Nicholas Edward Nick Cave AO is an Australian musician, singer-songwriter, screenwriter and occasional film actor, best known as the frontman of Nick Cave and the Bad Seeds. NME called him the lord of gothic lushness. Born and raised in rural Victoria, Cave studied art in Melbourne, in the 1970s, he formed and fronted the Boys Next Door, which spearheaded Melbournes bourgeoning post-punk scene. They changed their name to the Birthday Party and relocated to London in 1980, disillusioned by life in England, the bands sound and live shows became increasingly violent, and they garnered a reputation as one of darkest and most challenging groups of the 1980s. For this they are credited as an influence on gothic rock. The band, having released three albums and two EPs, fell apart after moving to West Berlin in 1983, after the break up of the Birthday Party, Cave formed Nick Cave and the Bad Seeds in 1983, releasing its debut album the following year. The 1996 album Murder Ballads featured Where the Wild Roses Grow, Skeleton Tree, the bands sixteenth and most recent album, was released in 2016.
Cave formed the rock group Grinderman in 2006, which has since released two albums. Cave co-wrote and starred in the 1988 Australian prison film Ghosts. of the Civil Dead, Cave wrote the screenplay for Hillcoats bushranger film The Proposition, and composed the soundtrack with frequent collaborator Warren Ellis. The pairs film score credits include The Assassination of Jesse James by the Coward Robert Ford, The Road, Cave is the subject and co-writer of the semi-fictional day in the life documentary 20,000 Days on Earth. He has released two novels, And the Ass Saw the Angel and The Death of Bunny Munro, Caves songs have been covered by a wide range of artists, including Johnny Cash and Arctic Monkeys. He is an Australian artist like Sidney Nolan is an Australian artist—beyond comparison, beyond genre, Cave was born on 22 September 1957 in Warracknabeal, a small country town in the state of Victoria, Australia, to Dawn Cave and Colin Frank Cave. As a child, he lived in Warracknabeal and Wangaratta in rural Victoria and his father taught English and mathematics at the local technical school, his mother was a librarian at the high school that Nick attended.
When Cave was 9 he joined the choir of Wangaratta’s Holy Trinity Cathedral, at 13 he was expelled from Wangaratta High School. In 1970, having moved with his family to the Melbourne suburb of Murrumbeena, after his secondary schooling, Cave studied painting at the Caulfield Institute of Technology in 1976, but dropped out the following year to pursue music. He began using heroin around the time that he left art school, Cave attended his first music concert at Melbournes Festival Hall. The bill consisted of Manfred Mann, Deep Purple and Free, Cave recalled, I remember sitting there and feeling physically the sound going through me. In 1973, Cave met Mick Harvey, Phill Calvert, John Cochivera, Brett Purcell and they founded a band with Cave as singer
British Airways i360
The British Airways i360 is a 162-metre observation tower on the seafront of Brighton, near to the remains of the West Pier. According to the operator, the i in the stands for intelligence, innovation. The i360 opened on 4 August 2016, the i360 was designed, engineered and promoted by the team responsible for the London Eye. The projected cost of the tower is £46 million, with £36 million being funded by a Public Works Loan Board loan through Brighton, in 2014, some local residents launched a petition to oppose the loan. Formerly known as the Brighton i360, the aims to attract 739,000 paying customers every year. The owner of the site, the West Pier Trust, hoped in 2014 that a successful i360 would lead to the rebuilding of the historic West Pier, the i360 was designed by architectural company Marks Barfield, which designed the London Eye. The building was conceived as a vertical pier, the design includes a beachfront building that allows access to the tower and houses a brasserie and gift shop.
The tower is designed as a 162 m tall structure with an ascending and descending circular viewing platform with capacity for 200 people. It is Britains highest moving observation tower, with a platform at 138 metres. The viewing platform is higher than the nearby Sussex Heights tower block and Whitehawk Hill, and about the same height as Thundersbarrow Hill, Red Hill and Race Hill around Brighton & Hove. The top is about the height as Beeding Hill to the northwest and Falmer Hill to the northeast. Plans were submitted in June 2006 and were approved by Brighton, work on the tower itself began in May 2014, with the attraction being scheduled to open in 2016. The Dutch steelwork specialist Hollandia prefabricated the steel sections of the tower. The column is 4 metres in diameter, and with a ratio of 40,1. The glass passenger pod was designed and built by cable car specialists POMA, the passenger pod is 18 metres in diameter and holds up to 200 people. The viewing pod travels from street level to a height of 138 metres before returning to beach level, the pod provides a 360 degree view through curved glass and is heated and air-conditioned, with full wheelchair accessibility and bench seating.
It contains a bar, and restaurant in the building called the Belle Vue. English Heritage felt that the 2006 plan would provide a feature on the seafront
World War I
World War I, known as the First World War, the Great War, or the War to End All Wars, was a global war originating in Europe that lasted from 28 July 1914 to 11 November 1918. More than 70 million military personnel, including 60 million Europeans, were mobilised in one of the largest wars in history and it was one of the deadliest conflicts in history, and paved the way for major political changes, including revolutions in many of the nations involved. The war drew in all the worlds great powers, assembled in two opposing alliances, the Allies versus the Central Powers of Germany and Austria-Hungary. These alliances were reorganised and expanded as more nations entered the war, Japan, the trigger for the war was the assassination of Archduke Franz Ferdinand of Austria, heir to the throne of Austria-Hungary, by Yugoslav nationalist Gavrilo Princip in Sarajevo on 28 June 1914. This set off a crisis when Austria-Hungary delivered an ultimatum to the Kingdom of Serbia. Within weeks, the powers were at war and the conflict soon spread around the world.
On 25 July Russia began mobilisation and on 28 July, the Austro-Hungarians declared war on Serbia, Germany presented an ultimatum to Russia to demobilise, and when this was refused, declared war on Russia on 1 August. Germany invaded neutral Belgium and Luxembourg before moving towards France, after the German march on Paris was halted, what became known as the Western Front settled into a battle of attrition, with a trench line that changed little until 1917. On the Eastern Front, the Russian army was successful against the Austro-Hungarians, in November 1914, the Ottoman Empire joined the Central Powers, opening fronts in the Caucasus and the Sinai. In 1915, Italy joined the Allies and Bulgaria joined the Central Powers, Romania joined the Allies in 1916, after a stunning German offensive along the Western Front in the spring of 1918, the Allies rallied and drove back the Germans in a series of successful offensives. By the end of the war or soon after, the German Empire, Russian Empire, Austro-Hungarian Empire, national borders were redrawn, with several independent nations restored or created, and Germanys colonies were parceled out among the victors.
During the Paris Peace Conference of 1919, the Big Four imposed their terms in a series of treaties, the League of Nations was formed with the aim of preventing any repetition of such a conflict. This effort failed, and economic depression, renewed nationalism, weakened successor states, and feelings of humiliation eventually contributed to World War II. From the time of its start until the approach of World War II, at the time, it was sometimes called the war to end war or the war to end all wars due to its then-unparalleled scale and devastation. In Canada, Macleans magazine in October 1914 wrote, Some wars name themselves, during the interwar period, the war was most often called the World War and the Great War in English-speaking countries. Will become the first world war in the sense of the word. These began in 1815, with the Holy Alliance between Prussia and Austria, when Germany was united in 1871, Prussia became part of the new German nation. Soon after, in October 1873, German Chancellor Otto von Bismarck negotiated the League of the Three Emperors between the monarchs of Austria-Hungary and Germany
Eugenius Birch was a 19th-century English seaside architect, civil engineer and noted builder of promenade-piers. Both Eugenius and his brother, John Brannis, were born in Gloucester Terrace, London to architect and surveyor John and his wife. He attended schools in Brighton and at Euston Square, fascinated by engineering from a young age, he would often visit major engineering works being built in north London. While still a boy he submitted a design for a carriage to the London. His innovation, to place the wheels beneath the carriage as opposed to the side, as a result, aged 16 he joined Messrs. Bligh’s engineering works in Limehouse, London as an apprentice, on 19 February,1839, Birch was elected a Graduate of the Institution of Civil Engineers, becoming a Member on 5 May,1863. In 1845 he formed a general design engineering partnership with his brother, John Brannis Birch and he designed the Devon and Somerset Railway, Exmouth docks, Ilfracombe harbour, and West Surrey waterworks. On his return to England from India, Birch brought his experiences to bear on the developing English fascination with seaside holidays.
In 1853, a group of Margate businessmen approach Birch to build the first screw-pile pier in Britain, the result was a stylish and resilient Margate Pier, which survived storms and two world wars until destroyed by a storm in January 1978. The piers foundations survive to this day, despite attempts at demolition. The Margate pier led to a series of new commissions, which ran to 14 piers in total. His effect on construction techniques can be measured in the fact that, from 1862 to 1872,18 new pleasure piers were built. His last pier was Plymouth, opened in the year he died,1884, in his life, particularly during his travels, Birch produced numerous watercolour paintings, particularly those of Italy and Nubia during a tour taken during the winter of 1874–75
Oh! What a Lovely War
The film is based on the stage musical Oh, What a Lovely War. Originated by Charles Chilton as a play, The Long Long Trail in December 1961. The title is derived from the music hall song Oh and its a Lovely War, which is one of the major numbers in the film. The diplomatic manoeuvrings and events involving those in authority are set in a location inside the pierhead pavilion. In the opening scene various Foreign Ministers and Heads of State walk over a map of Europe. The German invasion of Belgium leaves Sir Edward Grey little choice, italy reneges on her alliance with the Central Powers but Turkey joins them instead. The start of the war in 1914 is shown as a parade of optimism, a military band rouses holidaymakers from the beach to rally round and follow – some even literally boarding a bandwagon. The first Battle of Mons is similarly cheerfully depicted yet more realistic in portrayal, both scenes are flooded in pleasant sunshine. When the casualties start to mount, an audience is rallied by singing Are We Downhearted.
A chorus line dressed in frilled yellow dresses, recruits an army with We dont want to lose you. The young men take to the stage and are quickly moved offstage and into life. The red poppy crops up again as a symbol of impending death and these scenes are juxtaposed with the pavilion, now housing the top military brass. There is a showing the loss of life and yards gained. Outside, Sylvia Pankhurst is shown addressing a crowd on the futility of war. She is met with catcalls and jeered off her podium,1915 is depicted as darkly contrasting in tone. Many shots of a parade of wounded men illustrate an endless stream of grim, black humour among these soldiers has now replaced the enthusiasm of the early days. Theres a Long, Long Trail a-Winding captures the new mood of despair, red poppies provide the only bright colour in these scenes. At the end of the year, amidst more manoeuvres in the pavilion, Haig is mocked by Australian troops who see him inspecting British soldiers, they sing They were only playing Leapfrog to the tune of John Brown
James are an English rock band from Manchester. They formed in 1982 and were active throughout the 1980s, and their best-known singles include Come Home, Sit Down, Shes a Star and Laid, which became a hit on American college radio. Following the departure of lead singer Tim Booth in 2001, the band became inactive, as of 2010, the band had sold more than 25 million albums worldwide. James were formed in 1982 in Whalley Range, when Paul Gilbertson persuaded his friend Jim Glennie to buy a bass guitar and their line-up solidified when Gavan Whelan joined on drums. They played a string of gigs under the names Venereal and the Diseases and later, Volume Distortion, before settling on the name of Model Team International and they performed mostly improvised material derived from jam sessions, supporting the Fall at an early gig at Manchester Polytechnic. Vocalists and other musicians drifted rapidly in and out of their line-up, Gilbertson invited him to the bands scout hut in Withington to join the band as a dancer, he was soon promoted to lead singer.
After a brief period under the name Tribal Outlook, the band renamed themselves James in August 1982, a gig at the Haçienda caught the attention of Tony Wilson of Factory Records. He offered James an album deal with Factory, but the band, by now a live act, were worried about tarnishing their material in the studio. Their debut release, the Jimone EP, was recorded at Strawberry Studios, Stockport, in August 1983 and it led to the band providing the support for The Smiths between February and April 1985 on the Meat is Murder tour. The Smiths covered James Whats The World track during this tour, although they were now being touted as the next big thing, several complex issues slowed their progress. Gilbertsons drug problems presented the band with no choice but to ask him to leave and Glennie had joined a sect named Lifewave that imposed many restrictions on their lifestyle and threatened the bands stability. The bands second EP, James II, was released over a year after the first and accompanied by a feature on the cover of the NME, the first two EPs would be collected as Village Fire.
Their third release, the Sit Down EP came out in February 1986, the album reached number 68 in the UK Albums Chart. Low on money and lacking coverage and promotion, the recorded their second album, Strip-mine. The album almost went unreleased, but after undergoing a slight remix to sound more radio-friendly, Sire released the album in September 1988, however the album only reached number 90. After finding a clause for ending their contract, the band left Sire, James had by this point earned themselves a reputation as a live act and had built a solid fanbase. Sales of James T-shirts were particularly successful in Manchester even before they reached the Top 40, James financed the production of a live album One Man Clapping with a bank loan and the help of Rough Trade Records. The album went to number 1 in the charts, reinvigorating media interest in the band
Christopher Livingstone Eubanks, known as Chris Eubank, is a British former professional boxer who competed from 1985 to 1998. He held the WBO middleweight and super-middleweight titles, scoring victories over six world champions and he was a world champion for over five years, undefeated in his first ten years as a professional, and remained undefeated at middleweight. Eubanks last two fights were against WBO junior-heavyweight champion Carl Thompson, both of which were brutal encounters, in the rematch, Eubank was stopped for the first and only time in his career. Christopher Livingstone Eubanks, one of the sons of Rachel Scollins, was born on 8 August 1966, in Dulwich, South London, on his return to England, he lived in Stoke Newington, Dalston and Peckham, in a largely impoverished environment. Some time was spent at Orchard Lodge Regional Resource Centre, when he was 16, his father sent him to New York in the U. S. to live with his mother in the tough South Bronx district. Eubank made a start in New York, battling drug and shoplifting addictions to attend church.
In his spare time he trained at the Jerome Boxing Club on Westchester Avenue, Eubank became obsessed with boxing training and went to the gym every day, even working as caretaker to pay his way. He won the 1984 Spanish Golden Gloves Tournament and got to the stage of the main Golden Gloves tourney at Madison Square Garden at aged 18. He writes in his autobiography that his drive to succeed in boxing came through his drive to become an accepted individual and he made his professional debut at the Atlantis Hotel and Casino against Tim Brown, shortly after his 19th birthday. Although his next 10 fights went largely unnoticed, in February 1989 he made headlines in defeating Jamaican Anthony Logan in an undercard match to a Nigel Benn-headlined show. Benn was arguably the biggest rising star in European sport at the time, Eubank had already made Brighton in England his adopted hometown and set his sights on Benn, believing he could beat him. Later in the year, he knocked out Renaldo Dos Santos in precisely 20 seconds and this concluded Eubanks career as a middleweight, with a 28–0 record.
A rematch with Watson for the vacant WBO super-middleweight title took place in September 1991, Eubank was behind on all scorecards after 10 rounds, and was knocked down 18 seconds from the end of the round. He rose from the canvas to unleash a devastating uppercut to Watsons jaw right at the end of the round, knocking Watsons head, the bell sounded to end the round as soon as Watson was up from the count. Soon after the fight Watson collapsed in his corner, following the fight, Eubank contemplated quitting the sport. Commentator Reg Gutteridge claimed, in the moment, he had, Eubank reflected on the aftermath, I lost my finishing instinct in the ring – I couldnt finish fights any more. However, I needed to work and so I carried on, and I blamed myself, after all, it was me who threw the punch. Eubank was particularly noted for his confidence, concentration and extravagant behaviour and his trademark theme tune was Tina Turners Simply the Best
A listed building or listed structure, in the United Kingdom, is one that has been placed on the Statutory List of Buildings of Special Architectural or Historic Interest. The statutory bodies maintaining the list are Historic England in England, Cadw in Wales, Historic Scotland in Scotland, the preferred term in Ireland is protected structure. In England and Wales, an amenity society must be notified of any work to a listed building which involves any element of demolition. Owners of listed buildings are, in circumstances, compelled to repair and maintain them. When alterations are permitted, or when listed buildings are repaired or maintained, slightly different systems operate in each area of the United Kingdom, though the basic principles of the listing remain the same. It was the damage to caused by German bombing during World War II that prompted the first listing of buildings that were deemed to be of particular architectural merit. The listings were used as a means of determining whether a building should be rebuilt if it was damaged by bombing.
Listing was first introduced into Northern Ireland under the Planning Order 1972, the listing process has since developed slightly differently in each part of the UK. In the UK, the process of protecting the historic environment is called ‘designation’. A heritage asset is a part of the environment that is valued because of its historic. Only some of these are judged to be important enough to have legal protection through designation. However, buildings that are not formally listed but still judged as being of heritage interest are still regarded as being a consideration in the planning process. Almost anything can be listed – it does not have to be a building and structures of special historic interest come in a wide variety of forms and types, ranging from telephone boxes and road signs, to castles. Historic England has created twenty broad categories of structures, and published selection guides for each one to aid with assessing buildings and these include historical overviews and describe the special considerations for listing each category.
Both Historic Scotland and Cadw produce guidance for owners, in England, to have a building considered for listing or delisting, the process is to apply to the secretary of state, this can be done by submitting an application form online to Historic England. The applicant does not need to be the owner of the building to apply for it to be listed, full information including application form guidance notes are on the Historic England website. Historic England assesses buildings put forward for listing or delisting and provides advice to the Secretary of State on the architectural, the Secretary of State, who may seek additional advice from others, decides whether or not to list or delist the building. In England and Wales the authority for listing is granted to the Secretary of State by the Planning Act 1990, Listed buildings in danger of decay are listed on the Historic England Heritage at Risk Register
A pier is a raised structure in a body of water, typically supported by well-spaced piles or pillars. Bridges and walkways may all be supported by piers, Piers can range in size and complexity from a simple lightweight wooden structure to major structures extended over 1600 metres. In American English, pier may be synonymous with dock, thus in North America and Australia, where many ports were, until recently, built on the multiple pier model, the term tends to imply a current or former cargo-handling facility. In Europe in contrast, where more often use basins and river-side quays than piers. However, the earliest piers pre-date the Victorian age, Piers can be categorized into different groupings according to the principal purpose. However, there is overlap between these categories. Many piers are floating piers, to ensure that the piers raise and this prevents a situation where lines become overly taut or loose by rising or lowering tides. An overly taut or loose tie-line can damage boats by pulling out of the water or allowing them so much leeway that they bang forcefully against the sides of the pier.
Working piers were built for the handling of passengers and cargo onto, working piers themselves fall into two different groups. Longer individual piers are found at ports with large tidal ranges. Such piers provided an alternative to impounded docks where cargo volumes were low, or where specialist bulk cargo was handled. The other form of working pier, often called the pier, was built at ports with smaller tidal ranges. Here the principal advantage was to give a greater available quay length for ships to berth against compared to a linear littoral quayside, typically each pier would carry a single transit shed the length of the pier, with ships berthing bow or stern in to the shore. Some major ports consisted of numbers of such piers lining the foreshore, classic examples being the Hudson River frontage of New York. One example, is in use in Progreso, Yucatán, where a pier extends more than 4 miles into the Gulf of Mexico, making it the longest pier in the world. The Progreso Pier supplies much of the peninsula with transportation for the fishing, many other working piers have been demolished, or remain derelict, but some have been recycled as pleasure piers.
The best known example of this is Pier 39 in San Francisco, at Southport and the Tweed River on the Gold Coast in Australia, there are piers that support equipment for a sand bypassing system that maintains the health of sandy beaches and navigation channels. Pleasure piers were first built in Britain during the early 19th century, the earliest structures were Ryde Pier, built in 1813/4, Trinity Chain Pier near Leith, built in 1821, and Brighton Chain Pier, built in 1823
Some of the largest modern Ferris wheels have cars mounted on the outside of the rim, with electric motors to independently rotate each car to keep it upright. These wheels are sometimes referred to as wheels and their cars referred to as capsules. The original Ferris Wheel was designed and constructed by George Washington Gale Ferris Jr. as a landmark for the 1893 Worlds Columbian Exposition in Chicago. The generic term Ferris wheel is now used for all such structures, since the original 1893 Chicago Ferris wheel there have been nine worlds tallest-ever Ferris wheels. The current record holder is the 167. 6-metre High Roller in Las Vegas, US, pleasure wheels, whose passengers rode in chairs suspended from large wooden rings turned by strong men, may have originated in 17th-century Bulgaria. A Frenchman, Antonio Manguino, introduced the idea to America in 1848, a much earlier description of a Ferris-type wheel can be seen in The Death of Arthur, a volume of the Vulgate Cycle dating from around 1220.
The text describes King Arthur in a dream being approached by Fortuna, the following year he was granted the first U. S. patent for a Roundabout. George Washington Gale Ferris Jr. rode on Somers wheel in Atlantic City prior to designing his wheel for the Worlds Columbian Exposition, the original Ferris Wheel, sometimes referred to as the Chicago Wheel, was designed and constructed by George Washington Gale Ferris Jr. With a height of 80.4 metres it was the largest attraction at the Worlds Columbian Exposition in Chicago, Illinois and it was intended to rival the 324-metre Eiffel Tower, the centerpiece of the 1889 Paris Exposition. Ferris was a graduate of Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute and a Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania and he began his career in the railroad industry and pursued an interest in bridge building. Ferris understood the growing need for steel and founded G. W. G. Ferris & Co. in Pittsburgh, a firm that tested and inspected metals for railroads, the wheel rotated on a 71-ton,45. There were 36 cars, each fitted with 40 revolving chairs and able to accommodate up to 60 people, the Exposition ended in October 1893, and the wheel closed in April 1894 and was dismantled and stored until the following year.
It was rebuilt on Chicagos North Side, near Lincoln Park and this prompted William D. Boyce, a local resident, to file a Circuit Court action against the owners of the wheel to have it removed, but without success. The Wiener Riesenrad is an example of nineteenth-century Ferris wheels. A demolition permit for the Riesenrad was issued in 1916, but due to a lack of funds with which to carry out the destruction, following the demolition of the 100-metre Grande Roue de Paris in 1920, the Riesenrad became the worlds tallest extant Ferris wheel. Still in operation today, it is one of Viennas most popular tourist attractions, chronology of worlds tallest-ever wheels 1893, the original Ferris Wheel was 80.4 metres tall. Built for the Worlds Columbian Exposition in Chicago, Illinois, it was moved to St. Louis, Missouri, in 1904 for the Louisiana Purchase Exposition, and demolished there in 1906
News of the World
The News of the World was a national red top newspaper published in the United Kingdom from 1843 to 2011. It was at one time the biggest-selling English-language newspaper in the world and it was originally established as a broadsheet by John Browne Bell, who identified crime and vice as the themes that would sell copies. The Bells sold to Henry Lascelles Carr in 1891, in 1969 it was bought from the Carrs by Rupert Murdochs media firm News Limited. Reorganised into News International, itself a subsidiary of News Corporation, it was transformed into a tabloid in 1984, the newspaper concentrated on celebrity-based scoops and populist news. Its fondness for sex scandals gained it the nicknames News of the Screws and Screws of the World, sales averaged 2,812,005 copies per week in October 2010. From 2006, allegations of phone hacking began to engulf the newspaper, a Scotland Yard spokesperson admitted at the Leveson Inquiry that it had not been a private investigator who had deleted Dowlers voicemail.
Amid a public backlash and the withdrawal of advertising, News International announced the closure of the newspaper on 7 July 2011, the scandal deepened when the paper was alleged to have hacked into the phones of families of British service personnel killed in action. Senior figures on the newspaper have been held for questioning by police investigating the phone hacking, arrested on 8 July 2011 were former editor Andy Coulson and former News of the World royal editor Clive Goodman, the latter jailed for phone hacking in 2007. The former executive editor Neil Wallis was arrested on 15 July 2011 and former editor Rebekah Brooks, the tenth person held in custody, on 17 July 2011. On a visit to London on 17 February 2012, Murdoch announced he was soon to launch a Sunday edition of The Sun, on 19 February 2012 it was announced that the first edition of The Sun on Sunday would be printed on 26 February 2012. It would employ some former News of the World journalists, the newspaper was first published as The News of the World on 1 October 1843, by John Browne Bell in London.
Priced at three pence, even before the repeal of the Stamp Act or paper duty, it was the cheapest newspaper of its time and was aimed directly at the newly literate working classes and it quickly established itself as a purveyor of titillation and criminal news. Much of the material came from coverage of vice prosecutions, including transcripts of police descriptions of alleged brothels, streetwalkers. Before long, the News of the World established itself as the most widely read Sunday paper, the title was sold by the Bell family in 1891 to Henry Lascelles Carr who owned the Welsh Western Mail. As editor, he installed his nephew Emsley Carr, who held the post for 50 years, the real engine of the papers now quick commercial success, was George Riddell, who reorganised its national distribution using local agents. Matthew Engel, in his book Tickle the Public, One Hundred Years of the Popular Press, the paper was not without its detractors, though. Its called the News of the World—Ill send you a copy, replied Riddell, next time they met Riddell said, Well Greenwood, what do you think of my paper.
I looked at it, replied Greenwood, and I put it in the waste-paper basket, and I thought, If I leave it there the cook may read it—so I burned it
The Hawker Typhoon, was a British single-seat fighter-bomber, produced by Hawker Aircraft. It was intended to be a medium–high altitude interceptor, as a replacement for the Hawker Hurricane but several problems were encountered. The Typhoon was originally designed to mount twelve.303 inch Browning machine guns and its service introduction in mid-1941 was plagued with problems and for several months the aircraft faced a doubtful future. Through the support of such as Roland Beamont it became established in roles such as night-time intruder. From late 1942 the Typhoon was equipped with bombs and from late 1943 RP-3 ground attack rockets were added to its armoury, with those weapons and its four 20mm Hispano cannon, the Typhoon became one of the Second World Wars most successful ground-attack aircraft. Even before Hurricane production began in March 1937, Sydney Camm had embarked on designing its successor, two preliminary designs were similar and were larger than the Hurricane. These became known as the N and R, because they were designed for the newly developed Napier Sabre, Hawker submitted these preliminary designs in July 1937 but were advised to wait until a formal specification for a new fighter was issued.
The armament fitted was to be twelve.303 inch Browning machine guns with 500 rounds per gun and his design team started formal development of the designs and construction of prototypes. The wing had a span of 41-foot-7-inch, with an area of 279 sq ft. The airfoil was a NACA22 wing section, with a thickness to chord ratio of 19. 5% at the root tapering to 12% at the tip. The wing possessed great strength, provided plenty of room for fuel tanks. Also incorporated into the wings were inward-retracting landing gear with a wide track of 13 ft 6¾ in. By contemporary standards, the new wing was very thick. The climb rate and performance above that level was considered disappointing. When the Typhoon was dived at speeds of over 500 mph and these compressibility problems led to Camm designing the Typhoon II, known as the Tempest, which used much thinner wings with a laminar flow airfoil. P5212 had a small tail-fin, triple exhaust stubs and no wheel doors fitted to the centre-section, on 9 May 1940 the prototype had a mid-air structural failure, at the join between the forward fuselage and rear fuselage, just behind the pilots seat.
Philip Lucas could see daylight through the split but instead of bailing out, on 15 May the Minister of Aircraft Production, Lord Beaverbrook, ordered that resources should be concentrated on the production of five main aircraft types. As a result, development of the Typhoon was slowed, production plans were postponed, in the interim between construction of the first and second prototypes, the Air Ministry had given Hawker an instruction to proceed with the construction of 1,000 of the new fighters