Population density is a measurement of population per unit area or unit volume. It is applied to living organisms, most of the time to humans, it is a key geographical term. In simple terms population density refers to the number of people living in an area per kilometer square. Population density is population divided by total land water volume, as appropriate. Low densities may lead to further reduced fertility; this is called the Allee effect after the scientist. Examples of the causes in low population densities include: Increased problems with locating sexual mates Increased inbreeding For humans, population density is the number of people per unit of area quoted per square kilometer or square mile; this may be calculated for a county, country, another territory or the entire world. The world's population is around 7,500,000,000 and Earth's total area is 510,000,000 square kilometers. Therefore, the worldwide human population density is around 7,500,000,000 ÷ 510,000,000 = 14.7 per km2. If only the Earth's land area of 150,000,000 km2 is taken into account human population density is 50 per km2.
This includes all continental and island land area, including Antarctica. If Antarctica is excluded population density rises to over 55 people per km2. However, over half of the Earth's land mass consists of areas inhospitable to human habitation, such as deserts and high mountains, population tends to cluster around seaports and fresh-water sources. Thus, this number by itself does not give any helpful measurement of human population density. Several of the most densely populated territories in the world are city-states and dependencies; these territories have a small area and a high urbanization level, with an economically specialized city population drawing on rural resources outside the area, illustrating the difference between high population density and overpopulation The potential to maintain the agricultural aspects of deserts is limited as there is not enough precipitation to support a sustainable land. The population in these areas are low. Therefore, cities in the Middle East, such as Dubai, have been increasing in population and infrastructure growth at a fast pace.
Cities with high population densities are, by some, considered to be overpopulated, though this will depend on factors like quality of housing and infrastructure and access to resources. Most of the most densely populated cities are in Southeast Asia, though Cairo and Lagos in Africa fall into this category. City population and area are, however dependent on the definition of "urban area" used: densities are invariably higher for the central city area than when suburban settlements and the intervening rural areas are included, as in the areas of agglomeration or metropolitan area, the latter sometimes including neighboring cities. For instance, Milwaukee has a greater population density when just the inner city is measured, the surrounding suburbs excluded. In comparison, based on a world population of seven billion, the world's inhabitants, as a loose crowd taking up ten square feet per person, would occupy a space a little larger than Delaware's land area; the Gaza Strip has a population density of 5,046 pop/km.
Although arithmetic density is the most common way of measuring population density, several other methods have been developed to provide a more accurate measure of population density over a specific area. Arithmetic density: The total number of people / area of land Physiological density: The total population / area of arable land Agricultural density: The total rural population / area of arable land Residential density: The number of people living in an urban area / area of residential land Urban density: The number of people inhabiting an urban area / total area of urban land Ecological optimum: The density of population that can be supported by the natural resources Demography Human geography Idealized population Optimum population Population genetics Population health Population momentum Population pyramid Rural transport problem Small population size Distance sampling List of population concern organizations List of countries by population density List of cities by population density List of city districts by population density List of English districts by population density List of European cities proper by population density List of United States cities by population density List of islands by population density List of U.
S. states by population density List of Australian suburbs by population density Selected Current and Historic City, Ward & Neighborhood Density Duncan Smith / UCL Centre for Advanced Spatial Analysis. "World Population Density". Exploratory map shows data from the Global Human Settlement Layer produced by the European Commission JRC and the CIESIN Columbia University
Homestead Hotel (West Baden Springs, Indiana)
Homestead Hotel known as the West Baden Springs Hotel, is a historic hotel building located at West Baden Springs, Orange County, Indiana. It was built in 1913, is a three-story, "L"-shaped, Classical Revival style brick building, it consists of a 22-bay main block connected to a two-story rear wing by a one-story solarium with a 1 1/2-story cubicle pavilion. It was listed on the National Register of Historic Places in 1998
Wiesbaden is a city in central western Germany and the capital of the federal state of Hesse. As of January 2018, it had 289,544 inhabitants, plus 19,000 United States citizens; the Wiesbaden urban area is home to approx. 560,000 people. The city, together with nearby Frankfurt am Main and Mainz, is part of the Frankfurt Rhine Main Region, a metropolitan area with a combined population of about 5.8 million people. Wiesbaden is one of the oldest spa towns in Europe, its name translates to a reference to its famed hot springs. It is internationally famous for its architecture and climate—it is called the "Nice of the North" in reference to the city in France. At one time, Wiesbaden boasted 26 hot springs; as of 2008, fourteen of the springs are still flowing. In 1970, the town hosted the tenth Hessentag Landesfest; the city is considered the tenth richest in Germany boasting 110.3% of the national average gross domestic product in 2017. The average annual buying power per citizen is €24,783. Wiesbaden is situated on the right bank of the Rhine, below the confluence of the Main, where the Rhine's main direction changes from north to west.
The city is across the Rhine from Mainz, the capital of the federal state of Rhineland-Palatinate. Frankfurt am Main is located about 38 kilometres east. To the north of the city are the Taunus Mountains, which trend in a northeasterly direction; the city center, the Stadtmitte, is located in the north-easternmost part of the Upper Rhine Valley at the spurs of the Taunus mountains, about 5 kilometres from the Rhine. The landscape is formed by a wide lowland between the Taunus heights in the north, the Bierstadter Höhe and the Hainerberg in the east, the Mosbacher Mountain in the south, the Schiersteiner Mountain in the west, an offshoot of the Taunus range; the downtown is drained only by the narrow valley of the Salzbach, a tributary of the Rhine, on the eastern flanks of the Mosbacher Mountain. The city's main railway line and the Mainz road follow this valley. Several other streams drain into the Salzbach within the city center: the Wellritzbach, the Kesselbach, the Schwarzbach, the Dambach, the Tennelbach, as well as the outflow of many thermal and mineral springs in the Kurhaus district.
Above the city center, the Salzbach is better known as the Rambach. The highest point of the Wiesbaden municipality is located northwest of the city center near the summit of the Hohe Wurzel, with an elevation of 608 metres above sea level; the lowest point is the harbour entrance of Schierstein at 83 metres above sea level. The central square is at an elevation of 115 metres. Wiesbaden covers an area of 204 km2, it is 17.6 kilometres from north to 19.7 kilometres from west to east. In the north are vast forest areas, which cover 27.4% of the urban area. In the west and east are vineyards and agricultural land, which cover 31.1% of the area. Of the municipality's 79 kilometres -long border, the Rhine makes up 10.3 kilometres. Wiesbaden has a temperate-oceanic climate with cold winters and warm summers, its average annual temperature is 9.8 °C, with monthly mean temperatures ranging from 1.0 °C in January to 18.6 °C in July. While evidence of settlement at present-day Wiesbaden dates back to the Neolithic era, historical records document continuous occupancy after the erection of a Roman fort in 6 AD which housed an auxiliary cavalry unit.
The thermal springs of Wiesbaden are first mentioned in Pliny the Elder's Naturalis Historia. They were famous for their recreation pools for Roman army horses and as the source of a mineral used for red hair dye; the Roman settlement is first mentioned using the name Aquae Mattiacorum in 121. The Mattiaci were a Germanic tribe a branch of the neighboring Chatti, who lived in the vicinity at that time; the town appears as Mattiacum in Ptolemy's Geographia. The line of Roman frontier fortifications, the Limes Germanicus, was constructed in the Taunus not far north of Wiesbaden; the capital of the province of Germania Superior, base of 2 Roman legions, was just over the Rhine and connected by a bridge at the present-day borough of Mainz-Kastel, a fortified bridgehead. The Alamanni, a coalition of Germanic tribes from beyond the Limes, captured the fort around 260. In the 370s, when the Romans and Alamanni were allied, the Alemanni gained control of the Wiesbaden area and were in charge of its defense against other Germanic tribes.
After the Franks under Clovis I defeated the Alamanni in the Battle of Tolbiac in 496, the Franks displaced the Alamanni in the Wiesbaden area over the course of the 6th century. In the 8th century, Wiesbaden became the site of a royal palace of the Frankish kingdom; the first documented use of the name Wiesbaden is by Einhard, the biographer of Charlemagne, whose writings mention "Wisabada" sometime between 828 and 830. When the Frankish Carolingian Empire broke up in 888, Wiesbaden was in the eastern half, called East Francia; the town was part of the heartland of East Francia. In the 1170s, the Count of Nassau, Walram I, received the area around Wiesbaden as a fiefdom; when Franconia fragmented in the early 13th century, Nassau emerged as an independent state as part of the Holy Roman Empir
Marriage called matrimony or wedlock, is a or ritually recognised union between spouses that establishes rights and obligations between those spouses, as well as between them and any resulting biological or adopted children and affinity. The definition of marriage varies around the world not only between cultures and between religions, but throughout the history of any given culture and religion, evolving to both expand and constrict in who and what is encompassed, but it is principally an institution in which interpersonal relationships sexual, are acknowledged or sanctioned. In some cultures, marriage is recommended or considered to be compulsory before pursuing any sexual activity; when defined broadly, marriage is considered a cultural universal. A marriage ceremony is known as a wedding. Individuals may marry for several reasons, including legal, libidinal, financial and religious purposes. Whom they marry may be influenced by gender determined rules of incest, prescriptive marriage rules, parental choice and individual desire.
In some areas of the world, arranged marriage, child marriage and sometimes forced marriage, may be practiced as a cultural tradition. Conversely, such practices may be outlawed and penalized in parts of the world out of concerns of the infringement of women's rights, or the infringement of children's rights, because of international law. Around the world in developed democracies, there has been a general trend towards ensuring equal rights within marriage for women and recognizing the marriages of interfaith and same-sex couples; these trends coincide with the broader human rights movement. Marriage can be recognized by a state, an organization, a religious authority, a tribal group, a local community, or peers, it is viewed as a contract. When a marriage is performed and carried out by a government institution in accordance with the marriage laws of the jurisdiction, without religious content, it is a civil marriage. Civil marriage recognizes and creates the rights and obligations intrinsic to matrimony before the state.
When a marriage is performed with religious content under the auspices of a religious institution it is a religious marriage. Religious marriage recognizes and creates the rights and obligations intrinsic to matrimony before that religion. Religious marriage is known variously as sacramental marriage in Catholicism, nikah in Islam, nissuin in Judaism, various other names in other faith traditions, each with their own constraints as to what constitutes, who can enter into, a valid religious marriage; some countries do not recognize locally performed religious marriage on its own, require a separate civil marriage for official purposes. Conversely, civil marriage does not exist in some countries governed by a religious legal system, such as Saudi Arabia, where marriages contracted abroad might not be recognized if they were contracted contrary to Saudi interpretations of Islamic religious law. In countries governed by a mixed secular-religious legal system, such as in Lebanon and Israel, locally performed civil marriage does not exist within the country, preventing interfaith and various other marriages contradicting religious laws from being entered into in the country, civil marriages performed abroad are recognized by the state if they conflict with religious laws.
The act of marriage creates normative or legal obligations between the individuals involved, any offspring they may produce or adopt. In terms of legal recognition, most sovereign states and other jurisdictions limit marriage to opposite-sex couples and a diminishing number of these permit polygyny, child marriages, forced marriages. In modern times, a growing number of countries developed democracies, have lifted bans on and have established legal recognition for the marriages of interfaith and same-sex couples; some cultures allow the dissolution of marriage through annulment. In some areas, child marriages and polygamy may occur in spite of national laws against the practice. Since the late twentieth century, major social changes in Western countries have led to changes in the demographics of marriage, with the age of first marriage increasing, fewer people marrying, more couples choosing to cohabit rather than marry. For example, the number of marriages in Europe decreased by 30% from 1975 to 2005.
In most cultures, married women had few rights of their own, being considered, along with the family's children, the property of the husband. In Europe, the United States, other places in the developed world, beginning in the late 19th century and lasting through the 21st century, marriage has undergone gradual legal changes, aimed at improving the rights of the wife; these changes included giving wives legal identities of their own, abolishing the right of husbands to physically discipline their wives, giving wives property rights, liberalizing divorce laws, providing wives with reproductive rights of their own, requiring a wife's consent when sexual relations occur. These changes have occurred in Western countries. In the 21st century, there continue to be controversies regarding the legal status of married women, legal acceptance of or leniency towards violence within marriage, traditional marriage customs such as dowry and bride price, for
Dixie Garage known as the Nash Garage, is a historic automobile repair shop located at West Baden Springs, Orange County, Indiana. It was built between 1918 and 1920, is a large one-story, brick building with a barrel vaulted roof, it features curved parapets and corner piers. Inside the building is a concrete block structure; the building housed an automobile repair shop until the late-1930s, after which it housed a skating rink, bottling plant, wood manufacturer. It was listed on the National Register of Historic Places in 2001
Mineral springs are occurring springs that produce water containing minerals, or other dissolved substances, that alter its taste or give it a purported therapeutic value. Salts, sulfur compounds, gases are among the substances that can be dissolved in the spring water during its passage underground. Mineral water obtained from mineral springs has long been an important commercial proposition. Mineral spas are resorts that have developed around mineral springs, where patrons would repair to “take the waters” — meaning that they would drink or bathe in the mineral water. Historical mineral springs were outfitted with elaborate stone-works — including artificial pools, retaining walls and roofs — sometimes in the form of fanciful "Greek temples", gazebos or pagodas. Others were enclosed within spring houses. For many centuries, in Europe, North America and elsewhere, commercial proponents of mineral springs classified them according to the chemical composition of the water produced and according to the medicinal benefits accruing from each: Lithia springs contained lithium salts.
Chalybeate springs contained salts of iron. Alum springs contained alum. Sulfur springs contained hydrogen sulfide gas. Salt springs contained salts of magnesium or sodium. Alkaline springs contained an alkali. Calcic springs contained lime. Thermal springs could contain a high concentration of various minerals. Soda springs contained carbon dioxide gas. Radioactive springs contain traces of radioactive substances such as uranium. Types of sedimentary rock - limestone - are sometimes formed by the evaporation, or rapid precipitation, of mineral spring water at the mouths of hot mineral springs. Spectacular formations, including terraces, stalagmites and “frozen waterfalls” can result. One light-colored porous calcite of this type is known as travertine and has been used extensively in Italy and elsewhere as building material. Travertine can have a white, tan, or cream-colored appearance and has a fibrous or concentric “grain”. Another type of spring water deposit, containing siliceous as well as calcareous minerals, is known as tufa.
Tufa is similar to travertine but is softer and more porous. Chaybeate springs may deposit iron compounds such as limonite; some such deposits were large enough to be mined as iron ore. Sweet springs, those with no detectable sulfur or salt content Cohen, Springs of the Virginias: A Pictorial History, West Virginia: Quarrier Press. LaMoreaux, Philip E.. Springs and bottled water of the world: Ancient history, occurrence and use, Heidelberg, New York: Springer-Verlag, ISBN 3-540-61841-4, retrieved 13 July 2010
French Lick Township, Orange County, Indiana
French Lick Township is one of ten townships in Orange County, United States. As of the 2010 census, its population was 4,699 and it contained 2,263 housing units. French Lick Township was named after French Lick Creek. According to the 2010 census, the township has a total area of 54.07 square miles, of which 53.85 square miles is land and 0.22 square miles is water. French Lick West Baden Springs Abydel at 38.57061°N 86.561101°W / 38.57061. U. S. Route 150 Indiana State Road 56 Indiana State Road 145 French Lick Municipal Airport Springs Valley Community School Corporation Indiana's 9th congressional district State House District 62 State Senate District 48 "French Lick Township, Orange County, Indiana". Geographic Names Information System. United States Geological Survey. Retrieved 2009-10-17. United States Census Bureau 2008 TIGER/Line Shapefiles IndianaMap Indiana Township Association United Township Association of Indiana City-Data.com page for French Lick Township