World Geodetic System
The World Geodetic System is a standard for use in cartography and navigation including GPS. It comprises a standard system for the Earth, a standard spheroidal reference surface for raw altitude data. The latest revision is WGS84, established in 1984 and last revised in 2004, earlier schemes included WGS72, WGS66, and WGS60. WGS84 is the coordinate system used by the Global Positioning System. The coordinate origin of WGS84 is meant to be located at the Earths center of mass, the error is believed to be less than 2 cm. The WGS84 meridian of longitude is the IERS Reference Meridian,5.31 arc seconds or 102.5 metres east of the Greenwich meridian at the latitude of the Royal Observatory. The WGS84 datum surface is a spheroid with major radius a =6378137 m at the equator. The polar semi-minor axis b equals a times, or 6356752.3142 m, currently, WGS84 uses the EGM96 geoid, revised in 2004. This geoid defines the sea level surface by means of a spherical harmonics series of degree 360. The deviations of the EGM96 geoid from the WGS84 reference ellipsoid range from about −105 m to about +85 m, EGM96 differs from the original WGS84 geoid, referred to as EGM84.
Efforts to supplement the national surveying systems began in the 19th century with F. R. Helmerts famous book Mathematische und Physikalische Theorien der Physikalischen Geodäsie. Austria and Germany founded the Zentralbüro für die Internationale Erdmessung, a unified geodetic system for the whole world became essential in the 1950s for several reasons, International space science and the beginning of astronautics. The lack of inter-continental geodetic information, efforts of the U. S. Army and Air Force were combined leading to the DoD World Geodetic System 1960. Heritage surveying methods found elevation differences from a local horizontal determined by the level, plumb line. As a result, the elevations in the data are referenced to the geoid, the latter observational method is more suitable for global mapping. The sole contribution of data to the development of WGS60 was a value for the ellipsoid flattening which was obtained from the nodal motion of a satellite. Prior to WGS60, the U. S.
Army, the Army performed an adjustment to minimize the difference between astro-geodetic and gravimetric geoids. By matching the relative astro-geodetic geoids of the selected datums with an earth-centered gravimetric geoid, since the Army and Air Force systems agreed remarkably well for the NAD, ED and TD areas, they were consolidated and became WGS60
Transport in London
London has an extensive and developed transport network which includes both private and public services. Journeys made by transport systems account for 25% of Londons journeys while private services accounted for 41% of journeys. Londons public transport network serves as the hub for the United Kingdom in rail, air. Public transport services are dominated by the agency for transport in London. TfL controls the majority of transport, including the Underground, Tramlink, the Docklands Light Railway, London River Services. Other rail services are either franchised to train operating companies by the national Department for Transport, TfL controls most major roads in London, but not minor roads. In addition, there are several independent airports operating in London, including Heathrow, early public transport in London began with horse-drawn omnibus services in 1829, which were gradually replaced by the first motor omnibuses in 1902. Over the years the companies which began these services amalgamated with the London General Omnibus Company to form a unified bus service.
The Underground Group became part of the new London Passenger Transport Board in 1933, Underground trains, the London Transport name continued in use until 2000, although the political management of transport services changed several times. The LPTB oversaw transport from 1933 to 1947 until it was re-organised into the London Transport Executive, responsibility for London Transport was subsequently taken over to the London Transport Board, the Greater London Council and London Regional Transport. Following the privatisation of London bus services in 1986, bus services were spun off to a separate operation based on competitive tendering, Transport for London operates three different railway systems across London. The largest is the London Underground, a transit system operating on sub-surface lines. TfL operates the Docklands Light Railway, a light rail system in the east of the city. The London Underground and the DLR account for 40 percent of the journeys between Inner London and Outer London, making them the most highly used systems in all of London and these three systems extend to most points of London, creating a comprehensive and extensive system.
One major area missed by these systems is South London, which is dominated by a suburban rail network. Colloquially known as the Tube, the London Underground was the first rapid transit system in the world, more than 3 million passengers travel on the Underground every day, amounting to over 1 billion passenger journeys per year for the first time in 2006. The Underground serves North London much more extensively than South London and this is the result of a combination of unfavourable geology, historical competition from surface railways and the historical geography of London which was focused to the north of the River Thames. South London is served primarily by surface railways Carrying nearly 50% of Londons commuters, the Docklands Light Railway is an automated light rail system serving the Docklands area of east London
London Borough of Lambeth
Lambeth is a London borough in south London, which forms part of Inner London. Its name was recorded in 1062 as Lambehitha and in 1255 as Lambeth, Lambeth was part of the large, ancient parish of Lambeth St Mary, the site of the archepiscopal Lambeth Palace, in the hundred of Brixton in the county of Surrey. It was an elongated north-south parish with 2 miles of River Thames frontage opposite the cities of London, Lambeth became part of the Metropolitan Police District in 1829. It remained a parish for Poor Law purposes after the Poor Law Amendment Act 1834, until 1889, Surrey included the present-day London borough of Lambeth. Young was commissioned to make recommendations to the government on the shape of the future London boroughs. However, Wandsworths suggestion to merge Lambeth with the Metropolitan Borough of Battersea was rejected by both councils involved, in 1979, the administration of Edward Knight organised the boroughs first public demonstration against the Thatcher government. In 1985 Knights Labour administration was subjected to rate-capping, with its budget restricted by the government and most of the Labour councillors protested by refusing to propose budgets.
As a result of the protest,32 councillors were ordered to repay interest lost by the due to budgeting delays and were disqualified from office. In 1991, Joan Twelves administration failed to collect the poll tax, the following year, Twelves and 12 other councillors were suspended from the local Labour Party by regional officials for advocating non-payment of the poll tax and other radical ideas. Twelves equally-militant deputy leader at this time was John Harrison, from 1978 to 2002 the council comprised 64 members, elected from 20 three-member and two two-member wards. Before this, the council had 60 members elected from 20 three-member wards, just before the 2010 election, its political balance was 37 Labour members,18 Liberal Democrats, seven Conservatives and one Green, giving Labour an eleven-member majority. In the 2010 Lambeth Council election, Labour gained seats and the Liberal Democrats, Conservatives, in 2014 the Liberal Democrats lost their seats, Conservatives were reduced to three and the Greens to one.
Labour, gaining seats from the Conservatives and Liberal Democrats, had 59 seats, in the 2016 European Union referendum, Lambeth at 78. 62% had the highest share of Remain vote in the United Kingdom, second to Gibraltars 95. 9%. Lambeth is a long, thin borough, about 3 miles wide and 7 miles long, Brixton is its civic centre, and there are other town centres. The largest shopping areas are Streatham, Vauxhall, Clapham, in the northern part of the borough are the central London districts of the South Bank and Lambeth, in the south are the suburbs of Gipsy Hill, West Dulwich and West Norwood. Vauxhall and South Lambeth are central districts in the process of redevelopment with high-density business, Streatham is between suburban London and inner-city Brixton, with the suburban and developed areas of Streatham, Streatham Hill and Streatham Vale. Despite the boroughs population density, Lambeth has open spaces and around the South Bank, a tourist area has developed around the former Greater London Council headquarters of County Hall and the Southbank Centre and National Theatre.
Also on the river is the London Eye and Shell Centre, nearby is St Thomas Hospital, Lambeth Palace and the Florence Nightingale Museum
Gipsy Hill railway station
Gipsy Hill railway station is in the London Borough of Lambeth in south London. It is situated on the Crystal Palace Line, the station, and all trains serving it, are operated by Southern, and it is in Travelcard Zone 3. The station is located at grid reference TQ333712, ticket barriers were installed in February 2009
London, Brighton and South Coast Railway
The London and South Coast Railway was a railway company in the United Kingdom from 1846 to 1922. Its territory formed a triangle, with London at its apex, practically the whole coastline of Sussex as its base. It was bounded on its side by the London and South Western Railway. It served the inland towns/cities of Chichester, East Grinstead and Lewes, at the London end was a complicated suburban and outer-suburban network of lines emanating from London Bridge and Victoria, and shared interests in two cross-London lines. The London and Brighton Railway, created in 1837 and opened in 1841, the Brighton Lewes and Hastings Railway, created in February 1844, opened in June 1846. The Croydon and Epsom Railway, created in July 1844, under construction at the time of amalgamation, at the time of its creation the LB&SCR had around 170 route miles in existence or under construction, consisting of three main routes and a number of branches. The main line to Brighton from London Bridge opened in 1841, the sections between Corbetts Lane and London Bridge and between Croydon and Redhill were shared with the South Eastern Railway.
There were two lines under construction at the time of the amalgamation, the Sutton & Mole Valley Lines from Croydon to Epsom. The West Sussex coast line originated with a line from Brighton to Shoreham. This was extended to Chichester by the time of the amalgamation, a connecting spur from the Brighton main line at Keymer Junction near Haywards Heath to the Brighton-Lewes line was under construction at the time of amalgamation. A short line from New Cross to Deptford Wharf, proposed by the L&CR, was approved in July 1846, shortly before amalgamation, a short branch from this line to the nearby Surrey Commercial Docks in Rotherhithe opened in July 1855. The main London terminus was the L&CR station at London Bridge, built by the London and Greenwich Railway in 1836, and exchanged for the original L&CR station in 1842. For the first few years of its existence, LB&SCR trains used the L&GR lines from Corbett’s Lane into London, the LB&SCR inherited from the L&CR running powers to the smaller SER passenger terminus at Bricklayers Arms.
Poorly sited for passengers, it closed in 1852 and was converted into a goods station, the LB&SCR owned two stations at Croydon, East Croydon and West Croydon. The L&CR had been operated by the atmospheric principle between Croydon and Forest Hill, as the first phase of a scheme to use this mode of operation between London and Epsom. However, following a number of problems, the LB&SCR abandoned atmospheric operation in May 1847. This enabled it to build its own lines into London Bridge, the history of the LB&SCR can be studied in five distinct periods. However, the LB&SCR had one important playing card not available to the L&BR – control of the SER main line between New Cross and Croydon, under this agreement the LB&SCR would have free access to London Bridge, Bricklayers Arms station and goods yard, and Hastings
Forest Hill railway station
Forest Hill railway station is a railway station in Forest Hill, part of the London Borough of Lewisham. The station is adjoins a road serves as part of the South Circular Road. The station is operated by London Overground, with London Overground and some Southern services pass through the station and it is in Travelcard Zone 3. There are four tracks through the station, although only the lines have platforms. It lies on the Brighton Main Line between Honor Oak Park and Sydenham stations, there are two entrances, the main one being on platform 1 at the bottom of the South Circular Road, and a side entrance on platform 2 on Perry Vale. The ticket office is placed in the entrance, although there are ticket machines outside both entrances. The station was opened by the original London & Croydon Railway on 5 June 1839, the line was used by the London and Brighton Railway from 1841 and the South Eastern Railway from 1842. In 1844, the station was chosen by the L&CR as the terminus for Phase 1 of an experimental Atmospheric railway to West Croydon. A pumping station was constructed at the station.
The L&CR and the L&BR merged to form the London Brighton and South Coast Railway in July 1846, in 1845 the station became Forest Hill for Lordship Lane. The LB&SCR moved the Down platform during the early 1850s when the line was quadrupled, the LB&SCR station buildings were destroyed by bombing during World War II and have been replaced by a more modern system-built structure. The short narrow island platform serving the fast lines was demolished in the early 1960s, Forest Hill is served by 8 trains in each direction off peak, with additional Southern services at peak hours. Southern operates 4 to 8 car trains throughout the day, with 10 carriage trains at peak hours, off-peak frequencies are, In a rail meeting in Sydenham, Southern said Thameslink trains may stop here after the Thameslink Programme is completed in 2018. London Buses routes 122,176,185,197 and 356 serve the station, train times and station information for Forest Hill railway station from National Rail
The name and the accompanying double arrow symbol are the intellectual property of the Secretary of State for Transport. The National Rail logo was introduced by ATOC in 1999, and was used on the Great Britain public timetable for the first time in the edition valid from 26 September in that year. Rules for its use are set out in the Corporate Identity Style Guidelines published by the Rail Delivery Group, the NR title is sometimes described as a brand. As it was used by British Rail, the operator before franchising, its use maintains continuity and public familiarity. National Rail should not be confused with Network Rail, the two networks are generally coincident where passenger services are run. Most major Network Rail lines carry traffic and some lines are freight only. About twenty privately owned operating companies, each franchised for a defined term by government. The Rail Delivery Group is the association representing the TOCs and provides core services. It runs Rail Settlement Plan, which allocates ticket revenue to the various TOCs, and Rail Staff Travel and it does not compile the national timetable, which is the joint responsibility of the Office of Rail Regulation and Network Rail.
Since the privatisation of British Rail there is no longer a single approach to design on railways in Great Britain, the look and feel of signage and marketing material is largely the preserve of the individual TOCs. However, National Rail continues to use BRs famous double-arrow symbol and it has been incorporated in the National Rail logotype and is displayed on tickets, the National Rail website and other publicity. The trademark rights to the arrow symbol remain state-owned, being vested in the Secretary of State for Transport. The double arrow was already prescribed for indicating a railway station, the lettering used in the National Rail logotype is a modified form of the typeface Sassoon Bold. It is a misconception that Rail Alphabet was used for printed material. The British Rail typefaces of choice from 1965 were Helvetica and Univers, TOCs may use what they like, examples include Futura, Frutiger, and a modified version of Precious by London Midland. Several conurbations have their own metro or tram systems, most of which are not part of National Rail, LO now possesses some infrastructure in its own right, following the reopening of the former East London line of London Underground as the East London Railway of LO.
Heathrow Express and Eurostar are not part of the National Rail network despite sharing of stations, northern Ireland Railways were never part of British Rail, which was always confined to Great Britain, and therefore are not part of the National Rail network. National Rail services have a common ticketing structure inherited from British Rail, through tickets are available between any pair of stations on the network, and can be bought from any station ticket office
The A215 is an A road in South London, starting at Elephant and Castle and finishing around Shirley. It runs through the London Boroughs of Lambeth and Croydon, beginning as Walworth Road, the A215 becomes Camberwell Road—much of which is a conservation area—after entering the former Metropolitan Borough of Camberwell. Crossing the A202, the A215 becomes Denmark Hill, originally known as Dulwich Hill, after passing Herne Hill railway station the road becomes Norwood Road, Knights Hill, and Beulah Hill at its crossroads with the A214. Beulah Hill was the site of Britains first independent television transmitter, descending towards South Norwood the A215 becomes South Norwood Hill and Portland Road, just after crossing the A213. A short section starting at the junction with Woodside Green is known as Spring Lane, leading to Shirley Road, the A215 was Britains most crash-prone A-road between 1999-2010, having had 2,836 crashes over its 10 mile length. At its northernmost point at Elephant & Castle in Newington, the A215 begins as Walworth Road and it runs through Walworth and is the major shopping street of the area.
East Street Market is especially busy on Fridays and Sundays, other attractions include the Cuming Museum, Newington Reference Library and John Smith House, a former Labour Party headquarters which is now used by the local education authority. Charles Babbage, the Victorian mathematician and computer pioneer, was born at 44 Crosby Row, now Larcom Street. A commemorative blue plaque is displayed on the Sexual Health Clinic at the junction of Larcom Street, just off the Walworth Road was Walworth Road railway station on the London and Dover Railway that was opened in 1863 and shut in 1916 due to wartime constraints. Walworth Road transitions into Camberwell Road where the A215 enters the former Metropolitan Borough of Camberwell, the road runs adjacent to the railway between Elephant & Castle tube station and Loughborough Junction railway station. Much of Camberwell Road is an area, due to its well preserved large houses from the early 19th century. By the time of the Domesday Book, Camberwell was already a significant settlement, the town remained a popular resort for Londoners due to its believed medicinal wells.
In 1685, John Evelyns Diary mentions a Roman urn filled with bones which was uncovered intact during repairs to the road, Camberwell Green, at the junction of Camberwell Road and Camberwell Church Street, was the traditional site of Camberwell Fair, an annual fair held every August. Following complaints about the noise and high crime levels generated by the fair, in Victorian times Camberwell Road was a focal point of South Londons Music hall scene, with a number of music halls opening from the 1850s onwards. Following the advent of the cinema and of television, the halls fell into decline. Nearby Orpheus Street marks the site of the Metropole Music Hall, since the New Works Programme of the 1930s, London Transport and its successors have planned to extend the Bakerloo line south to a station on Camberwell Road. The original plans were abandoned due to the war before much construction had been completed, construction again began in the 1950s and 1970s, but was abandoned each time. Transport for London still intend to build this extension but no date has been set for this, after the A215 crosses the A202 it becomes Denmark Hill
CLASP (British Rail)
The CLASP system was a scheme developed in the 1950s by English local authorities to devise a method of designing and assembling prefabricated buildings for use in the public sector. The former Southern Region of British Rail, the railway operator, adopted the system in the 1960s and 1970s and used it for signalboxes. The Western Region rebuilt some stations using the same methods, the CLASP method, used since the 1950s by local authorities for schools and other public buildings, was chosen. Windows were small and placed high on the building, immediately below the roof, evenly spaced wooden or metal pillars held up canopies which were usually wood-panelled underneath. Pre-formed panels of aggregate-coated concrete formed the outer walls, the first CLASP signalboxes were built in 1964, in 1965, the scope was widened to include stations. The structures were built and quickly decayed, several were soon replaced by new buildings. The Southern Region abandoned the scheme in 1973, although the Western Region adopted it at three locations between 1971 and 1977, the SCOLA scheme, similar to CLASP, was developed for use by schools.
Its buildings made use of brick and timber instead of concrete, British Rail used it twice on the Southern Region, when Newington and Teynham stations were rebuilt in the late 1970s to suit one-man operation. From 1980 and throughout the ten years and into the 1990s, British Rail adopted a new system of brick buildings with apex roofs
Crystal Palace railway station
Crystal Palace is a Network Rail and London Overground station in the London Borough of Bromley in south London. It is located in the Anerley area between the centres of Crystal Palace and Penge. It is one of two built to serve the site of the 1851 exhibition building, the Crystal Palace. The station was opened on 10 June 1854 by the West End of London and it was formerly known as Crystal Palace to differentiate it from the nearby and now demolished Crystal Palace railway station. The station serves trains running between London Bridge and London Victoria in addition to services terminating at Beckenham Junction and Sutton, since 23 May 2010, the station has been a terminus of the East London Line of the London Overground. This has been the catalyst for plans for a redevelopment of the station. From the outset trains were operated by the London, initially the station was the terminus of a spur line from Sydenham. In 1856 the station was able to take through train services to Wandsworth via West Norwood and Streatham Hill, in 1857, an eastward connection was made to Norwood Junction and in 1858 the WEL&CPR was extended as far as Beckenham.
From 1860 direct services were extended to London Victoria and this is a description of the station trainshed roof above the staircases at the west end. Originally the whole length of the platforms beyond the bottom of the staircases was covered by an elegant dual bow-spring arch iron roof. This was removed as a precautionary measure shortly after the collapse of the structure at Charing Cross in 1905. He envisaged the construction of a tunnel which would run from Crystal Palace to Cricklewood in north-west London and it was to be operated with an unusual monorail system patented by Kearney which would be powered by gravity, like a type of underground roller coaster. Kearney failed to support for his scheme and the line was never built. The line was electrified between Balham and Crystal Palace on 12 May 1911, using the LBSCR overhead system, in time for the Festival of Empire coinciding with the coronation of King George V. Electric trains from Victoria were advertised to complete the journey in fifteen minutes - a running time that has never been equalled.
The station is built on the junction of two lines, the station platforms lying on the Sydenham route, and the platforms on the southern spur to Norwood Junction. The southern platforms became the pair and the entrance to the station was moved to the south side of the building in the 1980s. A glazed ticket hall, which echoed the profile of the Crystal Palace with its roof structure, was constructed at this time on the southern flank of the Victorian building
Streatham Hill railway station
Streatham Hill railway station is one of three stations serving the district of Streatham, in the London Borough of Lambeth. The wooden station building at street level faces the busy Streatham High Road at the junction with Leigham Court Road. Access to the platforms - which are in a cutting below street level, a project to replace the staircases and introduce lift access was completed in 2009. The station is served by Class 377s and Class 455s, the railway station was opened by the West End of London and Crystal Palace Railway on 1 December 1856, originally being named Streatham. Trains were operated from the outset by the London, Brighton and it was renamed Streatham & Brixton Hill on 1 September 1868 before receiving its present name present name on 1 January 1869. There is a depot for maintenance of the carriages at the London end of the station. Some of the lighting gantries above the sidings are remains of the overhead electric power supply that the LB&SCR introduced on this line on 12 May 1911.
This was abandoned in June 1928 when the Southern Railway replaced it with third rail electrification, typical off peak train service is, Platform 1, four trains per hour to Victoria Station via Balham, Wandsworth Common, Clapham Junction and Battersea Park. Platform 2, trains call at West Norwood, Gipsy Hill, two trains each hour continue to Sutton calling at Norwood Junction, West Croydon and stations to Sutton, the other two continue to London Bridge via the Crystal Palace Line and Brighton Main Line. Some evening trains to Sutton are extended to Epsom and Epsom Downs. London Buses routes 50,57,109,118,133,159,201,250,255,319,333,417 and P13 and night routes N109, N133 and N137 serve the station
Railway Clearing House
When passengers travelled between two stations on the same railway, using trains provided by the same company, that company was entitled to the whole of the fare. Similarly, when goods were consigned between two stations on the railway, using wagons provided by the same company, that company was entitled to the whole of the fee. However, when coaches or wagons owned by a different company were used, the Railway Clearing House was founded as a means by which these receipts could be apportioned fairly. The Railway Clearing House commenced operations on 2 January 1842 in small offices at 111 Drummond Street opposite Euston Station and these premises were owned by the London and Birmingham Railway, which provided the initial costs of setting up the organisation. This first meeting agreed the principles by which the activities of the RCH were to be funded. This involved a payment per station served plus an apportionment of the balance of costs according to the total share of receipts of each participating company.
The first manager was Kenneth Morrison, auditor of the London, owing to expansion, the RCH moved to larger purpose-built premises in Seymour Street in early 1849, which remained its headquarters for the rest of its existence. By the end of 1850 a further 21 companies had joined, including several of the leading Scottish companies, however it still lacked the Great Western Railway and the companies South of London. It was soon realised that the RCH provided a meeting point where different railways could discuss points of disagreement. Besides meeting rooms, the RCH provided secretarial facilities for these discussions, conferences between railway managers were arranged, as were conferences between the different railways departmental heads. In this way, railways moved towards many common practices, without the need for legislation, the system had a weakness, in that a unanimous vote was required for a recommendation to become compulsory. In due course, the RCH was given legal status by a private Act of Parliament, although initiated by the members companies themselves, the Bill, in fact, reduced the scope of the RCH, while making it easier to enforce debt collection among members.
A attempt, in 1859, via Parliament, to re-extend the powers and potential membership of the RCH, a separate organisation, the United Railway Companies Committee, was formed in 1858, but folded in 1861. It was re-established in June 1867 and became the Railway Companies Association in 1869, in 1897, the RCH was established as a body corporate. During both World Wars, the railways were placed under government control, and the receipts were pooled, during these periods, the duties of the RCH were very much reduced, but they continued to provide their secretarial functions. As railway companies amalgamated, so the number of members reduced, until it had just one member, as part of the Transport Act 1947, the Acts of Incorporation were repealed. Most of the powers, property and liabilities were transferred to the BTC on 24 May 1954. The BTC continued the remaining functions of the RCH, still under the name Railway Clearing House, on 22 September 1847, the RCH recommended that Greenwich Mean Time be adopted as the standard time for all railways in the United Kingdom