossum; the species name, indicates this species is spotted. Two subspecies are recognised: D. m. maculatus, found from southern Queensland south to Tasmania D. m. gracilis, found in an isolated population in northeastern Queensland, where it is classified as endangered by the Department of Environment and Heritage The tiger quoll is the largest of the quolls.
Males and females of D. m. maculatus weigh on average 3.5 and 1.8 kg and males and females of D. m. gracilis weigh on average 1.60 and 1.15 kg, respectively. The next-largest species, the western quoll, weighs on average 1.31 kg for males and 0.89 kg for females. The tiger quoll has short legs, but its tail is as long as its body and head combined, it has a thick head and neck and a rounded and elongated snout. It has five toes on each foot, both front and hind, the hind feet have well-developed halluces, its long pink foot pads are ridged. This makes up for the fact; the tiger quoll has a reddish-brown pelage with white spots, colourations do not change seasonally. It is the only quoll species with spots on its tail in addition to its body, its fur and skin are covered in orange-brown-coloured oil. The underside is grayish or creamy white; the average length of D. m. maculatus is 930 mm for 811 mm for females, respectively. For D. m. gracilis, the average length of males and females is 801 and 742 mm.
The tiger quoll has the second most powerful bite relative to body size of any living mammalian carnivore, exerting a force of 308 N. The tiger quoll is found in eastern Australia; the quoll was present throughout southeastern Queensland, through eastern New South Wales, southeastern South Australia, Tasmania. European settlement has impacted and fragmented the quoll's mainland distribution. Tiger quolls are rare in southeastern Queensland and restricted to national parks. In Victoria, quoll populations have declined by nearly 50%; the range decline was not as severe in New South Wales. The quoll was never numerous in South Australia. In Tasmania, the tiger quoll frequents the northern and western areas where rains are seasonal. Tiger quolls were once native to Flinders and King Islands, but were extirpated since the 20th century, so are not present on Tasmanian offshore islands. Tiger quolls live in a variety of habitats, but seem to prefer wet forests such as rainforests and closed eucalypt forest.
They are only moderately, as 11 % of their travelling is done above ground. Prey items eaten by quolls include insects, lizards, birds, domestic poultry, small mammals, rabbits, arboreal possums, small wallabies, wombats, they may scavenge larger prey such as kangaroos, feral pigs and dingoes. However, the tiger quoll does not scavenge as much as the Tasmanian devil. Much of the prey eaten by the quoll are arboreal, they can make nocturnal hunts for possums and birds. The flexibility of their diets suggests; when hunting, a quoll stalks its prey. It launches its attack, executing a killing bite to the base of the skull or top of the neck, depending on the size of the prey; the quoll will pin small prey down with its fore paws and deliver the bite. With large prey, it latches on its back and bites the neck. Quolls, in turn, may be preyed on by Tasmanian devils and masked owls in Tasmania and dingos and dogs in mainland Australia, it may be preyed on by wedge-tailed eagles and large pythons. Tiger will chase subadults away from carcasses.
Quolls probably compete with introduced carnivores, such as foxes and wild dogs. Tiger quolls are hosts to numerous species of endoparasites. Tiger quolls are nocturnal and rest during the day in dens; however and females with young in the den can be seen during the day and may leave their dens when it is light out. Quoll dens take the form of underground burrows, rock crevices, tree hollows, hollow logs, or under houses or sheds. Quolls move by bounding gaits. Trails are not important for quoll, although they forage and scent mark along runways and roads. Tiger quolls may live in home ranges that range from 90-188 for females. Most resident quolls are female, although one population study, both males and females were found to be split between transients and residents. Males have overlapping home ranges; the home ranges of females may overlap less. Quolls sometimes share dens during the breeding season. After c
The regent bowerbird is a medium-sized, up to 25 cm long, sexually dimorphic bowerbird. The male bird is black with a golden orange-yellow crown and black-tipped wing feathers, it has black feet and yellow iris. The female is a brown bird with grey bill, black feet and crown; the name commemorates a prince regent of the United Kingdom. The diet consists of fruits and insects. All male bowerbirds build bowers, which can be simple ground clearings or elaborate structures, to attract female mates. Regent bowerbirds in particular are known to mix a muddy greyish blue or pea green "saliva paint" in their mouths which they use to decorate their bowers; the male builds an avenue-type bower consisting of two walls of sticks, decorated with shells, seeds and berries. Regents will sometimes use wads of greenish leaves as "paintbrushes" to help spread the substance, representing one of the few known instances of tools used by birds; the female builds a saucer-shaped nest made of twigs measuring 30 cm high and 15–20 cm wide away from the bower.
An Australian endemic, the regent bowerbird is distributed to rainforests and margins of eastern Australia, from central Queensland to New South Wales. A rare natural intergeneric hybrid between the regent bowerbird and the satin bowerbird is known as Rawnsley's bowerbird. A common species throughout its range, the regent bowerbird is evaluated as "least concern" on the IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. BirdLife Species Factsheet Regent bowerbird videos, photos & sounds on the Internet Bird Collection Regent bowerbird pictures
Manganese is a chemical element with symbol Mn and atomic number 25. It is not found as a free element in nature. Manganese is a metal with important industrial metal alloy uses in stainless steels. Manganese is named for pyrolusite and other black minerals from the region of Magnesia in Greece, which gave its name to magnesium and the iron ore magnetite. By the mid-18th century, Swedish-German chemist Carl Wilhelm Scheele had used pyrolusite to produce chlorine. Scheele and others were aware that pyrolusite contained a new element, but they were unable to isolate it. Johan Gottlieb Gahn was the first to isolate an impure sample of manganese metal in 1774, which he did by reducing the dioxide with carbon. Manganese phosphating is used for corrosion prevention on steel. Ionized manganese is used industrially as pigments of various colors, which depend on the oxidation state of the ions; the permanganates of alkali and alkaline earth metals are powerful oxidizers. Manganese dioxide is used as the cathode material in alkaline batteries.
In biology, manganese ions function as cofactors for a large variety of enzymes with many functions. Manganese enzymes are essential in detoxification of superoxide free radicals in organisms that must deal with elemental oxygen. Manganese functions in the oxygen-evolving complex of photosynthetic plants. While the element is a required trace mineral for all known living organisms, it acts as a neurotoxin in larger amounts. Through inhalation, it can cause manganism, a condition in mammals leading to neurological damage, sometimes irreversible. Manganese is a silvery-gray metal, it is hard and brittle, difficult to fuse, but easy to oxidize. Manganese metal and its common ions are paramagnetic. Manganese tarnishes in air and oxidizes like iron in water containing dissolved oxygen. Occurring manganese is composed of one stable isotope, 55Mn. Eighteen radioisotopes have been isolated and described, ranging in atomic weight from 46 u to 65 u; the most stable are 53Mn with a half-life of 3.7 million years, 54Mn with a half-life of 312.3 days, 52Mn with a half-life of 5.591 days.
All of the remaining radioactive isotopes have half-lives of less than three hours, the majority of less than one minute. The primary decay mode before the most abundant stable isotope, 55Mn, is electron capture and the primary mode after is beta decay. Manganese has three meta states. Manganese is part of the iron group of elements, which are thought to be synthesized in large stars shortly before the supernova explosion. 53Mn decays to 53Cr with a half-life of 3.7 million years. Because of its short half-life, 53Mn is rare, produced by cosmic rays impact on iron. Manganese isotopic contents are combined with chromium isotopic contents and have found application in isotope geology and radiometric dating. Mn–Cr isotopic ratios reinforce the evidence from 26Al and 107Pd for the early history of the solar system. Variations in 53Cr/52Cr and Mn/Cr ratios from several meteorites suggest an initial 53Mn/55Mn ratio, which indicates that Mn–Cr isotopic composition must result from in situ decay of 53Mn in differentiated planetary bodies.
Hence, 53Mn provides additional evidence for nucleosynthetic processes before coalescence of the solar system. The most common oxidation states of manganese are +2, +3, +4, +6, +7, though all oxidation states from −3 to +7 have been observed. Mn2+ competes with Mg2+ in biological systems. Manganese compounds where manganese is in oxidation state +7, which are restricted to the unstable oxide Mn2O7, compounds of the intensely purple permanganate anion MnO4−, a few oxyhalides, are powerful oxidizing agents. Compounds with oxidation states +5 and +6 are strong oxidizing agents and are vulnerable to disproportionation; the most stable oxidation state for manganese is +2, which has a pale pink color, many manganese compounds are known, such as manganese sulfate and manganese chloride. This oxidation state is seen in the mineral rhodochrosite. Manganese most exists with a high spin, S = 5/2 ground state because of the high pairing energy for manganese. However, there are a few examples of S = 1/2 manganese.
There are no spin-allowed d–d transitions in manganese, explaining why manganese compounds are pale to colorless. The +3 oxidation state is known in compounds like manganese acetate, but these are quite powerful oxidizing agents and prone to disproportionation in solution, forming manganese and manganese. Solid compounds of manganese are characterized by its strong purple-red color and a preference for distorted octahedral coordination resulting from the Jahn-Teller effect; the oxidation state +5 can be produced by dissolving manganese dioxide in molten sodium nitrite. Manganate salts can be produced by dissolving Mn compounds, such as manganese dioxide, in molten alkali while exposed to air. Permanganate compounds are purple, can give glass a violet color. Potassium permanganate, sodium permanganate, barium permanganate are all potent oxidizers. Potassium permanganate called Condy's crystals, is a used laboratory reagent because of its oxidizing properties. Solutions of potassium permanganate were among the first stains and fixatives to be used in the preparation of biological cells and tissues for electron microscopy
Chiloglottis known as wasp orchids, ant orchids or bird orchids, is a genus of about 25 species of flowering plants in the orchid family, Orchidaceae and is found in eastern Australia and New Zealand. Wasp orchids are terrestrial herbs, they have two leaves at the base of the plant and a single resupinate flower. The labellum is more or less diamond-shaped and has calli resembling the body of a wingless female wasp; the genus Chiloglottis was first formally described in 1810 by Robert Brown. Brown described Chiloglottis diphylla at the same time; the genus name is derived from the Ancient Greek words cheilos meaning "lip" and glottis meaning "mouth of the windpipe". David Jones has transferred some species those known as "bird orchids" and "ant orchids" to other genera, but the change has not been accepted; this genus of orchids is native to New Zealand. The flowers of wasp and bird orchids are pollinated by sexual deception of thynnine wasps, except for C. cornuta, self-pollinating. A key feature is.
Male wasps are attracted by wind-borne pheromones released by glands on the sepals of the flowers. They land on the labellum, on another part of the plant or nearby and walk or fly to the labellum, they crawl over the labellum. They attempt to lift and fly away with the dummy female but this action brings them into contact with the column. If the insect has pollinia from another orchid on its back, the contained pollen will attach to the sticky stigma. Alternatively, if there are no pollinia on its back, the insect may move backward, receive a coat of glue from the flower's rostellum push open the anther and removing any pollinia present, which adhere to the insect's thorax. Media related to Chiloglottis at Wikimedia Commons Data related to Chiloglottis at Wikispecies
Walcha, New South Wales
Walcha is a town at the south-eastern edge of the Northern Tablelands, New South Wales, Australia. The town serves as the seat of Walcha Shire. Walcha is located 425 kilometres by road from Sydney at the intersection of the Oxley Highway and Thunderbolts Way; the Apsley River passes through the town to tumble over the Apsley Falls before joining the Macleay River further on. The river caused flooding in the town prior to a levee bank being constructed and saving the town from more floods. At the 2016 census, Walcha had a population of 1,451 people; the Main North railway line is located 20.7 kilometres west at a separate village called Walcha Road which serves as the railhead. This is served by the daily NSW TrainLink Xplorer service between Armidale; the railway line was built at Walcha Road, because it was the closest point they could get to the town, due to the steep climb over the Great Dividing Range. The area is thought to have been occupied by the Danggadi Aborigines for 6000 years prior to European settlement.
The tablelands had places for ceremonies and trade of goods, there are traces of bora grounds near Walcha. In the colder months, tribes retreated to the gorge country to the east, where fish and animals were plentiful. In 1818, John Oxley was the first European person to discover the area and the falls which were to be named Apsley Falls. Hamilton Collins Sempill was the first settler in the New England area when he took up the'Wolka' run in 1832, establishing slab huts where'Langford' now stands. Other early runs around the district were Bergen-op-Zoom, Europambela, Surveyor’s Creek, Emu Creek, Orandumbie and Winterbourne. A severe depression from 1841 to 1843, low demand for wool created hardship for many of these early settlers. In 1848 Walcha run is recorded as being 64,000 acres and in the lease of David Lanarch. During 1854 Walcha was sold to Dangar who held the mortgage for Jamison and Connal. John Fletcher acquired Walcha and moved from Branga Plains to Oorundumby. After being sold in 1905, Oorundumby was resumed for soldier settlement in 1947 and subdivided into 22 holdings.
A ‘wool’ road to Port Macquarie was under construction in 1842 for the transportation of wool from New England to the coast. Walcha Post Office opened on 1 July 1850; the mail arrived from Macdonald River. Walcha was gazetted as a village site in 1852, when town allotments were sold, with annual sales following. At that time there was a general store and a flour mill. A Roman Catholic chapel was erected in 1854, a police station and the first Presbyterian church was built in 1857 and the Walcha National School in 1859. In 1861 the population was recorded at 355 and the Anglican church was built in 1862 of stone taken from the demolished homestead,'Villa Walcha', erected on the Wolka run in the 1840s; the old church has fine stained-glass windows. The population dropped in the 1860s but the town soon began to grow for two reasons: firstly, red cedar getters were active in the area's rainforests by about 1870. Gold was discovered near Walcha in the 1870s at Glen Morrison, The Cells River and Nowendoc.
Antimony, graphite, manganese and high quality slate was mined in the district. On 5 April 1878 Walcha was proclaimed a town, when it was gazetted, the boundaries defined and a courthouse was built. A rail link to Sydney and Uralla opened at Walcha Road in 1882; the town became a municipality in 1889. On 19 March 1890 the Walcha Pastoral & Agricultural Association was formed; this annual show has excellent exhibits of livestock, vegetables, flowers and handicrafts. Walcha Cottage Hospital was situated on the southern hill in South Street; the Shire of Apsley was constituted by proclamation on 7 March 1906. It is in the counties of Vernon and Inglis and comprises about 60 parishes; the area is 1,605,590 acres. The Shire of Walcha was constituted by the Union of the Municipality and the Shire of Apsley as from on 1 June 1955. Other district villages are: Niangala and part of Woolbrook with settlements at Brackendale, Glen Morrison, Ingalba and Yarrowitch. History was made at Walcha in 1950 when a Tiger Moth was the first aircraft used to spread superphosphate by air in Australia.
The ‘super’ was dropped on Mirani and other landholders soon followed suit to increase the livestock carrying capacity of the district. In 1992 the Walcha Telecottage was established to become the first telecentre established in Australia; the Telecottage is a not for profit community with the latest information communication facilities, in order to activate interactions between the local communities and to create employment opportunities. This Telecottage carries out not only the fundamental types of work such as job training, remote education, secretarial service and data analysis, but Internet access service for individuals and small companies. Walcha Telecottage produces a weekly community newsletter, the Apsley Advocate, free and delivered to over 1,600 commercial and private addresses. Walcha has a number of heritage-listed sites, including: Ohio Homestead South Street: St Andrew's Anglican Church Thee Street: St Andrew's Rectory Main Northern railway: Walcha Road railway stationDuring 2008 Walcha recorded one of the state's highest rises in property values at 20 per cent over the last 5 years, according to a report from Australian Property Monitors.
The local buildings and objects of natural and historic significance listed on the Register of the National Estate includes the following: Apsley Gor
Wauchope, New South Wales
Wauchope is a town in the Mid North Coast region of New South Wales, Australia. It is within the boundaries of the Port Macquarie-Hastings Council area. Wauchope is inland on the Oxley Highway 19 km west of Port Macquarie; the town is 406 km north of the state capital Sydney. Wauchope is the location of Timbertown, a popular heritage theme park inspired by the logging industry that formed the basis for Wauchope's early economy and prosperity; the town has a population of 7,500. It has played an important role in the Hastings Valley dairy industry. By 1828 a number of land grants had been made along the Hastings River, it was not until 1836. In that year Captain Robert Andrew Wauch paid a deposit on 760 acres on King Creek, he built Wauch House. Robert Wauch died in the Macleay area in 1866, the Government Gazette published the deeds of his properties, specifying that they should be called Wauchope; when the post office opened in a nearby settlement in 1881, it was named Wauchope, although the Government Gazette misprinted the name Wanghope, an error, not corrected until 1889.
It is pronounced'war-hope', although the family pronounced their name'walk-op'. This is similar to the Canadian town, pronounced'walk-up'; the largest recorded flood in the Hastings River at Wauchope occurred on 13 January 1968 and reached a peak level of 9.1 metres above the Australian height datum. The 1968 flood was estimated to be rarer than a 100-year event; the next largest flood was determined to be the flood of 5 to 7 March 1894. This flood reached a peak flood level of 8.9 m AHD at Wauchope. Other major floods occurred at Wauchope in February 1950, February 1929, August 1864, June 1950; the 1963 flood, notorious for the damage it caused in the lower reaches of the river, is only ranked as the eighth highest flood at Wauchope. It reached a peak level at Wauchope of 7.75 m AHD and was considered to be a 1 in 15-year event at Wauchope. On 23 February 2013 floodwaters peaked at 7.22 m AHD at 7.30pm after heavy rainfall in the upper catchment area. Wauchope's economy was traditionally based on the timber industry.
At different stages in its history, more timber was transported out of Wauchope than out of any other town in Australia. Timber from Wauchope was used in the construction of the Sydney Opera House. Industry in and around Wauchope has transformed into farming and tourism. Wauchope and its surrounding villages and farms are becoming known for gourmet produce, including cheeses and organic fruits and vegetables; the Hastings Farmers Markets are held at the Wauchope Showground on the 4th Saturday of every month and showcase a wide variety of local produce. Timbertown, the town's best-known tourist attraction, is a colonial-era themed village, located on the outskirts of Wauchope, it features static displays and attractions such as a working steam train, bullock team, a Cobb and Co stage coach. The Big Bull was a notable tourist attraction between Wauchope and Port Macquarie for twenty years, but was removed in 2007. Other important attractions include the historical society, historic buildings, Broken Bago vineyards and natural attractions including state forests and Bago Bluff National Park.
Wauchope railway station serves as an interchange for passengers travelling to nearby coastal centres such as Port Macquarie. The township is set out along the southern bank of the Hastings River with the back drop of Bago Mountain further south; the main street is High Street, running westward through the town after coming east from Port Macquarie and across the North Coast railway line. The main street includes the Co-op general store and a number of smaller businesses and local bank branches. At the corner of Hastings Street is the local post office. Further up the main street is the town clock, a legacy of the days the town was the centre of the Hastings Shire local government area. Back along Hastings Street is the Co-op supermarket as well as the court house. In 2009 work commenced on the rebuilding of this supermarket; the old building was demolished and a much larger and more modern structure was completed and opened in 2010. The main cross street is Cameron Street; the Hastings Hotel is on the south-east corner of Cameron and High and the Star Hotel is a short distance north.
The RSL club is another 100 m north. Cameron Street leads to the Hastings River. A wharf was built at the northern end of Cameron Street for shipping produce downstream to Port Macquarie, but this no longer exists. To the south of the main shopping area is the Wauchope Golf Course and Country Club, which occupies a premium site within the middle of the town. Further west is Timbertown, on the edge of large tracts of forestry land leading into the Bago Mountain area. To the east of the main shopping area is the railway line from Sydney; the Hastings dairy and milk factory is located close to the point where the railway line crosses the Hastings River. Wauchope Public School St Joseph's Primary School Wauchope High SchoolWauchope has its own railway station on the North Coast Line of New South Wales, it is serviced by six NSW TrainLink trains per day 3 heading South, 3 heading further north to Grafton and Brisbane. Passengers can alight at this station for connecting coaches to the nearby Port Macquarie.
Bill Bain - Emmy award-winning TV director Iva Davies -