United States Marine Corps
The United States Marine Corps referred to as the United States Marines or U. S. Marines, is a branch of the United States Armed Forces responsible for conducting expeditionary and amphibious operations with the United States Navy as well as the Army and Air Force; the U. S. Marine Corps is one of the four armed service branches in the U. S. Department of Defense and one of the seven uniformed services of the United States; the Marine Corps has been a component of the U. S. Department of the Navy since 30 June 1834, working with naval forces; the USMC operates installations on land and aboard sea-going amphibious warfare ships around the world. Additionally, several of the Marines' tactical aviation squadrons Marine Fighter Attack squadrons, are embedded in Navy carrier air wings and operate from the aircraft carriers; the history of the Marine Corps began when two battalions of Continental Marines were formed on 10 November 1775 in Philadelphia as a service branch of infantry troops capable of fighting both at sea and on shore.
In the Pacific theater of World War II the Corps took the lead in a massive campaign of amphibious warfare, advancing from island to island. As of 2017, the USMC has around some 38,500 personnel in reserve, it is the smallest U. S. military service within the DoD. As outlined in 10 U. S. C. § 5063 and as introduced under the National Security Act of 1947, three primary areas of responsibility for the Marine Corps are: Seizure or defense of advanced naval bases and other land operations to support naval campaigns. This last clause derives from similar language in the Congressional acts "For the Better Organization of the Marine Corps" of 1834, "Establishing and Organizing a Marine Corps" of 1798. In 1951, the House of Representatives' Armed Services Committee called the clause "one of the most important statutory – and traditional – functions of the Marine Corps", it noted that the Corps has more than not performed actions of a non-naval nature, including its famous actions in Tripoli, the War of 1812, numerous counter-insurgency and occupational duties, World War I, the Korean War.
While these actions are not described as support of naval campaigns nor as amphibious warfare, their common thread is that they are of an expeditionary nature, using the mobility of the Navy to provide timely intervention in foreign affairs on behalf of American interests. The Marine Band, dubbed the "President's Own" by Thomas Jefferson, provides music for state functions at the White House. Marines from Ceremonial Companies A & B, quartered in Marine Barracks, Washington, D. C. guard presidential retreats, including Camp David, the Marines of the Executive Flight Detachment of HMX-1 provide helicopter transport to the President and Vice President, with the radio call signs "Marine One" and "Marine Two", respectively. The Executive Flight Detachment provides helicopter transport to Cabinet members and other VIPs. By authority of the 1946 Foreign Service Act, the Marine Security Guards of the Marine Embassy Security Command provide security for American embassies and consulates at more than 140 posts worldwide.
The relationship between the Department of State and the U. S. Marine Corps is nearly as old as the corps itself. For over 200 years, Marines have served at the request of various Secretaries of State. After World War II, an alert, disciplined force was needed to protect American embassies and legations throughout the world. In 1947, a proposal was made that the Department of Defense furnish Marine Corps personnel for Foreign Service guard duty under the provisions of the Foreign Service Act of 1946. A formal Memorandum of Agreement was signed between the Department of State and the Secretary of the Navy on 15 December 1948, 83 Marines were deployed to overseas missions. During the first year of the MSG program, 36 detachments were deployed worldwide; the Marine Corps was founded to serve as an infantry unit aboard naval vessels and was responsible for the security of the ship and its crew by conducting offensive and defensive combat during boarding actions and defending the ship's officers from mutiny.
Continental Marines manned raiding parties, both at ashore. America's first amphibious assault landing occurred early in the Revolutionary War on 3 March 1776 as the Marines gained control of Fort Montague and Fort Nassau, a British ammunition depot and naval port in New Providence, the Bahamas; the role of the Marine Corps has expanded since then. The Advanced Base Doctrine of the early 20th century codified their combat duties ashore, outlining the use of Marines in the seizure of bases and other duties on land to support naval campaigns. Throughout the late 19th and 20th centuries, Marine detachments served aboard Navy cruisers and aircraft carriers. Marine detachments served in their traditional duties as a ship's landing force, manning the ship's weapons and providing shipboard security. Marine detachments were augmented by members of the ship's company for landing parties, such as in the First Sumatran Expedition of 1832, continuing in the Caribbean and Mexican campaigns of the early 20th centuries.
Nicaraguan Campaign Medal
The Nicaraguan Campaign Medal is a campaign medal of the United States Navy, authorized by Presidential Order of Woodrow Wilson on September 22, 1913. A medal, the Second Nicaraguan Campaign Medal was authorized by an act of the United States Congress on November 8, 1929; the two medals were considered two separate awards, with the original medal being referred to as the First Nicaraguan Campaign Medal. The First Nicaraguan Campaign Medal was created to recognize those U. S. Navy personnel and U. S. Marines who had participated in amphibious actions in Nicaragua between 29 July and 14 November 1912; the following naval commands, all embarked U. S. Marines, were eligible for the First Nicaraguan Campaign Medal: USS Annapolis USS California USS Cleveland USS Colorado USS Denver USS Glacier USS Maryland USS Tacoma The medal for the First Nicaraguan Campaign Medal displayed a volcano, rising from a lake, with the words “Nicaraguan Campaign” and the date 1912 on the edges of the medal; the medal itself was suspended from a red ribbon with two thick blue stripes.
On the reverse of each medal was a Navy or Marine Corps crest, depending on the recipient's branch of service. The First Nicaraguan Campaign Medal was a one-time-only decoration and there were no devices or attachments authorized. "Nicaraguan Campaign Medal". Archived from the original on August 15, 2006. Http://www.history.navy.mil/medals/2nic.htm
Indian Campaign Medal
The Indian Campaign Medal is a decoration established by War Department General Orders 12, 1907. The medal was retroactively awarded to any soldier of the U. S. Army who had participated in the American Indian Wars against the Native Americans between 1865 and 1891. A; the Indian Campaign Medal was established by War Department General Orders 12 in 1907. It was created at the same time as the Civil War Campaign Medal. B; the initial ribbon was all red. C. Campaign streamers of the same design as the service ribbon are authorised for display by units receiving campaign credit participation for Indian Wars as early as 1790; the inscriptions for streamers displayed on the organizational flag will be as indicated in the unit's lineage and honors. The inscriptions for the 14 streamers displayed on the Army flag are listed in AR 840-10 and AR 600-8-22; the Code of Federal Regulations declares service in the following campaigns as requirements for award of the Indian Campaign Medal: Southern Oregon, northern California, Nevada between 1865 and 1868.
Against the Comanches and confederate tribes in Kansas, Texas, New Mexico, Indian Territory between 1867 and 1875. Modoc War between 1872 and 1873. Against the Apaches in Arizona in 1873. Against the Northern Cheyennes and Sioux between 1876 and 1877. Nez Perce War in 1877. Bannock War in 1878. Against the Northern Cheyennes between 1878 and 1879. Against the Sheep-Eaters and Bannocks between June and October, 1879. Against the Utes in Colorado and Utah between September 1879 and November 1880. Against the Apaches in Arizona and New Mexico between 1885 and 1886. Against the Sioux in South Dakota between November 1890 and January 1891. Against hostile Indians in any other action in which United States troops were killed or wounded between 1865 and 1891; the Code of Federal Regulations describes the medal as follows: The medal of bronze is 11⁄4 inches in diameter. On the obverse is a mounted Indian facing sinister, wearing a war bonnet, carrying a spear in his right hand. Above the horseman are the words ‘‘Indian Wars,’’ and below, on either side of a buffalo skull, the circle is completed by arrowheads, conventionally arranged.
On the reverse is a trophy, composed of an eagle perched on a cannon supported by crossed flags, rifles, an Indian shield and quiver of arrows, a Cuban machete, a Sulu kriss. Below the trophy are the words ‘‘For Service.’’ The whole is surrounded by a circle composed of the words ‘‘United States Army’’ in the upper half and thirteen stars in the lower half. The medal is suspended by a ring from a silk moire ribbon 13⁄8inches in length and 13⁄8 inches in width composed of a red stripe, black stripe, red band, black stripe, red stripe; the Indian Campaign Medal was issued as a one-time decoration only and there were no devices or service stars authorized for those who had participated in multiple actions. The only attachment authorized to the medal was the silver citation star, awarded for meritorious or heroic conduct; the silver citation star was the predecessor of the Silver Star and was awarded to eleven soldiers between 1865 and 1891. Awards and decorations of the United States military U.
S. military history: Indian conflicts, battles and campaigns "Named Campaigns – Indian Wars". United States Army Center of Military History. Retrieved 13 December 2005. US Army Institute of Heraldry: Indian Campaign Medal
The NC-4 Medal is a military decoration, authorized by the United States Congress in 1929 to commemorate the 1919 trans-Atlantic crossing by the members of the NC-4 mission. Awarded as a non-wearable table medal, in 1935 a wearable version of the medal was subsequently authorized. A commemorative medal, the NC-4 Medal was a one-time award, does not appear on U. S. Navy award precedence charts. In 1919, the United States Navy decided to plan a mission to complete the first trans-Atlantic crossing by aircraft; this mission would demonstrate the capabilities of the Navy Curtis seaplane. The mission began with three identical aircraft, NC-1, NC-3, NC-4 departing from Naval Air Station Rockaway on May 8, 1919. On May 15 the aircraft arrived at Trepassey, having made intermediate stops along the way. There they met their "base ship" the USS Aroostook converted from minelayer to seaplane tender. After repairs and refitting, the NC's took off for the Azores on 16 May. During this longest leg of the journey, the planes were guided by a picket of twenty-two U.
S. Navy ships spaced 50 miles apart; the ships, brightly illuminated, kept the aircraft on course through the night. After flying all night, NC-4 was the sole aircraft to arrive in the Azores. After an elapsed flying time of 15 hours, 18 minutes, NC-4 arrived at the town of Horta on Faial Island in the Azores on May 17, 1919; the crew had flown about 1,200 miles. During the flight bad weather had forced the NC-1 and NC-3 to land in the open sea, with the NC-4 being the only aircraft to complete the flight. Following the 1928 Congressional Gold Medal awarded to Charles Lindbergh for the first solo trans-Atlantic flight, Representative James Russell Leech of Pennsylvania sought to recognize the NC-4 crew. In 1929, he introduced legislation to honoring the accomplishment of the NC-4 crew, for the first trans-Atlantic flight; the United States Congress passed Public Law 70-714 on February 9, 1929. This created the legal authorization to award medals to the members of the NC-4 crew; the law read: Be it enacted by the Senate and House of Representatives of the United States of America in Congress assembled, That the President be, is hereby, authorized to award, in the name of Congress, gold medals of appropriate design to Commander John H. Towers for conceiving and commanding the first trans-Atlantic flight.
Read, United States Navy, commanding officer NC-4. Rodd, United States Navy, radio operator; the original medal was presented as table medal. This medal was presented to Lieutenant Commander Read, the other five members of the NC-4 crew. A medal was awarded to Commander Towers, commander of NC-3, which did not complete the flight. While he may have served as NC-3's commander, he was in command of the mission as commander of Seaplane Division One. On April 29, 1935, Congress passed Public Law 74-43 which allowed personnel of the U. S. Navy and Marine Corps to wear miniature versions of medals not intended for wear; this meant that awards like the NC-4 Medal could now be worn, at the discretion of the Secretary of the Navy, on the military uniform, borne by an appropriate suspension ribbon or worn as a service ribbon in less formal occasions. The obverse of the medal bears the stylized image of a seagull, flying above ocean waves, surrounded by the words FIRST TRANSATLANTIC FLIGHT UNITED STATES NAVY MAY 1919 in relief along the outer edges of the medal.
On the reverse, in the center of the medal surrounded by a circle is the inscription NC-4, with NEWFOUNDLAND above it and PORTUGAL below. In the lower half of the medal, in two arcs, is the inscription PRESENTED · BY · THE · PRESIDENT · OF · THE · UNITED · STATES · IN · THE · NAME · OF · CONGRESS. In the corresponding position in the top half of the medal, the names of the recipients: J. H. TOWERS · A. C. READ · E. F. STONE · W. HINTON · H. C. RODD · J. L. BREESE · E. RHODES, it is rare that a Congressional Gold Medal be made for wear on clothing. The NC-4 Medal appeared in older U. S. Navy precedence charts after the Peary Polar Expedition Medal and before the Byrd Antarctic Expedition Medal; the awardee, appointed to Vice Admiral, John Towers, was photographed several times as Rear Admiral and Vice Admiral wearing the NC-4 Medal and ribbon ahead of all his other awards. Following the various retirements and release from military service of the original recipients, the NC-4 Medal became obsolete and does not appear on any current military award precedence charts.
The original NC-4 Medal was presented by President Herbert Hoover in May, 1930. The recipients were: Commander John H. Towers, USN Lieutenant Commander Albert C. Read, USN Lieutenant Elmer F. Stone, USCG Lieutenant Walter Hinton, USN Ensign Herbert C. Rodd, USN Lieutenant James L. Breese Jr. USNR Chief Machinist's Mate Eugene S. Rhoads, USNThe last name of Eugene Rhoads was misspelled as Rhodes on both the award citation and the medal. Transatlantic flight of Alcock and Brown, June 1919, first non-stop crossing List of Congressional Gold Medal recipients Photograph of Chief Eugene Rhoads and Rear Admiral A. C. Read wearing the NC-4 Medal ribbon bar. National Naval Aviation Museum NC-4 Memorabilia Exhibit National Naval Aviation Museum
Texas Cavalry Medal
The Texas Cavalry Medal was a federal service medal, approved by the United States Congress and awarded to the members of the cavalry brigades raised by the State of Texas who were not called into federal service in 1917 and 1918, rendering the men of those two units ineligible for the World War I Victory Medal. Qualifying dates of the Texas Cavalry Service Medal were from December 8, 1917 to November 11, 1918. Only 840 medals were awarded for this time period; the Texas Cavalry Medal was created by Congress to commemorate federal service, is the only medal for state troops awarded by the federal government. For this reason, the legislation authorizing the Texas Cavalry Medal authorizes its wear on active duty United States military uniforms; the Italian-American sculptor Anthony de Francisci designed the medal. The medal was designed by Anthony de Francisci based on design and imagery criteria specified by The Equipment Branch, Quartermaster General Department of the Army; the approved design is a bronze hexagonal medal 1 1⁄8 inches in diameter.
The obverse of the medal depicts the state flower of Texas. Inscribed around the edge are the words AWARDED • BY • CONGRESS • FOR • SERVICE; the reverse of the medal bears the Coat of arms of Texas, a Lone Star encircled by a wreath, surrounded by the dates of service in 1918 when the cavalry became eligible for federal activation and the signing of the armistice to end World War I
United States Navy
The United States Navy is the naval warfare service branch of the United States Armed Forces and one of the seven uniformed services of the United States. It is the largest and most capable navy in the world and it has been estimated that in terms of tonnage of its active battle fleet alone, it is larger than the next 13 navies combined, which includes 11 U. S. allies or partner nations. With the highest combined battle fleet tonnage and the world's largest aircraft carrier fleet, with eleven in service, two new carriers under construction. With 319,421 personnel on active duty and 99,616 in the Ready Reserve, the Navy is the third largest of the service branches, it has 282 deployable combat vessels and more than 3,700 operational aircraft as of March 2018, making it the second-largest air force in the world, after the United States Air Force. The U. S. Navy traces its origins to the Continental Navy, established during the American Revolutionary War and was disbanded as a separate entity shortly thereafter.
The U. S. Navy played a major role in the American Civil War by blockading the Confederacy and seizing control of its rivers, it played the central role in the World War II defeat of Imperial Japan. The US Navy emerged from World War II as the most powerful navy in the world; the 21st century U. S. Navy maintains a sizable global presence, deploying in strength in such areas as the Western Pacific, the Mediterranean, the Indian Ocean, it is a blue-water navy with the ability to project force onto the littoral regions of the world, engage in forward deployments during peacetime and respond to regional crises, making it a frequent actor in U. S. foreign and military policy. The Navy is administratively managed by the Department of the Navy, headed by the civilian Secretary of the Navy; the Department of the Navy is itself a division of the Department of Defense, headed by the Secretary of Defense. The Chief of Naval Operations is the most senior naval officer serving in the Department of the Navy.
The mission of the Navy is to maintain and equip combat-ready Naval forces capable of winning wars, deterring aggression and maintaining freedom of the seas. The U. S. Navy is a seaborne branch of the military of the United States; the Navy's three primary areas of responsibility: The preparation of naval forces necessary for the effective prosecution of war. The maintenance of naval aviation, including land-based naval aviation, air transport essential for naval operations, all air weapons and air techniques involved in the operations and activities of the Navy; the development of aircraft, tactics, technique and equipment of naval combat and service elements. U. S. Navy training manuals state that the mission of the U. S. Armed Forces is "to be prepared to conduct prompt and sustained combat operations in support of the national interest." As part of that establishment, the U. S. Navy's functions comprise sea control, power projection and nuclear deterrence, in addition to "sealift" duties, it follows as certain as that night succeeds the day, that without a decisive naval force we can do nothing definitive, with it, everything honorable and glorious.
Naval power... is the natural defense of the United States The Navy was rooted in the colonial seafaring tradition, which produced a large community of sailors and shipbuilders. In the early stages of the American Revolutionary War, Massachusetts had its own Massachusetts Naval Militia; the rationale for establishing a national navy was debated in the Second Continental Congress. Supporters argued that a navy would protect shipping, defend the coast, make it easier to seek out support from foreign countries. Detractors countered that challenging the British Royal Navy the world's preeminent naval power, was a foolish undertaking. Commander in Chief George Washington resolved the debate when he commissioned the ocean-going schooner USS Hannah to interdict British merchant ships and reported the captures to the Congress. On 13 October 1775, the Continental Congress authorized the purchase of two vessels to be armed for a cruise against British merchant ships. S. Navy; the Continental Navy achieved mixed results.
In August 1785, after the Revolutionary War had drawn to a close, Congress had sold Alliance, the last ship remaining in the Continental Navy due to a lack of funds to maintain the ship or support a navy. In 1972, the Chief of Naval Operations, Admiral Elmo Zumwalt, authorized the Navy to celebrate its birthday on 13 October to honor the establishment of the Continental Navy in 1775; the United States was without a navy for nearly a decade, a state of affairs that exposed U. S. maritime merchant ships to a series of attacks by the Barbary pirates. The sole armed maritime presence between 1790 and the launching of the U. S. Navy's first warships in 1797 was the U. S. Revenue-Marine, the primary predecessor of the U. S. Coast Guard. Although the USRCS conducted operations against the pirates, their depredations far outstripped its abilities and Congress passed the Naval Act of 1794 that established a permanent standing navy on 27 March 1794; the Naval Act ordered the construction and manning of six frigates and, by October 1797, the first three were brought into service: USS United States, USS Constellation, USS Constitution.
Due to his strong posture on having a strong standing Navy during this period, John Adams is "often called the father of the American Navy". In 1798–99 the Navy was involved in an undeclared Quasi-War with France. From 18
Rear admiral is a naval commissioned officer rank above that of a commodore and captain, below that of a vice admiral. It is regarded as the lowest of the "admiral" ranks, which are sometimes referred to as "flag officers" or "flag ranks". In many navies it is referred to as a two-star rank /, it can trace its origins to the Royal Navy. Each naval squadron would be assigned an admiral as its head, who would command from the centre vessel and direct the activities of the squadron; the admiral would in turn be assisted by a vice admiral, who commanded the lead ships which would bear the brunt of a naval battle. In the rear of the naval squadron, a third admiral would command the remaining ships and, as this section of the squadron was considered to be in the least danger, the admiral in command of the rear would be the most junior of the squadron admirals; this has survived into the modern age, with the rank of rear admiral the most-junior of the admiralty ranks of many navies. In some European navies, in the Canadian Forces' French rank translations, the rank of rear admiral is known as contre-amiral.
In the German Navy the rank is known as Konteradmiral, superior to the flotilla admiral. In the Royal Netherlands Navy, this rank is known as schout-bij-nacht, denoting the role junior to the squadron admiral, fleet admiral; the Royal Australian Navy maintains a rank of rear admiral. The abbreviation is RADM. Since the mid-1990s, the insignia of a Royal Australian Navy rear admiral is the Crown of St. Edward above a crossed sword and baton, above two silver stars, above the word "Australia". Like the Royal Navy version, the sword is a traditional naval cutlass; the stars have eight points, unlike the four pointed Order of the Bath stars used by the army. Prior to 1995, the RAN shoulder board was identical to the Royal Navy shoulder board; the Royal Navy shoulder board changed again in 2001 and the Australian and UK shoulder boards are now identical except for the word "Australia". Rear Admiral Robyn Walker became the first female admiral in the Royal Australian Navy when she was appointed Surgeon-General of the Australian Defence Force on 16 December 2011.
In the Royal Canadian Navy, the rank of rear-admiral is the Navy rank equivalent to major-general of the Army and Air Force. A rear-admiral is the naval equivalent of a general officer. A rear-admiral is senior to a commodore and brigadier-general, junior to a vice-admiral and lieutenant-general; the rank insignia for a rear-admiral is two silver maple leaves beneath a silver crossed sword and baton, all surmounted by St Edward's Crown, worn on gold shoulder boards on the white short-sleeved shirt or the tropical white tunic. The service dress features a wide strip of gold braid around the cuff and, since June 2010, above it a narrower strip of gold braid embellished with the executive curl. On the visor of the service cap are two rows of gold oak leaves. Konteradmiral is an OF-7 two-star rank equivalent to the Generalmajor in the German Army and the German Air Force; the Guyana Defence Force Coast Guard is the naval component of the Military of Guyana. As such, the ranks of the Coast Guard are naval ranks similar to the practice in the respective Coast Guards of Jamaica and Trinidad and Tobago.
The rank of rear admiral was first awarded to chief of staff commodore Gary Best on August 19, 2013. The rank insignia consists of two silver pips with green highlights, beneath a crossed sword and baton, all surmounted by the gold-colored Cacique's crown with red, green highlights; the Indian Navy maintains a rear admiral rank senior to commodore and captain ranks and junior to vice admiral ranks. The rank insignia for a rear-admiral is two stars beneath crossed sword and baton, all surmounted by Emblem of India, worn on shoulder boards. Before Islamic Revolution The Iranian Imperial Navy. After Islamic Revolution The Islamic Republic of Iran Navy known as the Iranian Navy. A rear admiral in the Pakistani Navy is a senior and two-star rank naval officer, appointed in higher naval commands. Like most Commonwealth navies, the rear admiral rank is superior to captain. However, the rank is junior to the three-star rank vice-admiral and four-star rank admiral, a Chief of Naval Staff of the Navy. Schout-bij-nacht is a Dutch Naval rank, equivalent to rear admiral in the US Royal Navy.
It is the second most junior admiral position of the Dutch Navy, ranking above commandeur and below a vice-admiraal. The rank of schout-bij-nacht originated between the 16th century. Interpreted as "watch-at-night", the schout-bij-nacht was the officer who supervised the ship when the captain was asleep. In times the schout-bij-nacht was the officer who supervised an entire naval squadron, in the absence of a senior admiral, by the 17th century schout-bij-nacht was the common rank held by the naval commander of a battle fleet's rear squadron. In the 17th century the navies of Sweden and Denmark-Norway adopted the rank as schoutbynacht and the early Imperial Russian Navy as шаутбенахт. In 1724 the Russians, followed in 1771 by both the Swedish navy and the Dano-Norwegian navy changed the name of the rank to counter admiral; the highest ordinary rank f