The West Bank is a landlocked territory near the Mediterranean coast of Western Asia, bordered by Jordan to the east and by the Green Line separating it and Israel on the south and north. The West Bank contains a significant section of the western Dead Sea shore; the “West Bank” was the name given to the territory, captured by Jordan in the aftermath of the 1948 Arab–Israeli War, subsequently annexed in 1950 until 1967 when it was occupied by Israel during the 1967 Six-Day War. The Oslo Accords, signed between the Palestine Liberation Organization and Israel, created administrative districts with varying levels of Palestinian autonomy within each area. Area C, in which Israel maintained complete civil and security control, accounts for over 60% of the territory of the West Bank; the West Bank, including East Jerusalem, has a land area of 5,640 km2 plus a water area of 220 km2, consisting of the northwest quarter of the Dead Sea. As of July 2017 it has an estimated population of 2,747,943 Palestinians, 391,000 Israeli settlers, another 201,200 Israeli settlers in East Jerusalem.
The international community considers Israeli settlements in the West Bank, including East Jerusalem, illegal under international law, though Israel disputes this. The International Court of Justice advisory ruling concluded that events that came after the 1967 occupation of the West Bank by Israel, including the Jerusalem Law, Israel's peace treaty with Jordan and the Oslo Accords, did not change the status of the West Bank as occupied territory with Israel as the occupying power; the name West Bank is a translation of the Arabic term ad-Diffah I-Garbiyyah, given to the territory west of the Jordan River that fell, in 1948, under occupation and administration by Jordan, which subsequently annexed it in 1950. This annexation was considered illegal and was recognized only by Britain and Pakistan; the term was chosen to differentiate the west bank of the River Jordan from the "east bank" of this river. The neo-Latin name Cisjordan or Cis-Jordan is the usual name for the territory in the Romance languages and Hungarian.
The name West Bank, has become the standard usage for this geopolitical entity in English and some of the other Germanic languages since its creation following the Jordanian army's conquest. In English, the name Cisjordan is used to designate the entire region between the Jordan River and the Mediterranean in the historical context of the British Mandate and earlier times; the analogous Transjordan has been used to designate the region now comprising the state of Jordan, which lies to the east of the Jordan River. From 1517 through 1917, the area now known as the West Bank was under Ottoman rule as part of the provinces of Syria. At the 1920 San Remo conference, the victorious Allied powers allocated the area to the British Mandate of Palestine; the San Remo Resolution adopted on 25 April 1920 incorporated the Balfour Declaration of 1917. It and Article 22 of the Covenant of the League of Nations were the basic documents upon which the British Mandate for Palestine was constructed. Faced with the determination of Emir Abdullah to unify Arab lands under the Hashemite banner, the British proclaimed Abdullah ruler of the three districts, known collectively as Transjordan.
Confident that his plans for the unity of the Arab nation would come to fruition, the emir established the first centralized governmental system in what is now modern Jordan on 11 April 1921. In 1947, it was subsequently designated as part of a proposed Arab state by the United Nations partition plan for Palestine; the resolution recommended partition of the British Mandate into a Jewish State, an Arab State, an internationally administered enclave of Jerusalem. The resolution designated the territory described as "the hill country of Samaria and Judea" as part of the proposed Arab state, but following the 1948 Arab–Israeli War this area was captured by Transjordan; the 1949 Armistice Agreements defined the interim boundary between Jordan. Following the December 1948 Jericho Conference, Transjordan annexed the area west of the Jordan River in 1950, naming it "West Bank" or "Cisjordan", designated the area east of the river as "East Bank" or "Transjordan". Jordan ruled over the West Bank from 1948 until 1967.
Jordan's annexation was never formally recognized by the international community, with the exception of the United Kingdom and Iraq. A two-state option, dividing Palestine, as opposed to a binary solution arose during the period of the British mandate in the area; the United Nations Partition Plan had envisaged two states, one Jewish and the other Arab/Palestinian, but in the wake of the war only one emerged at the time. During the 1948 war, Israel occupied parts of what was designated in the UN partition plan as “Palestine”. King Abdullah of Jordan had been crowned King of Jerusalem by the Coptic Bishop on 15 November 1948. Palestinian Arabs in the West Bank and East Jerusalem were granted Jordanian citizenship and half of the Jordanian Parliament seats. In June 1967, the West Bank and East Jerusalem were captured by Israel as a result of the Six-Day War. With the exception of East Jerusalem and the former Israeli-Jordanian no man's land, the We
Ronald A. Irwin, is a Canadian diplomat and former politician. Born in Sault Ste. Marie, Irwin earned an undergraduate degree from the University of Western Ontario and a law degree from Osgoode Hall Law School of York University. While at the University of Western Ontario he joined the Sigma Kappa Sigma chapter of Delta Upsilon. From 1972 to 1974, he was mayor of Sault Ste. Marie, he has served as a school trustee and director of the local Chamber of Commerce. From 1977 to 1980, he was a member of the Canadian Radio-television and Telecommunications Commission. Irwin was first elected to the House of Commons of Canada in the 1980 federal election as a Liberal, he served as parliamentary secretary to Jean Chrétien. Irwin was returned to Parliament in the 1993 election; when the Liberals returned to power as a result of the 1993 election, Chrétien, now Prime Minister of Canada, appointed Irwin to the Cabinet as Minister of Indian Affairs and Northern Development. He retired from parliament in 1997.
Irwin served as a personal advisor to Prime Minister Chrétien from 1997 to 1998. He was appointed Ambassador to Ireland in 1998, served until 2001. In 2001, Irwin was appointed Canada’s Consul General to Boston. In 1975, he was made a Member of the Order of Canada. Ron Irwin – Parliament of Canada biography
Frank Giacoia was an American comics artist known as an inker. He sometimes worked under the name Frank Ray, to a lesser extent Phil Zupa, the single moniker Espoia, the latter used for collaborations with fellow inker Mike Esposito. Frank Giacoia studied at Manhattan's School of Industrial Art and the Art Students League of New York, he entered the comics industry by penciling the feature "Jack Frost" in U. S. A. Comics #1, inked by friend and high-school classmate Carmine Infantino — the latter's first art for comics and published by Marvel Comics' 1940s precursor, Timely Comics, his friend and collaborator Carmine Infantino, a classmate at the Art Students League, recalled that... Frank Giacoia and I were in constant contact. One day in'40 we decided to go up to Timely Comics, which became Marvel, to see if we could get some work, they gave us a script called'Jack Frost' and that story became our first published work. Frank did the pencils and I did the inking. Joe Simon was the editor and he offered us both a staff job.
Frank took the job. I wanted to quit school and I told my father that it was a great opportunity, he said,'No way! You're gonna finish school'. In 1941, Giacoia joined the New York City comic-book packager Eisner & Iger, the studio of Golden Age greats Will Eisner and Jerry Iger, his early works include drawing crime comics for Ace Comics, horror for Avon Publishing, a multitude of characters for National Comics Publications including the Flash and Batman. Other companies for which Giacoia did art during the 1940s and 1950s include Crestwood Publications, Dell Comics, Eastern Color Printing, Fawcett Comics, Harvey Comics, Lev Gleason Publications, Timely Comics, the 1940s predecessor of Marvel Comics. Giacoia and writer Otto Binder introduced the short-lived character Captain Wonder in Kid Komics #1. During the 1960s Silver Age of comic books, Giacoia became best known as a Marvel Comics inker on Captain America stories penciled by the character's co-creator, industry legend Jack Kirby. One of the company's preeminent names, he worked on every title at one time or another.
Giacoia inked the first appearance of the Punisher in The Amazing Spider-Man #129. Giacoia worked on the newspaper comic strip The Amazing Spider-Man from 1978–1981, as well as on the strips Flash Gordon, The Incredible Hulk, Johnny Reb and Billy Yank, Sherlock Holmes, Thorne McBride, he was credited as the pseudonym "Frankie Ray" for some time. In Fantastic Four #53, his real name was announced in the "Bullpen Bulletins". Giacoia was nominated for the Shazam Award for Best Inker in 1974; the 1989 graphic novel The Amazing Spider-Man: Parallel Lives, the back cover of, inked by Giacoia, is dedicated to his memory. He posthumously won one of the two annual Inkwell Awards Joe Sinnott Hall of Fame Awards in 2016; the award was received by Mike Giacoia. In its list of "The 20 Greatest Inkers of American Comic Books", historians at the retailer Atlas Comics listed Giacoia at #5: In comics from 1941, Frank Giacoia's smooth, thick line has been recognizable over a surfeit of outstanding pencillers. Gil Kane, Carmine Infantino, Gene Colan and Jack Kirby all benefited from his heavy, robust linework which always helped tell the story in a simple, direct way.
His collaboration with Kirby on the short-lived newspaper strip Johnny Reb and Billy Yank was superb, as was the case when he teamed with'the King.' Frank worked for many publishers during his 40-odd years in comics: Lev Gleason, Timely, DC and of course Marvel. All New Adventures of the Mighty Crusaders #1–2 The Fly #1 Fly-Man #39 Mighty Comics #40, 43 Mighty Crusaders #1–2 Mighty Crusaders vol. 2 #11–12 Thunderbunny #1 Phoenix #4 Cadet Gray of West Point #1 Xyr #1 Nightmare #3 Adventures into Darkness #6 Dynamo #1 Fight the Enemy #1–3 T. H. U. N. D. E. R. Agents #1–12 Undersea Agent #3 Frank Giaocia at the Comic Book DB Frank Giaocia at the Unofficial Handbook of Marvel Comics Creators