West Riding of Yorkshire

The West Riding of Yorkshire is one of the three historic subdivisions of Yorkshire, England. From 1889 to 1974 the administrative county, County of York, West Riding, was based on the historic boundaries; the lieutenancy at that time included the City of York and as such was named West Riding of the County of York and the County of the City of York. Its boundaries correspond to the present ceremonial counties of West Yorkshire, South Yorkshire and the Craven and Selby districts of North Yorkshire, along with smaller parts in Lancashire, Greater Manchester and, since 1996, the unitary East Riding of Yorkshire; the West Riding encompasses 1,771,562 acres from Sheffield in the south to Sedbergh in the north and from Dunsop Bridge in the west to Adlingfleet in the east. The southern industrial district, considered in the broadest application of the term, extended northward from Sheffield to Skipton and eastward from Sheffield to Doncaster, covering less than one-half of the riding. Within this district were Barnsley, Bradford, Dewsbury, Halifax, Keighley, Morley, Pontefract, Rotherham, Sheffield and Wakefield.

Major centres elsewhere in the riding included Ripon. Within the industrial region, other urban districts included Bingley, Bolton on Dearne, Cleckheaton, Featherstone, Hoyland Nether, Mexborough, Normanton, Rothwell, Shipley, Sowerby Bridge, Swinton, Wath-upon-Dearne and Worsborough. Outside the industrial region were Goole, Ilkley and Selby; the West Riding contained a large rural area to the north including part of the Yorkshire Dales National Park. The subdivision of Yorkshire into three ridings or "thirds" is of Scandinavian origin; the West Riding was first recorded in the Domesday Book of 1086. Unlike most English counties, being so large, was divided first into the three ridings and the city of York; each riding was divided into wapentakes, a division comparable to the hundreds of Southern England and the wards of England's four northern-most historic counties. Within the West Riding of Yorkshire there were ten wapentakes in total, four of which were split into two divisions, those were— Claro, Skyrack and Tickhill and Staincliffe.

The wapentake of Agbrigg and Morley was created with two divisions but was split into two separate wapentakes. A wapentake known as the Ainsty to the west of York, was until the 15th century a wapentake of the West Riding, but since has come under the jurisdiction of the City of York The administrative county was formed in 1889 by the Local Government Act 1888, covered the historic West Riding except for the larger urban areas, which were county boroughs with the powers of both a municipal borough and a county council. There were five in number: Bradford, Huddersfield and Sheffield; the City of York was included in the county for lieutenancy purposes. The number of county boroughs increased over the years; the boundaries of existing county boroughs were widened. Beginning in 1898, the West Riding County Council was based at the County Hall in Wakefield, inherited by the West Yorkshire County Council in 1974; the Local Government Act 1888 included the entirety of Todmorden with the West Riding administrative county, in its lieutenancy area.

Other boundary changes in the county included the expansion of the county borough of Sheffield southward in areas in Derbyshire such as Dore. Fingerposts erected in the West Riding. At the top of the post was a roundel in the form of a hollow circle with a horizontal line across the middle, displaying "Yorks W. R.", the name of the fingerpost's location, a grid reference. Other counties, apart from Dorset, did not display a grid reference and did not have a horizontal bar through the roundel. From 1964, many fingerposts were replaced by ones in the modern style, but some of the old style still survive within the West Riding boundaries. By 1971 1,924,853 people lived in the administrative county, against 1,860,435 in the ten county boroughs; the term West Riding is still used in the names of the following clubs, organisations: 33rd Foot, First Yorkshire West Riding Regiment, a re-enactment group based in Halifax who depict this Regiment during the Napoleonic Wars 49 Signal Squadron, a squadron of 34 Signal Regiment based at Carlton Barracks in Leeds 51st Light Infantry, a re-enactment group based in the West Midlands who depict this Regiment during the Napoleonic Wars 106 Field Squadron, a squadron of 72 Engineer Regiment based in Greenhill and Manningham Lane, Bradford 269 Battery

David Hilliard

David Hilliard was a member of the Black Panther Party. He was Chief of Staff in the party, he became a visiting instructor at the University of New Mexico in 2006. He is the founder of the Dr. Huey P. Newton foundation. David Hilliard was born on May 15, 1942 in Rockville, Alabama to Lee Hilliard. David had six brothers and five sisters: Theodore, Nathaniel, Roosevelt, Rose Lee, Dorty Mae, Vera Lee, Eleanora, his mother and father met in 1916 when his mother was 16, a little less than half the age of his father. In his childhood Hilliard met Huey Newton, who would become the leader of the Black Panther movement. David Hilliard married Patrica Hilliard in 1959. Patricia and David met at a David's friend Malcom Newton's fraternity party. Although Pat at first resisted the perusal by David, she agreed to date him. At the age of 17 David was informed that Patricia was pregnant and he dropped out of high school. At 17 David and Patricia married at Berkeley City Hall. David, due to his lack of a high school diploma and skills had a hard time finding jobs.

He worked many odd jobs including: cleaning up after skilled laborers, a tile chipper, working at canneries, a car salesman. David and Patricia Hilliard had three children: Patrice and Dorian, they named their daughter after Patrice Munsel, one of David's favorite singers. Dorian was named after Dorian Gray, the main character in Oscar Wilde's famous novel The Picture of Dorian Gray. During their early married life David faced a lack of anger management. During his involvement with the Black Panthers David Hilliard met Brenda Presley and the two began an intimate relationship. With Brenda David had a daughter named Dassine. Hilliard became involved in the Black Panther movement in 1966 while living in California. Huey P. Newton, Hilliard's childhood friend informed him of this organization which Bobby Seale and he were founding; this organization believed in defense of minority groups by any means necessary and followed a 10-point plan outlining "What We Want" and "What We Believe." Early actions of the Black Panthers involved intercepting in police brutalities through using arms to enforce police rules of conduct.

After the arrest of Huey Newton on October 28, 1967 for an armed scuffle with the Oakland Police resulting in the death of Officer John Frey, David Hilliard acted as the interim leader of the Black Panthers. Hilliard helped to organize a rally in February 1968 called the "Free Huey Rally" that drew 6,000 people. Hilliard was involved in the many programs organized by the Black Panthers; the Black Panthers organized programs called survival programs including: breakfast programs for schoolchildren, health clinics, programs for prisoners. These programs were called survival programs because they help communities survive rather than addressing the systemic reasons behind these problems; these programs were free to those in need. In 1971 the Black Panther Party formed the Intercommunal Youth Institute; this program addressed the systematic oppression of African American students in the public school system. The Black Panthers believed that public schools failed to teach analytical skills that are necessary to survive in society.

This school for children in Oakland taught children to analyze and criticize and respond with creative solutions. Free Health Care was provided to people who could not afford the cost of public health care through the People's Free Medical Research Health Clinics; these clinics provided service ranging from testing for sickle cell anemia to providing references and rides to outside experts. Other programs that Hilliard help organize included: a community learning center, after school programs, escorts to protect the elderly, free clothing programs. After reading Malcolm X's autobiography as a teenager, David Hilliard had a deep respect for his militancy. Although he admired the charisma of Martin Luther King Jr. he did not agree with MLK's advocacy for non-violent resistance. In his early teen years Hilliard had little involvement in politics. In the summer of 1965 his nephew Bojack participated in the riots in the Watts neighborhood of Los Angeles, California. Seeing his nephew on TV inspired Hilliard to learn more about activism and politics.

Fellow Black Panther Party member and BPP Central Committee member Donald L. Cox has suggested that during Hilliard's stint as BPP Chief of Staff, Hilliard became an autocrat influenced by Stalin. Cox has stated that as the party explored Marxist theory, Marxist-Leninism became the party line and that in particular Stalin's book Foundations of Leninism was read and practised. Reflecting those principles, Cox alleges that Hilliard began to place loyalty to the party above all and dealt out punishment, denouncement or expulsion from the Black Panther Party to those who opposed him or the party line for the slightest of offence, with his orders being carried out by internal enforcers known as the "Black Guard" and "Buddha Samurai". Cox says, Hillard dismantled the power and authority of all other members of the Black Panther's central committee aside from himself, that of Huey Newton, in a vicious drive for power. In January 1968 Hilliard was arrested for handing out pamphlets outside of Oakland Technical High School.

Hilliard was convicted on two counts of assault with a deadly weapon for his part in a 1968 encounter with the Oakland Police in retribution for the assassination of Martin Luther King. The April 6, 1968 encounter led to the murder of party member Bobby Hutton, shot by police while surrendering with his hands up, the capture of Eldridge Cleaver, who masterminded the botched operation. Hilliard left this standoff unscathed having taken shelter under a family friends bed


Saltholm is a Danish island in the Øresund, the strait that separates Denmark and Sweden. It is located to the east of the Danish island of Amager in Tårnby municipality and lies just to the west of the sea border between Denmark and Sweden, it is 7 km long and 3 km wide, making it Denmark's 21st largest island. Saltholm is flat, it is a new landmass in geological terms, having risen from the sea about 4,000 years ago due to post-glacial rebound, is surrounded by a large area of shallow water that covers an area of 28 km2. A series of islets and rock deposits from the last ice age appear at the south end of the island, its neighboring island to the south is the artificial island Peberholm, a part of the Øresund Bridge and was named to complement Saltholm. Saltholm's vegetation is dominated by grasses, with its landscape consisting of flat chalk meadowlands and coastal meadow. There are few trees on Saltholm, clustered in two places in the north and south-west of the island; the island has a rich variety of flora, notably motherwort, blue iris and chickweed.

Saltholm is a protected nature reserve for wild birds. The southern part of the island, an extensive salt marsh, is protected under the Ramsar Convention and the island as a whole, along with the surrounding area of sea, has been designated a nature reserve by the European Union. Mussel beds, eel grass, snails and fish in the shallow waters around the island provide an important food source for water birds; because of its importance as a wildlife sanctuary, access to Saltholm and its surrounding waters is controlled. Access to the island is at the north end of Saltholm; the island is Denmark's largest grazing area for geese. Around 3,500 juvenile swans live on the island in the summer, with some 2,000 wintering there. 10,000–12,000 ducks breed and graze on Saltholm during autumn and late winter/spring. Saltholm is home to Europe's largest breeding colony of eiders. Humans have lived in small numbers on Saltholm since the Middle Ages and before; the population has ranged from a peak of 298 people in 1916, when the island was fortified during World War I, to only five people as of January 2008.

The current inhabitants manage the farm Holmegård on a nature reserve in the northwest of the island to maintain the grass for nesting birds. The existence of the island is first attested in 1230, when King Valdemar II of Denmark is recorded as having given Saltholm to Bishop Niels Stigsen of the see of Roskilde. For centuries, the island was used to quarry limestone, used in nearby Copenhagen and elsewhere; the island was traditionally used as pasture land for the cattle of the people of the nearby Danish island of Amager. The cows of Saltholm were commemorated in the late 19th century by the Danish painter Theodor Philipsen, who travelled to the island to paint its cattle and treeless landscapes. Saltholm was used as a quarantine station between 1709 and 1711 when Copenhagen suffered plague and cholera outbreaks. Travellers wishing to land in the city were required to stay in quarantine on the island for 40 days. In 1873, a private company, the Saltholmlaug, acquired the island from the state and still owns it today.

The island's position in the middle of the Øresund gave it some military significance during the two World Wars. In 1912, the Danish government constructed the Flakfortet on the Salthom Flak sands just north of the island proper, stationing a number of artillery pieces ranging in calibre from 47 mm to 290 mm. Most of the guns were mounted on barbette carriages and protected by armoured shields and concrete and earthen ramparts; the fort was still active at the start of World War II. Saltholm was the site of an incident resulting in the loss of the British submarine HMS E13, which ran aground on the island on 17 August 1915 due to a faulty compass. Two days two German destroyers attacked the submarine while it was still stranded on the shoreline as the crew worked to refloat the vessel. Fifteen of the submariners were killed before Danish torpedo boats intervened to deter the attackers; the violation of the country's neutrality outraged the Danish government, prompting a diplomatic protest to the Germans, the casualties were given high-profile official funerals by the Danish navy.

The surviving crew were interned in Denmark until the end of the war in November 1918, the wrecked submarine was scrapped. The commander of the E13, Lt Cdr Geoffrey Layton, went on to have a distinguished career in the Royal Navy and commanded the British Eastern Fleet during the Second World War; the island was for many years considered as a possible location for a new international airport and fixed link between Denmark and Sweden. The nearby Copenhagen Airport at Kastrup has long been the busiest airport in Scandinavia but has suffered from an acute shortage of space and its proximity to built-up areas. In 1965, the Nordic Council agreed in principle to build a new international airport on Saltholm, to replace the airport at Kastrup, to co