click links in text for more info

Sakskoburggotski Government

The eighty-fifth cabinet of Bulgaria known as the Tsar's cabinet ruled from July 24, 2001 to August 17, 2005. Although the National Movement Simeon II won half the seats in the 2001 parliamentary election, therefore could have governed alone, a cabinet was formed as a coalition between the winners and the Movement for Rights and Freedoms. Although not in a coalition with the Tsar's party, the Bulgarian Socialist Party held two cabinet posts, their members sat as independents. Note: the two independents are functionaries of the Bulgarian Socialist Party; the government agency on Energy and Energy Resources is transformed into a ministry. Milko Kovachev is appointed its minister. Bulgaria's Chief Negotiator with the European Union, Meglena Kuneva, is given a cabinet post: the Ministry of European Affairs; the government agency on Youth and Sport is transformed into a ministry. Vasil Ivanov-Luchano is appointed its minister. Kostadin Paskalev is removed from cabinet. Valentin Tserovski succeeds him as Minister of Public Works only.

On July 17 parliament approved a major cabinet reshuffle. The move was to "optimiz the government's work" according to foreign minister Solomon Passy; the move was announced against the backdrop of sliding approval ratings. Plamen Panaiotov is appointed deputy Prime Minister in charge of euro integration. Plamen Petrov is dismissed from cabinet. Nikolai Vasilev, keeping his position as deputy PM, moves to the Ministry of Transportation and Communications. Lydia Shuleva retaining her position as deputy PM, moves to the Ministry of Economy. Hristina Hristova, former deputy, takes the head of the Ministry of Social Policy. Bozhidar Finkov and Vladimir Atanasov are dismissed from their cabinet posts for failing to live up to the people's expectations, they are replaced by their deputies Slavcho Igor Damyanov respectively. Filiz Khyusmenova is appointed Minister without Portfolio. On March 10, 2004 eleven MPs from the NDSV left to form a new political party: New Time; this left the NDSV with a minority.

To fix the problem the NDSV-DPS coalition signed an agreement with New Time to keep the government in power until the elections in June. As part of the deal Miroslav Sevlievski became Minister of Energy Resources. Lidia Shuleva is removed from cabinet so Milko Kovachev Minister of Energy and Energy Resources, can succeed her as Minister of Economy. Mekhmed Dikme is dismissed from his post as Agriculture Minister and succeeded by his deputy Nihat Kabil. Bozhidar Abrashev is dismissed from his post as Minister of Culture; the government agency on tourism is added to the ministry. Original Composition of the Cabinet History of Bulgaria since 1989

Root canal

A root canal is the occurring anatomic space within the root of a tooth. It consists of the pulp chamber, the main canal, more intricate anatomical branches that may connect the root canals to each other or to the surface of the root. At the center of every tooth is a hollow area that houses soft tissues, such as the nerve, blood vessels, connective tissue; this hollow area contains a wide space in the coronal portion of the tooth called the pulp chamber. These canals run through the center of the roots, similar to the way graphite runs through a pencil; the pulp receives nutrition through the blood vessels, sensory nerves carry signals back to the brain. A tooth can be relieved from pain if there is irreversible damage to the pulp, via root canal treatment. Root canal anatomy consists of root canals. Both contain the dental pulp; the smaller branches, referred to as accessory canals, are most found near the root end, but may be encountered anywhere along the root length. The total number of root canals per tooth depends on the number of the tooth roots ranging from one to four, five or more in some cases.

Sometimes there are more than one root canal per root. Some teeth have a more variable internal anatomy than others. An unusual root canal shape, complex branching, multiple root canals are considered as the main causes of root canal treatment failures.. The specific features and complexity of the internal anatomy of the teeth have been studied. Using a replica technique on thousands of teeth, Hess made clear as early as 1917 that the internal space of dental roots is a complex system composed of a central area and lateral parts. In fact, this lateral component may represent a large volume, which challenges the cleaning phase of the instrumentation procedure in that tissue remnants of the vital or necrotic pulp as well as infectious elements are not removed in these areas. Thus, the image of root canals having a smooth, conical shape is too idealistic and underestimates the reach of root canal instrumentation; the space inside the root canals is filled with a vascularized, loose connective tissue, called dental pulp.

The dental pulp is the tissue. The dental pulp helps complete formation of the secondary teeth one to two years after eruption into the mouth; the dental pulp nourishes and hydrates the tooth structure, making the tooth more resilient, less brittle and less prone to fracture from chewing hard foods. Additionally, the dental pulp provides a cold sensory function. Root canals presenting an oval cross-section are found in 50–70% of root canals. In addition, canals with a "tear-shaped" cross section are common when a single root contains two canals, subtleties that can be more difficult to appreciate on classical radiographs. Recent studies have shown that use of cone-down CT scans can detect accessory canals that would have been missed in 23% of cases, which can in turn lead to apical periodontitis; the upper molars, in particular, are predisposed to have an occult accessory canal in nearly half of patients. Root canal is a colloquial term for a dental operation, endodontic therapy, wherein the pulp is cleaned out, the space disinfected and filled.

When rotary nickel titanium files are used in canals with flat-oval or tear-shaped cross sections, a circular bore is created due to the rotational action of the metal. Small cavities within the canal such as the buccal or lingual recesses may not be instrumented within the tooth leaving residual disease during disinfection. Tissue or biofilm remnants along such un-instrumented recesses may lead to failure due to both inadequate disinfection and the inability to properly obturate the root-canal space; the biofilm should be removed with a disinfectant Sodium hypochlorite, during root canal treatment. Dental implants Oral and maxillofacial surgery Ralph Frederick Sommer Root Canals at WebMD Video on Direct Pulp Capping, an alternative to Root Canal therapy

Albertinian Line

The Albertinian line was a line of the Habsburg dynasty, begun by Duke Albert III of Austria, after death of his elder brother Rudolf IV, divided the Habsburg hereditary lands with his brother Leopold III by the 1379 Treaty of Neuberg. The branch became extinct in the male line with the early death of Ladislaus the Posthumous in 1457. According to the terms of the treaty, Albert was the ruler over the Duchy of Austria proper, while the southern territories were ruled by his brother - Leopold III, ancestor of the Leopoldian line. Albert ruled over Austria until his death in 1395, his only son and heir was called Albert, he took the rule over his territories as Albert IV and came to terms with his Leopoldian cousins William, Leopold IV, Ernest and Frederick IV. When Albert IV died in 1404 he left a minor son - Duke Albert V of Austria, who remained under the tutelage of his Leopoldine uncles William and Leopold IV. Having assumed the rule over Austria, Albert V in 1421 married Elizabeth of Luxembourg, the only child of Emperor Sigismund.

After Sigismund's death in 1437, he was crowned King of King of Bohemia. In 1438 he was elected King of the Romans and Emperor-to-be, anticipating the powers of the Habsburg Monarchy, however, he died the next year; the Hungarian throne passed to Polish king Władysław III against the fierce resistance of Albert's widow Elizabeth. Albert had left a son, born only after his death, thereby known as Ladislaus the Posthumous. Ladislaus had to wait for many years for the moment. Heir of both the Kingdom of Bohemia and the Kingdom of Hungary, he remained under the tutelage of his Leopoldian cousin Frederick V, who in 1440 had been elected King of the Romans upon Albert's death. Ladislaus' claims to Hungary were acknowledged after King Władysław had been killed in the 1444 Battle of Varna, however, he became the real ruler only after the death of regent John Hunyadi in 1456; as he had no children, his sudden death in 1457 ended the history of the Albertinian line. Its holdings in Austria reverted to his cousin Duke Frederick V. Albert III with the Pigtail, Duke of Austria from 1365 until his death, Duke of Styria, Carinthia and Count of Tyrol until 1379 X Elizabeth of Luxembourg, daughter of Emperor Charles IV, Holy Roman Emperor X Beatrice of Hohenzollern, daughter of Burgrave Frederick V of Nuremberg Albert IV the Patient, Duke of Austria from 1395 until his death X Joanna Sophia of Wittelsbach, daughter of Duke Albert I of BavariaMargaret X Duke Henry XVI of Bavaria Albert V the Magnanimous, Duke of Austria from 1404, King of Hungary from 1437, King of Bohemia and King of the Romans from 1438 until his death X Elizabeth of Luxembourg, daughter of Emperor Sigismund, King of Bohemia and HungaryAnne X Landgrave William III of Thuringia George Elizabeth X Casimir IV Jagiellon, Grand Duke of Lithuania and King of Poland Ladislaus the Posthumous, Duke of Austria from 1440, King of Hungary from 1444 and King of Bohemia from 1453 until his deathLine extinct Habsburg family tree

Knoebels Amusement Resort

Knoebels Amusement Resort is a family-owned and operated amusement park, picnic grove, campground in Elysburg, Pennsylvania. Opened in 1926, it is America's largest free-admission park; the park has more than 60 rides including three wooden roller coasters, one steel roller coaster, a 1913 carousel, a haunted house dark ride. The amusement park is owned and operated by the Knoebel family, who operate a lumber yard next to the park; the park's name has traditionally been spelled "Knoebels" without the apostrophe, appears that way on all official park advertising and correspondence. The park straddles the line between Columbia Counties; the complex is in the Columbia County townships of Cleveland and Franklin and is in Ralpho Township on the Northumberland County side of the South Branch Roaring Creek. The park and its rides have won awards from organizations such as Amusement Today, American Coaster Enthusiasts, the International Association of Amusement Parks and Attractions. In 2014, Travel Channel rated Knoebels one of their Top 10 Family Friendly Amusement Parks in the United States.

America's Number One Amusement Park In 2008, the park’s dark ride was the subject of a one-hour documentary, "Laff In The Dark’s Behind The Scenes At Knoebel’s Haunted House". Knoebels is located in a small wooded valley in central Pennsylvania; the valley known as "Peggy's Farm", with its creek-fed swimming hole, was a popular picnic destination in the early 20th century, attracting Sunday travelers and horse-drawn hayride wagons. Henry Knoebel, who farmed in the area, tended the horses and sold soft drinks, ice cream, snacks to the visitors; as the popularity of "Knoebels Grove" grew, Knoebel leased plots of land along the creeks for use as summer cottage sites. Some of these owned cottages, as well as cottages Knoebel built and rented, still exist in the park. In 1926, Knoebel added a restaurant, a steam-powered Philadelphia Toboggan Company carousel, a few simple games to his grove, marking the beginning of Knoebels Amusement Park. On July 4, 1926, he opened a large concrete swimming pool on the site of the old swimming hole.

Featuring a filtration system that provided clean water instead of muddy creek water, the pool was named "The Crystal Pool". Since the park has developed around the pool, adding 50 rides, assorted games, concession stands, other attractions. A campground with six sites opened behind the amusement park in 1962, as of 2004, the campground covered 160 acres with 500 sites. On June 22, 1972, the creeks that run through Knoebels, swollen with heavy rains from Hurricane Agnes, rose 6 feet over their banks; the flood destroyed six cottages and damaged many other buildings, including 24 of 25 rides and the park's roller rink. The roller rink building was re-floored and used as a skating rink until the mid-1980s, when it was converted into the "Roaring Creek Saloon", which now contains a concession stand, an arcade, the XD Theater, performances. A new building constructed after the flood became the Haunted Mansion, where the Haunted Mansion dark ride opened in 1973; the ride has been recognized as one of America's best dark rides by organizations such as Dark Ride and Funhouse Enthusiasts and the National Amusement Park Historical Association.

The park again suffered major flooding in 1975, 1996, 2004, 2006, 2011. Each caused substantial damage. Although the January 1996 flood left substantial damage, the worst occurred after the waters receded, when everything froze, making cleanup and repair throughout the amusement park difficult; the September 2004 flood, caused by the remnants of Hurricane Ivan, was only a half-day affair and Knoebels staff had the amusement park reopened by mid-afternoon. On June 28, 2006, a flood second only to the Agnes flood struck Knoebels. About 90 percent of the amusement park was under water just prior to the July 4th weekend; as the waters began to recede, Knoebels staff was able to reopen over 60 percent of its attractions within two days and 90 percent within four days. Because over 100 tons of mud had to be dug out of the Crystal Pool, it required 10 days to be operational; the last ride to return to operation was the Kiddie Panther Cars, whose repairs took three weeks. On September 7, 2011, Knoebels experienced its most recent flood, caused by Tropical Storm Lee.

Water levels neared those of the flood of 1972 and damages exceeded that flood. The majority of the park reopened the following weekend. For the 2013 season, Knoebels added StratosFear, the park's tallest ride at 148 feet, which became a top thrill for everyone. In 2015 a new roller coaster opened, named the "Impulse", that replaced two former rides, the bumper boats and boat tag, both of, losing popularity, while maintenance costs became high. In 2016, Knoebels celebrated its 90th anniversary and opened The Nickle Plate Bar and Grill at Knoebels Three Ponds Golf Club. On July 23, 2018, Knoebels was flooded when a creek flooded the park. About 150 employees were at the park cleaning up; the park flooded again on July 25, 2018. The park reopened on July 27, 2018; the park offers free admission, free parking, free entertainment. Visitors are able to ride the park's attractions by purchasing either pay-one-price, all-day/unlimited-access wristbands, limited-access hand stamps or books of tickets, with hand stamp costs varying depending on the height of the rider.

Knoebels has several hand stamp options, such as "Sundown Plan" and "Bargain Nights", when the park offers discounts

William McCarthy, Baron McCarthy

William Edward John McCarthy, Baron McCarthy was a British Labour politician. McCarthy was a fellow of Nuffield College and Templeton College, Oxford and a specialist in industrial relations, he was created a life peer in 1976. From 1979 to 1997 he was Opposition Spokesperson for Employment. McCarthy was described as "one of Britain’s most influential academics in the field of industrial relations, a painstaking arbiter in the most testing of disputes.. "McCarthy grew up in Islington and attended Holloway County School. He worked in a gentlemen's outfitter, where he was a representative of the Usdaw trade union which sponsored him to study for a diploma at Ruskin College, Oxford, he achieved a first class honours degree in philosophy and economics at Merton College, Oxford and a DPhil at Nuffield College, Oxford. He remained at Oxford as a research fellow. In 1965 he was appointed research director of the Royal Commission on Trade Unions and Employers’ Associations; the body was set up by the Harold Wilson government and led to the failed "In Place of Strife" reforms proposed by Barbara Castle.

In the following three years McCarthy carried out extensive research into the election of shop stewards. In 1978 McCarthy was involved in the arbitration in the dispute over bonuses for drivers of the high-speed Advanced Passenger Train. ASLEF, the train-drivers’ union insisted that the bonus be paid to all its members and went on strike in protest. McCarthy ruled that only those driving at more than 100 mph should receive the bonus, but it took the union a year to accept the ruling. McCarthy was a distinguished supporter of the British Humanist Association.. The Closed Shop in Britain The Role of Shop Stewards in British Industrial Relations Trade Unions Coming to Terms with Trade Unions Strikes in Post-War Britain Fairness at Work