The Sudetes /suːˈdiːtiːz/ are a mountain range in Central Europe, known in English as the Sudeten or Sudety mountains. The range stretches from eastern Germany along the border of the Czech Republic to south-western Poland. The highest peak of the range is Sněžka in the Krkonoše mountains on the Czech Republic–Poland border, the current geomorphological unit in the Czech part of the mountain range is Krkonošsko-jesenická subprovincie. It is separated from the Carpathian Mountains by the Moravian Gate, the Krkonoše Mountains have experienced growing tourism for winter sports during the past ten years. Their skiing resorts are becoming an alternative to the Alps. The name Sudetes is derived from Sudeti montes, a Latinization of the name Soudeta ore used in the Geographia by the Greco-Roman writer Ptolemy c, AD150 for a range of mountains in Germania in the general region of the modern Czech republic. The modern Sudetes are probably Ptolemys Askiburgion mountains, Ptolemy wrote Σούδητα in Greek, which is a neuter plural.
Latin mons, however, is a masculine, hence Sudeti, the Latin version, and the modern geographical identification, is likely to be a scholastic innovation, as it is not attested in classical Latin literature. The meaning of the name is not known, in one hypothetical derivation, it means Mountains of Wild Boars, relying on Indo-European *su-, pig. A better etymology perhaps is from Latin sudis, plural sudes, the Sudetes comprise larger basins like the Jelenia Góra and the Kłodzko Valley. The exact location of the Sudetes has varied over the centuries, the ancient Sudeti meant at least the northwest frontier of todays Czech Republic, probably extending to the north. By implication, it was part of the vast Hercynian Forest belt mentioned by authors of the antiquity. After World War I the name Sudetenland came into use to areas of the First Czechoslovak Republic with large ethnic German populations. In 1918 the short-lived rump state of German-Austria proclaimed a Province of the Sudetenland in northern Moravia, in total the German minority population of pre-World War II Czechoslovakia numbered around 20% of the total national population.
After being annexed by Nazi Germany, much of the region was redesignated as the Reichsgau Sudetenland, after World War II, most of the German population within the Polish and Czechoslovak Sudetes was forcibly expelled on the basis of the Potsdam Agreement and the Beneš decrees. A considerable proportion of the Czechoslovak populace thereafter strongly objected to the use of the term Sudety, the nearest international airport is in Wrocław - Copernicus Airport Wrocław
Svetovid, Svantovit or Sventovit is a Slavic deity of war and abundance primarily venerated on the island of Rügen into the 12th century. He is often considered a local Rugian variant of the pan-Slavic god Perun, sometimes referred to as Beli Vid, Svetovid is often depicted with a sword or bow in one hand and a drinking horn in the other. Other important symbols included the horse, which were kept in his temple. Svetovid is associated with war and divination and depicted as a god with two heads looking forward and two back. Each face had a specific colour, the northern face of this totem was white, the western, the southern and the eastern, green. Boris Rybakov argued for identification of the faces with the gods Perun, Lada, joined together, they see all four sides of the world. This gave rise to an etymology of the name of the god as world-seer. However, the forms Sventevith and Zvantewith show that the name derives from the word svętъ, meaning saint, the second stem is sometimes reconstructed as vit=lord, winner.
The name recorded in chronicles of contemporary Christian monks is Svantevit, dawning One, implying either a connection with the Morning Star or with the Sun itself. The original name of the island Rügen or Danish Rygen at the Baltic Sea was Rujan, the autochthonous inhabitants of the island were the Slavic tribe, the Rujani, whose name was cognate with the islands, thus translating as people from Rujan. After the destruction and/or assimilation of the Rujani by the Danes, in 1168, according to various chronicles, the temple at Jaromarsburg contained a giant wooden statue of Svantevit depicting him with four heads and a horn of abundance. Each year the horn was filled with fresh mead, the temple was the seat of an oracle in which the chief priest predicted the future of his tribe by observing the behaviour of a white horse identified with Svantevit and casting dice. The temple contained the treasury of the tribe and was defended by a group of 300 mounted warriors which formed the core of the armed forces.
Some interpretations claim that Svetovit was another name for Radegast, while states that he was a fake god. According to an interpretation, Svantevit was a Rugian counterpart of the pan-Slavic Perun. In Croatia, on the island of Brač, the highest peak is called Vids Mountain, in the Dinaric Alps there is a peak called Suvid and a Church of St. Vid. Among the Serbs, the cult of Svetovid is partially preserved through the Feast of St. Vitus, Vidovdan, a devotee of this god, in the story, is called Boleslav Arkonsky – a name evidently derived from the above-mentioned temple at Arkona. Demiurge The Slav Epic Vidovdan Svetovit from Zbrucz Archeological Museum in Kraków - Poland actual Svetovit monument - galleries from polish cities Svetovit figure discovered in Wolin - Poland
Croats are a nation and South Slavic ethnic group at the crossroads of Central Europe, Southeast Europe, and the Mediterranean Sea. Croats mainly live in Croatia and Bosnia and Herzegovina, but are a recognized minority in Austria, Czech Republic, Italy, Romania, Serbia. Responding to political and economic pressure, many Croats have migrated throughout Europe, evidence is rather scarce for the period between the 7th and 8th centuries, CE. Archaeological evidence shows population continuity in coastal Dalmatia and Istria, in contrast, much of the Dinaric hinterland appears to have been depopulated, as virtually all hilltop settlements, from Noricum to Dardania, were abandoned in the early 7th century. Although the dating of the earliest Slavic settlements is still disputed, the origin and nature of the Slavic migrations remain controversial, all available evidence points to the nearby Danubian and Carpathian regions. Much uncertainty revolves around the circumstances of their appearance given the scarcity of literary sources during the 7th and 8th century Dark Ages.
Traditionally, scholarship has placed the arrival of the Croats in the 7th century, as such, the arrival of the Croats was seen as a second wave of Slavic migrations, which liberated Dalmatia from Avar hegemony. However, as early as the 1970s, scholars questioned the reliability of Porphyrogenitus work, rather than being an accurate historical account, De Administrando Imperio more accurately reflects the political situation during the 10th century. The major basis for this connection was the similarity between Hrvat and inscriptions from the Tanais dated to the 2nd and 3rd centuries CE, mentioning the name Khoroathos. Similar arguments have been made for an alleged Gothic-Croat link and they appear to have been based around Nin and Klis, down to the Cetina and south of Liburnia. Here, concentrations of the Old Croat culture abound, marked by very wealthy warrior burials dating to the 9th century CE. Other, distinct polities existed near the Croat duchy and these included the Guduscans, the Narentines and the Sorabi who ruled some other eastern parts of ex-Roman Dalmatia.
Also prominent in the territory of future Croatia was the polity of Prince Liutevid, soon, the Croats became the dominant local power in northern Dalmatia, absorbing Liburnia and expanding their name by conquest and prestige. In the south, while having periods of independence, the Naretines merged with Croats under control of Croatian Kings, with such expansion, Croatia soon became dominant power and absorb other polities between Frankish and Byzantine empire. Each vied for control of the Northwest Balkan regions, two independent Slavic dukedoms emerged sometime during the 9th century, the Croat Duchy and Principality of Lower Pannonia. Having been under Avar control, lower Pannonia became a march of the Carolingian Empire around 800, aided by Vojnomir in 796, the first named Slavic Duke of Pannonia, the Franks wrested control of the region from the Avars before totally destroying the Avar realm in 803. After the death of Charlemagne in 814, Frankish influence decreased on the region, the Frankish margraves sent armies in 820,821 and 822, but each time they failed to crush the rebels.
Aided by Borna the Guduscan, the Franks eventually defeated Ljudevit, for much of the subsequent period, Savia was probably directly ruled by the Carinthian Duke Arnulf, the future East Frankish King and Emperor
Eastern Orthodox Church
The Eastern Orthodox Church teaches that it is the One, Holy and Apostolic Church established by Jesus Christ in his Great Commission to the apostles. It practices what it understands to be the original Christian faith, the Eastern Orthodox Church is a communion of autocephalous churches, each typically governed by a Holy Synod. It teaches that all bishops are equal by virtue of their ordination, prior to the Council of Chalcedon in AD451, the Eastern Orthodox had shared communion with the Oriental Orthodox churches, separating primarily over differences in Christology. Eastern Orthodoxy spread throughout the Roman and Eastern Roman Empires and beyond, playing a prominent role in European, Near Eastern and some African cultures. As a result, the term Greek Orthodox has sometimes used to describe all of Eastern Orthodoxy in general. However, the appellation Greek was never in use and was gradually abandoned by the non-Greek-speaking Eastern Orthodox churches. Its most prominent episcopal see is Constantinople, there are many in other parts of the world, formed through immigration and missionary activity.
The official name of the Eastern Orthodox Church is the Orthodox Catholic Church and it is the name by which the church refers to itself in its liturgical or canonical texts, in official publications, and in official contexts or administrative documents. Orthodox teachers refer to the Church as Catholic and this name and longer variants containing Catholic are recognized and referenced in other books and publications by secular or non-Orthodox writers. The common name of the Church, Eastern Orthodox Church, is a shortened practicality that helps to avoid confusions in casual use, for this reason, the eastern churches were sometimes identified as Greek, even before the great schism. After 1054, Greek Orthodox or Greek Catholic marked a church as being in communion with Constantinople and this identification with Greek, became increasingly confusing with time. Missionaries brought Orthodoxy to many regions without ethnic Greeks, where the Greek language was not spoken. Today, many of those same Roman churches remain, while a large number of Orthodox are not of Greek national origin.
Eastern, indicates the element in the Churchs origin and development, while Orthodox indicates the faith. While the Church continues officially to call itself Catholic, for reasons of universality, the first known use of the phrase the catholic church occurred in a letter written about 110 AD from one Greek church to another. Quote of St Ignatius to the Smyrnaeans, Wheresoever the bishop shall appear, there let the people be, even as where Jesus may be, almost from the very beginning, Christians referred to the Church as the One, Holy and Apostolic Church. The Orthodox Church claims that it is today the continuation and preservation of that same Church, a number of other Christian churches make a similar claim, the Roman Catholic Church, the Anglican Communion, the Assyrian Church and the Oriental Orthodox Churches. The Church of England separated from the Roman Catholic Church, not directly from the Orthodox Church, the depth of this meaning in the Orthodox Church is registered first in its use of the word Orthodox itself, a union of Greek orthos and doxa
The Slovaks or Slovak people are a nation and West Slavic ethnic group native to Slovakia who share a common ancestry, culture and are native speakers of the Slovak language. Most Slovaks today live within the borders of the independent Slovakia, there are Slovak minorities in Czech Republic, Poland, Hungary and sizeable populations of immigrants and their descendants in the United States and the United Kingdom. The name Slovak is derived from *Slověninъ, plural *Slověně, the old name of the Slavs, in the Slovak language, only the masculine noun Slověninъ, Slověn changed to Slovän, Slovan and finally to Slovák around 1400. The older form Sloven is preserved in all words in the Slovak language – the adjective Slovak is still slovenský, the feminine noun Slovak is still Slovenka. In 1029 St. Emeric, ruler of the Nitrian principality is called Henricus dux Sclavonie, in 1113 Nestor calls the territory of Slovakia - Slověnskaja zemlja. The first written mention about usage of the new form Slovak in the territory of present-day Slovakia is from Bardejov – Nicoulaus Cossibor hauptman, Nicolaus Czech et Slowak, the mentions in Czech sources are older –1375 and 1385.
The change is not related to ethnogenesis of Slovaks, but exclusively to linguistic changes in the West Slavic languages, the word Slovak was used as a common name for all Slavs in Czech and Slovak language in parallel with other forms. The Slovaks and Slovenes are the only current Slavic nations that have preserved the original name, for Slovenes, the adjective is still slovenski and the feminine noun Slovene is still Slovenka, but the masculine noun has since changed to Slovenec. The Slovak name for their language is slovenčina and the Slovene name for theirs is slovenščina, the Slovak term for the Slovene language is slovinčina, and the Slovenes call Slovak slovaščina. The name is derived from proto-Slavic form slovo word, thus Slovaks as well as Slovenians would mean people who speak, i. e. people who understand each other. In Hungarian Slovak is Tót, an exonym and it was originally used to refer to all Slavs including Slovenes and Croats, but eventually came to refer primarily to Slovaks.
Many place names in Hungary such as Tótszentgyörgy, Tótszentmárton, tóth is a common Hungarian surname. The Slovaks have historically been referred to as Slovyenyn, Sclavus, Slavus, Winde, Wende. The final three terms are variations of the Germanic term Wends, which was used to refer to any Slavs living close to Germanic settlements. The early Slavs came to the territory of Slovakia in several waves from the 5th and 6th centuries and were organized on a tribal level, original tribal names are not known due to the lack of written sources before their integration into higher political units. In the 7th century, Slavs founded larger tribal union, Samos empire, regardless of Samos empire, the integration process continued in other territories with various intensities. The final fall of the Avar Khaganate allowed new political entities to arise, the first such political unit documented by written sources is the Principality of Nitra, one of the foundations of common ethnic consciousness. At this stage in history it is not yet possible to assume a common identity of all Slovak ancestors in the territory of eastern Slovakia, the Principality of Nitra become a part of Great Moravia, a common state of Moravians and Slovaks
It survived the fragmentation and fall of the Western Roman Empire in the 5th century AD and continued to exist for an additional thousand years until it fell to the Ottoman Turks in 1453. During most of its existence, the empire was the most powerful economic, several signal events from the 4th to 6th centuries mark the period of transition during which the Roman Empires Greek East and Latin West divided. Constantine I reorganised the empire, made Constantinople the new capital, under Theodosius I, Christianity became the Empires official state religion and other religious practices were proscribed. Finally, under the reign of Heraclius, the Empires military, the borders of the Empire evolved significantly over its existence, as it went through several cycles of decline and recovery. During the reign of Maurice, the Empires eastern frontier was expanded, in a matter of years the Empire lost its richest provinces and Syria, to the Arabs. This battle opened the way for the Turks to settle in Anatolia, the Empire recovered again during the Komnenian restoration, such that by the 12th century Constantinople was the largest and wealthiest European city.
Despite the eventual recovery of Constantinople in 1261, the Byzantine Empire remained only one of several small states in the area for the final two centuries of its existence. Its remaining territories were annexed by the Ottomans over the 15th century. The Fall of Constantinople to the Ottoman Empire in 1453 finally ended the Byzantine Empire, the term comes from Byzantium, the name of the city of Constantinople before it became Constantines capital. This older name of the city would rarely be used from this point onward except in historical or poetic contexts. The publication in 1648 of the Byzantine du Louvre, and in 1680 of Du Canges Historia Byzantina further popularised the use of Byzantine among French authors, however, it was not until the mid-19th century that the term came into general use in the Western world. The Byzantine Empire was known to its inhabitants as the Roman Empire, the Empire of the Romans, the Roman Republic, and as Rhōmais. The inhabitants called themselves Romaioi and Graikoi, and even as late as the 19th century Greeks typically referred to modern Greek as Romaika and Graikika.
The authority of the Byzantine emperor as the legitimate Roman emperor was challenged by the coronation of Charlemagne as Imperator Augustus by Pope Leo III in the year 800. No such distinction existed in the Islamic and Slavic worlds, where the Empire was more seen as the continuation of the Roman Empire. In the Islamic world, the Roman Empire was known primarily as Rûm, the Roman army succeeded in conquering many territories covering the entire Mediterranean region and coastal regions in southwestern Europe and north Africa. These territories were home to different cultural groups, both urban populations and rural populations. The West suffered heavily from the instability of the 3rd century AD
Sorbs, known by their former autonyms Lusatians and Wends, are a West Slavic ethnic group predominantly inhabiting their homeland in Lusatia, a region divided between Germany and Poland. They traditionally speak the Sorbian languages, closely related to Polish, Czech, Sorbian is an officially recognized minority language of Germany. The Sorbs are linguistically and genetically closest to the Czechs and Poles, the community is divided religiously between Roman Catholicism and Lutheranism. An indicator of the degree of assimilation is the fact that the Prime Minister of Saxony is at present a Sorb, the ethnonym Sorbs derives from the medieval tribe, Sorbs. The original ethnonym, was retained by the Sorbs and Serbs in the Balkans, by the 6th century, Slavs occupied the area west of the Oder formerly inhabited by Germanic peoples. The Sorbs are first mentioned in the 7th century, in the 19th century the autonym of the Slavic population of Lusatia was Lusatians. According to a study published in May 2011, Sorbs show the greatest genetic similarity to Poles, followed by Czechs.
They show subtle evidence of genetic isolation but less than Sardinians, demographic history of the Sorb population since 1700, Sorbs are divided into two ethnographical groups, Upper Sorbs, who speak Upper Sorbian. Lower Sorbs, who speak Lower Sorbian, the dialects spoken vary in intelligibility in different areas. Sorbs arrived in the area extending between the Bober and Oder rivers to the East and the Saale and Elbe rivers to the West during the 6th century, in the north, the area of their settlement reached Berlin. The earliest surviving mention of the tribe was in 631 A. D. when Fredegars Chronicle described them as Surbi and as under the rule of a Dervan, an ally of Samo. The Annales Regni Francorum state that in 806 A. D. Sorbian Duke Miliduch fought against the Franks and was killed, in 840, Sorbian Duke Czimislav was killed. In 932, Henry I conquered Lusatia and Milsko, gero II, Margrave of the Saxon Ostmark, reconquered Lusatia the following year and, in 939, murdered 30 Sorbian princes during a feast.
As a result, there were many Sorbian uprisings against German rule, a reconstructed castle, at Raddusch in Lower Lusatia, is the sole physical remnant from this early period. Lusatian tribes are noted in the work of the Bavarian Geographer, the document contains a list of the tribes in Central-Eastern Europe east of the Elbe and north of the Danube to the Volga rivers to the Black and Caspian Sea most of them of Slavic origin. Having settled by the Elbe and Neisse in the 6th century, Sorbs living on the swampy broads of the Lower Spree have taken their name from the word marsh. The Milceni settled on fertile soil around Upper Spree, the name derives from the word měl’, the two groups were separated from each other by a wide and uninhabited forest range. The rest of the tribes settled themselves between the Elbe and Saale, among the many Slavic tribes, the Bavarian Geographer noted a few Lusatian tribes, Glomacze - Dolomici, Milceni and Sitice
Silesians are the inhabitants of Silesia, a historical region divided by the current national boundaries of Poland and the Czech Republic. This central European ethno-linguistic group should not be confused with German Silesians, Silesians inhabiting Poland are considered to belong to a Polish ethnographic group, and they speak a dialect of Polish. They are of Slavic descent, but because Germany ruled Silesia for a long time, there have been some debates on whether or not the Silesians constitute a distinct nation. In modern history, they have often been pressured to declare themselves to be German, Polish or Czech, nevertheless,847,000 people declared themselves to be of Silesian nationality in the 2011 Polish national census. However, the era was already over, and these divisions reflected only political subdivisions of the Polish realm. Within Poland, from 1177 onward, Silesia was divided into many smaller duchies, in 1178, parts of the Duchy of Kraków around Bytom, Oświęcim, Chrzanów and Siewierz were transferred to the Silesian Piasts, although their population was of Vistulan and not of Silesian descent.
Between 1327 and 1348, duchies of Silesia came under suzerainty of the Crown of Bohemia, beginning in the 13th century, Slavic Silesia began to be settled by Germans. This led to changes in the structure of the province. In the Middle Ages, various German dialects of the new settlers became widely used throughout Lower Silesia, after the era of German colonization, the Polish language was still predominant in Upper Silesia and parts of Lower and Middle Silesia north of the Odra river. Germans usually dominated large cities, and Poles mostly lived in rural areas and this required the Prussian authorities to issue official documents in Polish, or in German and Polish. In 1742, most of Silesia was seized in the War of the Austrian Succession by King Frederick the Great of Prussia, the remainder of Silesia, known as Cieszyn Silesia, remained in the Austrian Empire. The Prussian part of Silesia constituted the Province of Silesia until 1918, the province was split into the Prussian provinces of Upper and Lower Silesia.
At the beginning of the century, the fact that Silesians were part of the Polish nation was not questioned. The language and culture of the self-declared Polish Silesians were put under the pressure of the Prussian Kulturkampf policies, the process of Germanisation was never completely successful. The ethnic situation of the region became more complex as the division of Upper Silesia into Polish, World War II and its aftermath amplified this polarization. Three groups took shape within the Silesian population, the Polish group was the strongest, the German group, which was primarily in central Silesia, was clearly less numerous. A third group supported separatism and an independent Silesian nation-state, the separatists were of marginal importance, finding little support among native Silesians. The reasons for these transitions were boundary shifts and population changes that came after World War II
Western Europe, or West Europe, is the region comprising the western part of Europe. Below, some different geographic and geopolitical definitions of the term are outlined, prior to the Roman conquest, a large part of Western Europe had adopted the newly developed La Tène culture. This cultural and linguistic division was reinforced by the political east-west division of the Roman Empire. The division between these two was enhanced during Late Antiquity and the Middle Ages by a number of events, the Western Roman Empire collapsed, starting the Early Middle Ages. By contrast, the Eastern Roman Empire, mostly known as the Greek or Byzantine Empire, survived, in East Asia, Western Europe was historically known as taixi in China and taisei in Japan, which literally translates as the Far West. The term Far West became synonymous with Western Europe in China during the Ming dynasty, the Italian Jesuit priest Matteo Ricci was one of the first writers in China to use the Far West as an Asian counterpart to the European concept of the Far East.
In his writings, Ricci referred to himself as Matteo of the Far West, the term was still in use in the late 19th and early 20th centuries. Post-war Europe would be divided into two spheres, the West, influenced by the United States, and the Eastern Bloc. With the onset of the Cold War, Europe was divided by the Iron Curtain, behind that line lie all the capitals of the ancient states of Central and Eastern Europe. Although some countries were neutral, they were classified according to the nature of their political. This division largely defined the popular perception and understanding of Western Europe, the world changed dramatically with the fall of the Iron Curtain in 1989. The Federal Republic of Germany peacefully absorbed the German Democratic Republic, COMECON and the Warsaw Pact were dissolved, and in 1991, the Soviet Union ceased to exist. Several countries which had part of the Soviet Union regained full independence. Although the term Western Europe was more prominent during the Cold War, it remains much in use, in 1948 the Treaty of Brussels was signed between Belgium, Luxembourg, the Netherlands and the United Kingdom.
It was further revisited in 1954 at the Paris Conference, when the Western European Union was established and it was declared defunct in 2011, after the Treaty of Lisbon, and the Treaty of Brussels was terminated. When the Western European Union was dissolved, it had 10 member countries, six member countries, five observer countries. The CIA divides Western Europe into two smaller subregions, regional voting blocs were formed in 1961 to encourage voting to various UN bodies from different regional groups. The European Union is an economic and political union of 28 member states that are located primarily in Europe, some Western and Northern European countries of Iceland, Norway and Liechtenstein are members of EFTA, though cooperating to varying degree with the European Union
Lechites, or Lekhites, is a name given to certain West Slavic peoples, including the ancestors of modern Poles and the historical Pomeranians and Polabians, speakers of the Lechitic languages. When Mieszko I inherited the throne from his father he probably ruled over two-thirds of the territory inhabited by eastern Lechite tribes. He united the Lechites east of the Oder into a single country and his son, Bolesław the Brave founded the bishoprics at Wrocław, Kołobrzeg, and Cracow, and an archbishopric at Gniezno. Bolesław carried out successful wars against Bohemia, Kievan Rus and Lusatia, shortly before his death Boleslaw became the first King of Poland in 1025. The West Slavs included the ancestors of the peoples known as Poles, Czechs, Slovaks and Polabians. The Sorbian languages of the part of the Polabian area, preserved as relics today in Upper and Lower Lusatia. The name Lech or Leszek, Leszko, Lech was a popular male name among members of Piast dynasty like Lestko, Leszek I the White, Leszek II the Black, Duke of Masovia, Leszek of Racibórz.
The oldest part of Gniezno located in the center of Great Poland is known as Wzgórze Lecha, mentioned in the Gesta principum Polonorum, completed between 1112 and 1118 by Gallus Anonymus, was the second legendary duke of Poland and the son of Siemowit, born ca. Wincenty Kadłubek in Chronica seu originale regum et principum Poloniae, written between 1190 and 1208, used the names Lechitae and Lechia many times to all of medieval Poland. Chronicle of Greater Poland 1273 described Casimir I the Restorer as king of Poles means Lechites, both the names Poles and Lechites were used in medieval Poland as adequate terms. Laesir is the Old Norse term for the Ljachar, a people near the Vistula in Poland, in Polish literature Lech was the name of the legendary founder of Poland. The legend describes three brothers, Lech, Čech, and Rus – who founded three Slavic nations, Poland and Rus, in this legend Lech was the founder of Gniezno. Three brothers Lech and Rus were exploring the wilderness to find a place to settle, suddenly they saw a hill with an old oak and an eagle on top.
Lech said, this white eagle I will adopt as an emblem of my people, and around this oak I will build my stronghold, the other brothers went further on to find a place for their people. Czech went to the South and Rus went to the East, a variant of this legend, involving only two brothers Lech and Čech, was first written down by Cosmas of Prague of Bohemia. The legend was described by Kronika wielkopolska written in 1273 in Latin, Lech Lechia Lendians Dagome iudex Polish tribes
They speak the Slovene, a South Slavic language with significant similarities to West Slavic languages. The majority of ethnic Slovenes live in Slovenia, and they are a minority in Austria, Hungary and Italy. Expatriates live mainly in other European countries, and in Argentina, Canada, most Slovenes today live within the borders of the independent Slovenia. In the Slovenian national census of 2002,1,631,363 people ethnically declared themselves as Slovenes, while 1,723,434 people claimed Slovene as their native language. The autochthonous Slovene minority in Italy is estimated at 83,000 to 100,000, the Slovene minority in southern Austria at 24,855, in Croatia at 13,200, and in Hungary at 3,180. Significant Slovene expatriate communities live in the United States and Canada, in other European countries, in Argentina, the largest population of Slovenes outside of Slovenia is in Cleveland, Ohio. In total 39-36% of 399-458 sampled Slovenian males belong to Y-DNA Haplogroup R1a, more frequent than in South Slavic peoples, constituting 41% in the capital region, Slovenian population displays close genetic affiliations with West Slavic populations.
The homogenous genetic strata of the West Slavic populations and the Slovenian population suggest the existence of a common ancestral Slavic population in central European region. The M458 branch constitutes 4%, while the dominant clade is Z280, specifically its R1a-CTS3402 clade, the Z92 branch of Z280 which is significant among East Slavs is recorded as completely absent among Slovenes and Austrians. Of 100 sampled Slovenians, 18% belong to R1b, of which 8% of R1b belongs to the P312 branch, 6% to the eastern, the Dinaric-North haplotypes of I2a1b are with overwhelming higher frequency than Dinaric-South even in regions with high frequency. From 623 to 658, Slavic peoples between the upper Elbe River and the Karavanke mountain range were united under the leadership of King Samo in what was to become known as Samos Tribal Union. The tribal union collapsed after Samos death, but a smaller Slavic tribal principality Carantania remained, due to pressing danger of Avar tribes from the east, the Carantanians accepted a union with Bavaria in 745 and recognized Frankish rule and accepted Christianity in the 8th century.
The last Slavic state formation in the region, the principality of Prince Kocelj, Slovene ethnic territory subsequently shrank due to pressing of Germans from the west and the arrival of Hungarians in the Pannonian plain, and stabilized in the present form in the 15th century. The first mentions of a common Slovene ethnic identity, transcending regional boundaries, date from the 16th century, during this period, the first books in Slovene were written by the Protestant preacher Primož Trubar and his followers, establishing the base for the development of standard Slovene. In the second half of the 16th century, numerous books were printed in Slovene, at the beginning of the 17th century, Protestantism was suppressed by the Habsburg-sponsored Counter Reformation, which introduced the new aesthetics of Baroque culture. The Enlightenment in the Habsburg monarchy brought significant social and cultural progress to the Slovene people and it hastened economic development and facilitated the appearance of a middle class.
The start of activities by Slovene intellectuals of the time brought about a national revival. Before the Napoleonic Wars, some secular literature in Slovene emerged, during the same period, the first history of the Slovene Lands as an ethnic unity was written by Anton Tomaž Linhart, while Jernej Kopitar compiled the first comprehensive grammar of Slovene
The Carpathian Mountains or Carpathians are a mountain range system forming an arc roughly 1,500 km long across Central and Eastern Europe, making them the second-longest mountain range in Europe. The Carpathians and their foothills have many thermal and mineral waters, the Carpathians consist of a chain of mountain ranges that stretch in an arc from the Czech Republic in the northwest through Slovakia, Poland and Ukraine to Romania and Serbia. The highest range within the Carpathians is the Tatras, on the border of Slovakia and Poland, the second-highest range is the Southern Carpathians in Romania, where the highest peaks exceed 2,500 m. The divisions of the Carpathians are usually in three sections, Western Carpathians — Czech Republic and Slovakia. Eastern Carpathians — southeastern Poland, eastern Slovakia, Romania, the term Outer Carpathians is frequently used to describe the northern rim of the Western and Eastern Carpathians. The most important cities in or near the Carpathians are, Bratislava and Košice in Slovakia, Kraków in Poland, Cluj-Napoca and Braşov in Romania, and Uzhhorod in Ukraine.
In modern times, the range is called Karpaty in Czech, Slovak and Карпати in Ukrainian, Carpați in Romanian, Karpaten in German, Kárpátok in Hungarian and Karpati or Карпати in Serbian. Although the toponym was recorded already by Ptolemy in the 2nd century CE, for instance, Havasok was its medieval Hungarian name and Romanian chronicles referred to it as Hungarian Mountains. The archaic Polish word karpa meant rugged irregularities, underwater obstacles/rocks, the more common word skarpa means a sharp cliff or other vertical terrain. In late Roman documents, the Eastern Carpathian Mountains were referred to as Montes Sarmatici, the Western Carpathians were called Carpates, a name that is first recorded in Ptolemys Geographia. In the Scandinavian Hervarar saga, which relates ancient Germanic legends about battles between Goths and Huns, the name Karpates appears in the predictable Germanic form as Harvaða fjöllum, inter Alpes Huniae et Oceanum est Polonia by Gervase of Tilbury, has described in his Otia Imperialia in 1211.
Thirteenth- to fifteenth-century Hungarian documents named the mountains Thorchal, Tarczal or less frequently Montes Nivium, the northwestern Carpathians begin in Slovakia and southern Poland. They surround Transcarpathia and Transylvania in a semicircle, sweeping towards the southeast. The total length of the Carpathians is over 1,500 km, the highest altitudes of the Carpathians occur where they are widest. The Carpathians cover an area of 190,000 km2 and, after the Alps, although commonly referred to as a mountain chain, the Carpathians do not actually form an uninterrupted chain of mountains. Rather, they consist of several orographically and geologically distinctive groups, the Carpathians at their highest altitude are only as high as the middle region of the Alps, with which they share a common appearance and flora. The Carpathians are separated from the Alps by the Danube, the two ranges meet at only one point, the Leitha Mountains at Bratislava. The river separates them from the Balkan Mountains at Orşova in Romania, the valley of the March and Oder separates the Carpathians from the Silesian and Moravian chains, which belong to the middle wing of the great Central Mountain System of Europe