The Fulda is a river of Hesse and Lower Saxony, Germany. It is one of two headstreams of the Weser; the Fulda is 220.4 kilometres long. The river arises at Wasserkuppe in the Rhön mountains in Hesse. From there it runs northeast, flanked by the Knüll mountains in the west and the Seulingswald in the east. Near Bebra it changes direction to the northwest. After joining the Eder river it flows straight north until Kassel changes direction to the northeast, with the Kaufungen Forest east and the beginning of the Reinhardswald forest northwest; the north end of the river meets the Werra in Hannoversch Münden, Lower Saxony, where the Fulda and the Werra join to form the Weser river. Cities along the Fulda include: Gersfeld Fulda Bad Hersfeld Bebra Rotenburg an der Fulda Melsungen Kassel List of rivers of Hesse List of rivers of Lower Saxony Media related to Fulda at Wikimedia Commons Flight near Fulda Videoclip from the German site http://www.osthessen-news.de
The Eder is a 177-kilometre long major river in Germany that begins in eastern North Rhine-Westphalia and passes in to Hesse, where it confluences with the River Fulda. The river was first mentioned by the Roman historian Tacitus. In his Annals, he describes the Roman campaign against the Chatti under the command of Germanicus in 15 AD. Forty-five thousand soldiers of the Roman army destroyed the major centre of the Chatti, directly after they crossed the Adrana. In the Middle Ages, the river was known by the names. On the banks of the Eder, in the town of Schwarzenau, near Bad Berleburg, a religious group was founded in August 1708. Eight adults were baptised thrice in the Eder; this group emigrated to America. As late as up to the end of the 19th Century, the river was known in local dialect as Edder. For instance, in Felsberg-Gensungen, the pharmacy is known as the Edder-Apotheke. Sediments of the Eder contain a proportion of gold; the majority of this gold is said to originate from Eisenberg, which contains one of the largest reserves of gold in Middle Europe.
Gold is eroded out of the Eisenberg, for example, by the Itter stream, since the Edersee dam was built, flows into the Edersee lake. Gold panning in the Eder has been known since 1308; the main historical area for panning the gold is between Fritzlar. In the 14th Century, the Teutonic Order panned gold out of the Eder sediments near Obermöllrich. In the 18th Century ducats were minted from Eder gold. Up to the 1970s, school children from Duisburg, who stayed at a nearby holiday camp, together with a teacher from Marienhagen, part of the town of Vöhl, went panning for gold in the sediments of the River Itter. Panning for gold along the Eder is still popular; the river rises from the Ederkopf mountain in the Rothaar mountain range in eastern North Rhine-Westphalia, near the springs of the Lahn and Sieg rivers. However, unlike the Lahn and Sieg, which are both tributaries of the Rhine, the Eder flows east and north, into the river Fulda at Edermünde, south of Kassel; the Fulda confluences with the Werra River at Hann.
Münden to form the Weser River, which flows in to the North Sea. The Edersee Dam is situated below the town of Waldeck, it is constructed of rock and concrete, is 47 metres high and 400 metres long. It was completed in 1914, it forms the Edersee lake, 27 kilometres long and contains 200 million cubic metres of water. This is used to generate hydroelectricity and to regulate water levels for shipping on the Weser river. At low water in late summer, during dry years, the remnants of three villages and a bridge across the original river bed, submerged when the lake was filled in 1914, can be seen. Descendants of those buried. On the night of the 17 May 1943, Avro Lancaster bombers of the RAF 617 Squadron used specially-developed bouncing bombs that were engineered by Barnes Wallis, they were used to destroy the Möhne and Eder dams, as part of Operation Chastise. The dam was in use again before the end of the year; the story of the raid was documented by the 1955 film called The Dam Busters. The most important tributaries of the Eder are: rivers that used to flow to the Eder, but now flow in to the Edersee lake
Thuringia the Free State of Thuringia, is a state of Germany. Thuringia is located in central Germany covering an area of 16,171 square kilometres and a population of 2.15 million inhabitants, making it the sixth smallest German state by area and the fifth smallest by population. Erfurt is the state capital and largest city, while other major cities include Jena and Weimar. Thuringia is surrounded by the states of Bavaria, Lower Saxony, Saxony-Anhalt, Saxony. Most of Thuringia is within the watershed of the Saale, a left tributary of the Elbe, has been known as "the green heart of Germany" from the late 19th century due to the dense forest covering the land. Thuringia is home to the Rennsteig, Germany's most well-known hiking trail, the winter resort of Oberhof, making it a well-known winter sports destination with half of Germany's 136 Winter Olympic gold medals won through 2014 having been won by Thuringian athletes. Thuringia is home to prominent German intellectuals and creative artists, including Johann Sebastian Bach, Johann Wolfgang von Goethe, Friedrich Schiller, is location of the University of Jena, the Ilmenau University of Technology, the University of Erfurt, the Bauhaus University of Weimar.
Thuringia was established in 1920 as a state of the Weimar Republic from a merger of the Ernestine duchies, except for Saxe-Coburg, but can trace its origins to the Frankish Duchy of Thuringia established around 631 AD by King Dagobert I. After World War II, Thuringia came under the Soviet occupation zone in Allied-occupied Germany, its borders altered to become contiguous. Thuringia became part of the German Democratic Republic in 1947, but was dissolved in 1952 during administrative reforms, its territory divided into the districts of Erfurt and Gera. Thuringia was re-established in 1990 following German reunification, with different borders, became one of the Federal Republic of Germany's new states; the name Thuringia or Thüringen derives from the Germanic tribe Thuringii, who emerged during the Migration Period. Their origin is unknown. An older theory claims that they were successors of the Hermunduri, but research rejected the idea. Other historians argue that the Thuringians were allies of the Huns, came to central Europe together with them, lived before in what is Galicia today.
Publius Flavius Vegetius Renatus first mentioned the Thuringii around 400. The Thuringian Realm existed until after 531, the Landgraviate of Thuringia was the largest state in the region, persisting between 1131 and 1247. Afterwards the state known as Thuringia ceased to exist. After the Treaty of Leipzig, Thuringia had its own dynasty again, the Ernestine Wettins, their various lands formed the Free State of Thuringia, founded in 1920, together with some other small principalities. The Prussian territories around Erfurt, Mühlhausen and Nordhausen joined Thuringia in 1945; the coat of arms of Thuringia shows the lion of the Ludowingian Landgraves of 12th-century origin. The eight stars around it represent the eight former states; the flag of Thuringia is a white-red bicolor, derived from the white and red stripes of the Ludowingian lion. The coat of arms and flag of Hesse are quite similar to the Thuringian ones, because they are derived from the Ludowingian symbols. Symbols of Thuringia in popular culture are the Bratwurst and the Forest, because a large amount of the territory is forested.
Named after the Thuringii tribe who occupied it around AD 300, Thuringia came under Frankish domination in the 6th century. Thuringia became a landgraviate in 1130 AD. After the extinction of the reigning Ludowingian line of counts and landgraves in 1247 and the War of the Thuringian Succession, the western half became independent under the name of "Hesse", never to become a part of Thuringia again. Most of the remaining Thuringia came under the rule of the Wettin dynasty of the nearby Margraviate of Meissen, the nucleus of the Electorate and Kingdom of Saxony. With the division of the house of Wettin in 1485, Thuringia went to the senior Ernestine branch of the family, which subsequently subdivided the area into a number of smaller states, according to the Saxon tradition of dividing inheritance amongst male heirs; these were the "Saxon duchies", among others, of the states of Saxe-Weimar, Saxe-Eisenach, Saxe-Jena, Saxe-Meiningen, Saxe-Altenburg, Saxe-Coburg, Saxe-Gotha. Thuringia accepted the Protestant Reformation, Roman Catholicism was suppressed as early as 1520.
In Mühlhausen and elsewhere, the Anabaptists found many adherents. Thomas Müntzer, a leader of some non-peaceful groups of this sect, was active in this city. Within the borders of modern Thuringia the Roman Catholic faith only survived in the Eichsfeld district, ruled by the Archbishop of Mainz, to a small degree in Erfurt and its immediate vicinity; the modern German black-red-gold tricolour flag's first appearance anywhere in a German-ethnicity sovereign state, within what today comprises Germany, occurred in 1778 as the state flag of the Principality of Reuss-Greiz, a principality whose lands were located within m
North Rhine-Westphalia is a state of Germany. North Rhine-Westphalia is located in western Germany covering an area of 34,084 square kilometres. With a population of 17.9 million, it is the most populous state in Germany. It is the most densely populated German state apart from the city-states of Berlin and Hamburg, the fourth-largest by area. Düsseldorf is the state capital and Cologne is the largest city. North Rhine-Westphalia features four of Germany's 10 largest cities: Düsseldorf, Cologne and Essen, the Rhine-Ruhr metropolitan area, the largest in Germany and the third-largest on the European continent. North Rhine-Westphalia was established in 1946 after World War II from the Prussian provinces of Westphalia and the northern part of Rhine Province, the Free State of Lippe by the British military administration in Allied-occupied Germany. North Rhine-Westphalia became a state of the Federal Republic of Germany in 1949, the city of Bonn served as the federal capital until the reunification of Germany in 1990 and as the seat of government until 1999.
The first written account of the area was by its conqueror, Julius Caesar, the territories west of the Rhine were occupied by the Eburones and east of the Rhine he reported the Ubii and the Sugambri to their north. The Ubii and some other Germanic tribes such as the Cugerni were settled on the west side of the Rhine in the Roman province of Germania Inferior. Julius Caesar conquered the tribes on the left bank, Augustus established numerous fortified posts on the Rhine, but the Romans never succeeded in gaining a firm footing on the right bank, where the Sugambri neighboured several other tribes including the Tencteri and Usipetes. North of the Sigambri and the Rhine region were the Bructeri; as the power of the Roman empire declined, many of these tribes came to be seen collectively as Ripuarian Franks and they pushed forward along both banks of the Rhine, by the end of the fifth century had conquered all the lands, under Roman influence. By the eighth century, the Frankish dominion was established in western Germany and northern Gaul, but at the same time, to the north, Westphalia was being taken over by Saxons pushing south.
The Merovingian and Carolingian Franks built an empire which controlled first their Ripuarian kin, the Saxons. On the division of the Carolingian Empire at the Treaty of Verdun, the part of the province to the east of the river fell to East Francia, while that to the west remained with the kingdom of Lotharingia. By the time of Otto I, both banks of the Rhine had become part of the Holy Roman Empire, the Rhenish territory was divided between the duchies of Upper Lorraine on the Moselle and Lower Lorraine on the Meuse; the Ottonian dynasty had both Frankish ancestry. As the central power of the Holy Roman Emperor weakened, the Rhineland split into numerous small, separate vicissitudes and special chronicles; the old Lotharingian divisions became obsolete, although the name survives for example in Lorraine in France, throughout the Middle Ages and into modern times, the nobility of these areas sought to preserve the idea of a preeminent duke within Lotharingia, something claimed by the Dukes of Limburg, the Dukes of Brabant.
Such struggles as the War of the Limburg Succession therefore continued to create military and political links between what is now Rhineland-Westphalia and neighbouring Belgium and the Netherlands. In spite of its dismembered condition and the sufferings it underwent at the hands of its French neighbours in various periods of warfare, the Rhenish territory prospered and stood in the foremost rank of German culture and progress. Aachen was the place of coronation of the German emperors, the ecclesiastical principalities of the Rhine bulked in German history. Prussia first set foot on the Rhine in 1609 by the occupation of the Duchy of Cleves and about a century Upper Guelders and Moers became Prussian. At the peace of Basel in 1795, the whole of the left bank of the Rhine was resigned to France, in 1806, the Rhenish princes all joined the Confederation of the Rhine. After the Congress of Vienna, Prussia was awarded the entire Rhineland, which included the Grand Duchy of Berg, the ecclesiastic electorates of Trier and Cologne, the free cities of Aachen and Cologne, nearly a hundred small lordships and abbeys.
The Prussian Rhine province was formed in 1822 and Prussia had the tact to leave them in undisturbed possession of the liberal institutions to which they had become accustomed under the republican rule of the French. In 1920, the districts of Eupen and Malmedy were transferred to Belgium. Around AD 1, numerous incursions occurred through Westphalia and even some permanent Roman or Romanized settlements; the Battle of Teutoburg Forest took place near Osnabrück and some of the Germanic tribes who fought at this battle came from the area of Westphalia. Charlemagne is thought to have spent considerable time in nearby parts, his Saxon Wars partly took place in what is thought of as Westphalia today. Popular legends link his adversary Widukind to places near Detmold, Lemgo, Osnabrück, other places in Westphalia. Widukind was buried in Enger, a subject of a legend. Along with Eastphalia and Engern, Westphalia was a district of the Duchy of Saxony. In 1180, Westphalia was elevated to the rank of a duchy by Emperor Barbarossa.
The Duchy of Westphalia comprised only a small area
Operation Chastise was an attack on German dams carried out on 16–17 May 1943 by Royal Air Force No. 617 Squadron called the Dam Busters, using a purpose-built "bouncing bomb" developed by Barnes Wallis. The Möhne and Edersee Dams were breached, causing catastrophic flooding of the Ruhr valley and of villages in the Eder valley. Two hydroelectric power stations were destroyed and several more damaged. Factories and mines were damaged and destroyed. An estimated 1,600 civilians – about 600 Germans and 1,000 Soviet forced labourers – died. Despite rapid repairs by the Germans, production did not return to normal until September. Before the Second World War, the British Air Ministry had identified the industrialised Ruhr Valley, its dams, as important strategic targets. In addition to providing hydroelectric power and pure water for steel-making, they supplied drinking water and water for the canal transport system. Calculations indicated that attacks with large bombs could be effective but required a degree of accuracy which RAF Bomber Command had been unable to attain when attacking a well defended target.
A one-off surprise attack might succeed but the RAF lacked a weapon suitable to the task. The mission grew out of a concept for a bomb designed by Barnes Wallis, assistant chief designer at Vickers. Wallis had worked on the Vickers Wellesley and Vickers Wellington bombers and while working on the Vickers Windsor, he had begun work, with Admiralty support, on an anti-shipping bomb, although dam destruction was soon considered. At first, Wallis wanted to drop a 10 long ton bomb from an altitude of about 40,000 ft, part of the earthquake bomb concept. No bomber aircraft was capable of flying of carrying such a heavy bomb. A much smaller explosive charge would suffice if it exploded against the dam wall under the water, but German reservoir dams were protected by heavy torpedo nets to prevent delivery of an explosive warhead through water. Wallis devised a 9000 pound bomb in the shape of a cylinder, equivalent to a large depth charge armed with a hydrostatic fuse, but designed to be given backward spin of 500 rpm.
Dropped at 60 ft and 240 mph from the release point, the bomb would skip across the surface of the water before hitting the dam wall. The residual backspin would submerge the bomb. Testing of the concept included blowing up a plaster model dam at the Building Research Establishment, Watford, in May 1942 and the breaching of the disused Nant-y-Gro dam in Wales in July; the first trials were at Chesil Beach in January 1943, which demonstrated that a bomb of sufficient size could be carried by an Avro Lancaster, rather than waiting for a larger bomber such as the Windsor to come into service. Air Vice-Marshal Francis Linnell at the Ministry of Aircraft Production thought the work was diverting Wallis from the development of the Windsor. Pressure from Linnell via the chairman of Vickers, Sir Charles Worthington Craven, caused Wallis to resign. Sir Arthur Harris, head of Bomber Command, after a briefing by Linnell opposed the allocation of his bombers. Wallis had written to an influential intelligence officer, Group Captain Frederick Winterbotham, who ensured that the Chief of the Air Staff, Air Chief Marshal Charles Portal, heard of the project.
Portal was convinced. On 26 February 1943, Portal overruled Harris and ordered that thirty Lancasters were to be allocated to the mission and the target date was set for May, when water levels would be at their highest and breaches in the dams would cause the most damage. With eight weeks to go, the larger Upkeep bomb, needed for the mission and the modifications to the Lancasters had yet to be designed; the operation was given to No. 5 Group RAF, which formed a new squadron to undertake the dams mission. It was called Squadron X, as the speed of its formation outstripped the RAF process for naming squadrons. Led by 24-year-old Wing Commander Guy Gibson, a veteran of more than 170 bombing and night-fighter missions, twenty-one bomber crews were selected from 5 Group squadrons; the crews included RAF personnel of several nationalities, members of the Royal Australian Air Force, Royal Canadian Air Force and Royal New Zealand Air Force. The squadron was based at RAF Scampton, about 5 mi north of Lincoln.
The targets selected were the Möhne Dam and the Sorpe Dam, upstream from the Ruhr industrial area, with the Eder Dam on the Eder River, which feeds into the Weser, as a secondary target. The loss of hydroelectric power was important but the loss of water to industry and canals would have greater effect and there was potential for devastating flooding if the dams broke; the aircraft were modified Avro Lancaster Mk IIIs, known as B Mark III Special. To reduce weight, much of the internal armour was removed; the dimensions of the bomb and its unusual shape meant that the bomb-bay doors had to be removed and the bomb hung below the fuselage. It was mounted before dropping it was spun up to speed by an auxiliary motor. Bombing from an altitude of 60 ft, at an air speed of 240 mph and at set distance from the target called for expert crews. Intensive night-time and low-altitude flight training began. There were technical problems to solve, the first one being to determine when the aircraft was at optimum distance from its target.
Both the Möhne and Eder Dams had towers at each end. A special targeting device with two prongs, making the same angle as the two towers at the correct distance from the dam, showed when to release the bomb. (The BBC do
Bremerhaven is a city at the seaport of the Free Hanseatic City of Bremen, a state of the Federal Republic of Germany. It forms an enclave in the state of Lower Saxony and is located at the mouth of the River Weser on its eastern bank, opposite the town of Nordenham. Though a new city, it has a long history as a trade port and today is one of the most important German ports, playing a role in Germany's trade; the town was founded in 1827, but neighboring settlements such as Lehe were in the vicinity as early as the 12th century, Geestendorf was "mentioned in documents of the ninth century". These tiny villages were built on small islands in the swampy estuary. In 1381, the city of Bremen established de facto rule over the lower Weser stream, including Lehe therefore called Bremerlehe. Early in 1653, Swedish Bremen-Verden's troops captured Bremerlehe by force; the Emperor Ferdinand III ordered his vassal Christina of Sweden Duchess regnant of Bremen-Verden, to restitute Bremerlehe to Bremen. However, Swedish Bremen-Verden soon enacted the First Bremian War and in the following peace treaty Bremen had to cede Bremerlehe and its surroundings to Swedish Bremen-Verden.
The latter developed plans to found a fortified town on the site, much this location became the present-day city of Bremerhaven. In 1672, under the reign of Charles XI of Sweden, in personal union Duke of Bremen-Verden—colonists tried unsuccessfully to erect a castle there. In 1827, the city of Bremen under Burgomaster Johann Smidt bought the territories at the mouth of the Weser from the Kingdom of Hanover. Bremen sought this territory to retain its share of Germany's overseas trade, threatened by the silting up of the Weser around the old inland port of Bremen. Bremerhaven was founded to be a haven for Bremen's merchant marine, becoming the second harbour for Bremen, despite being 50 km downstream. Due to trade with, emigration to North America, the port and the town grew quickly. In 1848, Bremerhaven became the home port of the German Confederation's Navy under Karl Rudolf Brommy; the Kingdom of Hanover called it Geestemünde. Both towns grew and established the three economic pillars of trade and fishing.
Following inter-state negotiations at different times, Bremerhaven's boundary was several times extended at the expense of Hanoveran territory. In 1924, Geestemünde and the neighbouring municipality of Lehe were united to become the new city of Wesermünde, in 1939 Bremerhaven was removed from the jurisdiction of Bremen and made a part of Wesermünde a part of the Prussian Province of Hanover. Bremerhaven was one of the important harbours of emigration in Europe; as the most critical North Sea base of the Nazi War Navy, the Kriegsmarine, 79% of the city was destroyed in the Allied air bombing of Bremen in World War II. All of Wesermünde, including those parts which did not belong to Bremerhaven, was a postwar enclave run by the United States within the British zone of northern Germany. Most of the US military units and their personnel were assigned to the city's Carl Schurz Kaserne. One of the longest based US units at the Kaserne was a US military radio and TV station, an "Amerikanischer Soldatensender", AFN Bremerhaven, which broadcast for 48 years.
In 1993, the Kaserne was returned to the German government. In 1947 the city became part of the federal state Free Hanseatic City of Bremen and was renamed from Wesermünde to Bremerhaven. Today, Bremerhaven is therefore part of the city-state of Bremen, being to all intents and purposes a state comprising two cities, while a city in its own right; this is complicated somewhat by the fact that the city of Bremen has owned the "overseas port" within Bremerhaven since 1927. To further complicate matters, a treaty between the two cities makes Bremerhaven responsible for the municipal administration of those parts owned directly by Bremen; the port of Bremerhaven is the sixteenth-largest container port in the world and the fourth-largest in Europe with 4.9 million twenty-foot equivalent units of cargo handled in 2007 and 5,5 million in 2015. The container terminal is situated on the bank of the river Weser opening to the North Sea. In the wet dock parts, accessible by two large locks, more than 2 million cars are imported or exported every year with 2,3 million in 2014.
Bremerhaven exports more cars than any other city in Europe. Another million tons of "High-and-Heavy" goods are handled with ro-ro ships. In 2011 a new panamax-sized lock has replaced the 1897 Kaiserschleuse the largest lock worldwide. Bremerhaven has a temperate maritime climate. On average, the city receives about 742 mm of precipitation distributed throughout the year, with a slight peak in the summer months between June and August; the hottest temperature recorded was 35.8 °C on 9 August 1992, the coldest was −18.6 °C on 25 February 1956. Due to its unique geographic situation, Bremerhaven suffers from a few transportational difficulties; the city has been connected