Memphis is a city located along the Mississippi River in southwestern Shelby County, United States. The 2017 city population was 652,236, making Memphis the largest city on the Mississippi River, second-largest city in Tennessee, as well as the 25th largest city in the United States. Greater Memphis is the 42nd largest metropolitan area in the United States, with a population of 1,348,260 in 2017; the city is the anchor of West Tennessee and the greater Mid-South region, which includes portions of neighboring Arkansas and Mississippi. Memphis is the seat of the most populous county in Tennessee; as one of the most historic and cultural cities of the southern United States, the city features a wide variety of landscapes and distinct neighborhoods. The first European explorer to visit the area of present-day Memphis was Spanish conquistador Hernando de Soto in 1541 with his expedition into the New World; the high bluffs protecting the location from the waters of the Mississippi would be contested between the Spanish and the English as Memphis took shape.
Modern Memphis was founded in 1819 by three prominent Americans: John Overton, James Winchester, future president Andrew Jackson. Memphis grew into one of the largest cities of the Antebellum South as a market for agricultural goods, natural resources like lumber, the American slave trade. After the American Civil War and the end of slavery, the city experienced faster growth into the 20th century as it became among the largest world markets for cotton and lumber. Home to Tennessee's largest African-American population, Memphis played a prominent role in the American civil rights movement and was the site of Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr.'s 1968 assassination. The city now hosts the National Civil Rights Museum—a Smithsonian affiliate institution. Since the civil rights era, Memphis has grown to become one of the nation's leading commercial centers in transportation and logistics; the city's largest employer is the multinational courier corporation FedEx, which maintains its global air hub at Memphis International Airport, making it the second-busiest cargo airport in the world.
Today, Memphis is a regional center for commerce, media and entertainment. The city has long had a prominent music scene, with historic blues clubs on Beale Street originating the unique Memphis blues sound during early 20th century; the city's music has continued to be shaped by a multi-cultural mix of influences across the blues, rock n' roll and hip-hop genres. Memphis barbecue has achieved international prominence, the city hosts the World Championship Barbecue Cooking Contest, which attracts over 100,000 visitors to the city annually. Occupying a substantial bluff rising from the Mississippi River, the site of Memphis has been a natural location for human settlement by varying cultures over thousands of years; the area was known to be settled in the first millennium A. D. by people of the Mississippian Culture, who had a network of communities throughout the Mississippi River Valley and its tributaries. They built complexes with large earthwork ceremonial and burial mounds as expressions of their sophisticated culture.
The historic Chickasaw Indian tribe, believed to be their descendants occupied the site. French explorers led by René-Robert Cavelier, Sieur de La Salle and Spanish explorer Hernando de Soto encountered the Chickasaw tribe in that area in the 16th century. J. D. L. Holmes, writing in Hudson's Four Centuries of Southern Indians, notes that this site was a third strategic point in the late 18th century through which European powers could control United States encroachment and their interference with Indian matters—after Fort Nogales and Fort Confederación: "... Chickasaw Bluffs, located on the Mississippi River at the present-day location of Memphis. Spain and the United States vied for control of this site, a favorite of the Chickasaws."In 1795 the Spanish Governor-General of Louisiana, Francisco Luis Héctor de Carondelet sent his Lieutenant Governor, Manuel Gayoso de Lemos, to negotiate and secure consent from the local Chickasaw so that a Spanish fort could be erected on the bluff. Holmes notes that consent was reached despite opposition from "disappointed Americans and a pro-American faction of the Chickasaws", when the "pro-Spanish faction signed the Chickasaw Bluffs Cession and Spain provided the Chickasaws with a trading post…".
Fort San Fernando de las Barrancas remained a focal point of Spanish activity until, as Holmes summarizes: he Treaty of San Lorenzo or Pinckney's Treaty of 1795, all of the careful, diplomatic work by Spanish officials in Louisiana and West Florida, which has succeeded for a decade in controlling the Indians, was undone. The United States gained the right to navigate the Mississippi River and won control over the Yazoo Strip north of the thirty-first parallel; the Spanish dismantled the fort, shipping its iron to their locations in Arkansas. In 1796, the site became the westernmost point of the newly admitted state of Tennessee, located in what was called the Southwest United States; the area was still occupied and controlled by the Chickasaw nation. Captain Isaac Guion led an American force down the Ohio River to claim the land, arriving on July 20, 1797. By this time, the Spanish had departed; the fort's ruins went unnoticed twenty years when Memphis was laid out as a city, after the United States government paid the Chickasaw for land.
The city of Memphis was founded on May 22, 1819 by John Overton, James Winchester and Andrew Jackson. They named it after the ancient capita
Benton County, Tennessee
Benton County is a county located in the U. S. state of Tennessee. As of the 2010 census, the population was 16,489, its county seat is Camden. The county was created in December 1835 and organized in 1836. Benton County is located in northwest Tennessee, bordering the western branch of the Tennessee River and 30 miles south of the Kentucky border. Aside from Camden, other major communities include agrarian communities Big Holladay, it is known well in the area for its duck hunting and fishing industries, in the past, was recognized for sorghum production, although it is no longer produced there. Benton County was formed in 1835 from part of Humphreys County, it was named in honor of David Benton, an early settler in the county and a member of the Third Regiment, Tennessee Militia in the Creek War. According to the U. S. Census Bureau, the county has a total area of 436 square miles, of which 394 square miles is land and 42 square miles is water. Stewart County Houston County Humphreys County Perry County Decatur County Carroll County Henry County Tennessee National Wildlife Refuge Big Sandy Wildlife Management Area Camden Wildlife Management Area Nathan Bedford Forrest State Park Harmon Creek Wildlife Management Area Lick Creek Wildlife Management Area Natchez Trace State Forest Natchez Trace State Park New Hope Wildlife Management Area As of the census of 2000, there were 16,537 people, 6,863 households, 4,886 families residing in the county.
The population density was 42 people per square mile. There were 8,595 housing units at an average density of 22 per square mile; the racial makeup of the county was 96.44% White, 2.10% Black or African American, 0.33% Native American, 0.24% Asian, 0.20% from other races, 0.69% from two or more races. 0.95% of the population were Hispanic or Latino of any race. There were 6,863 households out of which 27.30% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 58.10% were married couples living together, 9.50% had a female householder with no husband present, 28.80% were non-families. 25.70% of all households were made up of individuals and 12.30% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.37 and the average family size was 2.82. In the county, the population was spread out with 22.00% under the age of 18, 7.00% from 18 to 24, 26.20% from 25 to 44, 27.00% from 45 to 64, 17.70% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 42 years. For every 100 females there were 93.80 males.
For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 91.40 males. The median income for a household in the county was $28,679, the median income for a family was $32,727. Males had a median income of $29,177 versus $19,038 for females; the per capita income for the county was $14,646. About 11.90% of families and 15.60% of the population were below the poverty line, including 23.90% of those under age 18 and 11.70% of those age 65 or over. Of the 16,459 people leaving in Benton County.03 percent are on some form of state advised probation. WRJB-FM 95.9 "Magic 95.9 the Valley" WFWL-AM 1220 "The Station You Grew Up With" WAKQ-FM 105.5 "Today's Best Music with Ace & TJ in the Morning" WTPR-AM 710 "The Greatest Hits of All Time" WTPR-FM 101.7 "The Greatest Hits of All Time" The Camden Chronicle Tennessee Magnet Publications Camden Big Sandy Eva Holladay Post Oak National Register of Historic Places listings in Benton County, Tennessee Benton County, TN Government Web Site Benton County-Camden Chamber of Commerce Benton County Schools Benton County at Curlie TNGenWeb
The Tennessee River is the largest tributary of the Ohio River. It is 652 miles long and is located in the southeastern United States in the Tennessee Valley; the river was once popularly known as the Cherokee River, among other names, as many of the Cherokee had their territory along its banks in eastern Tennessee and northern Alabama. Its current name is derived from the Cherokee village Tanasi; the Tennessee River is formed at the confluence of the Holston and French Broad rivers in present-day Knoxville, Tennessee. From Knoxville, it flows southwest through East Tennessee into Chattanooga before crossing into Alabama, it travels through the Huntsville and Decatur area before reaching the Muscle Shoals area, forms a small part of the state's border with Mississippi, before returning to Tennessee. Its route northwesterly through Tennessee defines the boundary between two of Tennessee's Grand Divisions: Middle and West Tennessee; the Tennessee–Tombigbee Waterway, a U. S. Army Corps of Engineers project providing navigation on the Tombigbee River and a link to the Port of Mobile, enters the Tennessee River near the Tennessee-Alabama-Mississippi boundary.
This waterway reduces the navigation distance from Tennessee, north Alabama, northern Mississippi to the Gulf of Mexico by hundreds of miles. The final part of the Tennessee's run is north through western Kentucky, where it separates the Jackson Purchase from the rest of the state, it flows into the Ohio River at Kentucky. The river has been dammed numerous times during the 20th century since the 1930s by Tennessee Valley Authority projects; the construction of TVA's Kentucky Dam on the Tennessee River and the Corps of Engineers' Barkley Dam on the Cumberland River led to the development of associated lakes, the creation of what is called Land Between the Lakes. A navigation canal located at Grand Rivers, links Kentucky Lake and Lake Barkley; the canal allows for a shorter trip for river traffic going from the Tennessee to most of the Ohio River, for traffic going down the Cumberland River toward the Mississippi. The river appears on French maps from the late 17th century with the names "Caquinampo" or "Kasqui."
Maps from the early 18th century call it "Cussate," "Hogohegee," "Callamaco," and "Acanseapi." A 1755 British map showed the Tennessee River as the "River of the Cherakees." By the late 18th century, it had come to be called "Tennessee," a name derived from the Cherokee village named Tanasi. The Tennessee River begins at mile post 652, where the French Broad River meets the Holston River, but there were several different definitions of its starting point. In the late 18th century, the mouth of the Little Tennessee River was considered to be the beginning of the Tennessee River. Through much of the 19th century, the Tennessee River was considered to start at the mouth of Clinch River. An 1889 declaration by the Tennessee General Assembly designated Kingsport as the start of the Tennessee, but the following year a federal law was enacted that fixed the start of the river at its current location. At various points since the early 19th century, Georgia has disputed its northern border with Tennessee.
In 1796, when Tennessee was admitted to the Union, the border was defined by United States Congress as located on the 35th parallel, thereby ensuring that at least a portion of the river would be located within Georgia. As a result of an erroneously conducted survey in 1818, the actual border line was set on the ground one mile south, thus placing the disputed portion of the river in Tennessee. Georgia made several unsuccessful attempts to correct what Georgia felt was an erroneous survey line "in the 1890s, 1905, 1915, 1922, 1941, 1947 and 1971 to'resolve' the dispute", according to C. Crews Townsend, Joseph McCoin, Robert F. Parsley, Alison Martin and Zachary H. Greene, writing for the Tennessee Bar Journal, a publication of the Tennessee Bar Association, appearing on May 12, 2008. In 2008, as a result of a serious drought and resulting water shortage, the Georgia General Assembly passed a resolution directing the governor to pursue its claim in the United States Supreme Court. According to a story aired on WTVC-TV in Chattanooga on March 14, 2008, a local attorney familiar with case law on border disputes, says the U.
S. Supreme Court will maintain the original borders between states and avoid stepping into border disputes, preferring the parties work out their differences; the Chattanooga Times Free Press reported on 25 March 2013 that Georgia senators approved House Resolution 4 stating that if Tennessee declines to settle with them, the dispute will be handed over to the attorney general, who will take Tennessee before the Supreme Court to settle the issue once and for all. The Atlantic Wire, in commenting on Georgia's actions stated: The Great Georgia-Tennessee Border War of 2013 Is Upon Us Historians, take note: On this day, not a day in 1732, a boundary dispute between two Southern states took a turn for the wet. In a two-page resolution passed overwhelmingly by the state senate, Georgia declared that it, not its neighbor to the north, controls part of the Tennessee River at Nickajack. Georgia doesn't want Nickajack, it wants that water.. The Tennessee River is an important part of the Great Loop, the recreational circumnavigation of Eastern North America by water.
The Tennessee River has been a major highway for riverboats through the south and today they are still found along the river in abundance. Major ports include Guntersville, Chattanooga and Yellow Creek, Muscle Shoals. Navigation has contributed greatly
Tennessee is a state located in the southeastern region of the United States. Tennessee is the 16th most populous of the 50 United States. Tennessee is bordered by Kentucky to the north, Virginia to the northeast, North Carolina to the east, Georgia and Mississippi to the south, Arkansas to the west, Missouri to the northwest; the Appalachian Mountains dominate the eastern part of the state, the Mississippi River forms the state's western border. Nashville is the state's capital and largest city, with a 2017 population of 667,560. Tennessee's second largest city is Memphis, which had a population of 652,236 in 2017; the state of Tennessee is rooted in the Watauga Association, a 1772 frontier pact regarded as the first constitutional government west of the Appalachians. What is now Tennessee was part of North Carolina, part of the Southwest Territory. Tennessee was admitted to the Union as the 16th state on June 1, 1796. Tennessee was the last state to leave the Union and join the Confederacy at the outbreak of the American Civil War in 1861.
Occupied by Union forces from 1862, it was the first state to be readmitted to the Union at the end of the war. Tennessee furnished more soldiers for the Confederate Army than any other state besides Virginia, more soldiers for the Union Army than the rest of the Confederacy combined. Beginning during Reconstruction, it had competitive party politics, but a Democratic takeover in the late 1880s resulted in passage of disenfranchisement laws that excluded most blacks and many poor whites from voting; this reduced competition in politics in the state until after passage of civil rights legislation in the mid-20th century. In the 20th century, Tennessee transitioned from an agrarian economy to a more diversified economy, aided by massive federal investment in the Tennessee Valley Authority and, in the early 1940s, the city of Oak Ridge; this city was established to house the Manhattan Project's uranium enrichment facilities, helping to build the world's first atomic bombs, two of which were dropped on Imperial Japan near the end of World War II.
Tennessee's major industries include agriculture and tourism. Poultry and cattle are the state's primary agricultural products, major manufacturing exports include chemicals, transportation equipment, electrical equipment; the Great Smoky Mountains National Park, the nation's most visited national park, is headquartered in the eastern part of the state, a section of the Appalachian Trail follows the Tennessee-North Carolina border. Other major tourist attractions include the Tennessee Aquarium in Chattanooga; the earliest variant of the name that became Tennessee was recorded by Captain Juan Pardo, the Spanish explorer, when he and his men passed through an American Indian village named "Tanasqui" in 1567 while traveling inland from South Carolina. In the early 18th century, British traders encountered a Cherokee town named Tanasi in present-day Monroe County, Tennessee; the town was located on a river of the same name, appears on maps as early as 1725. It is not known whether this was the same town as the one encountered by Juan Pardo, although recent research suggests that Pardo's "Tanasqui" was located at the confluence of the Pigeon River and the French Broad River, near modern Newport.
The meaning and origin of the word are uncertain. Some accounts suggest, it has been said to mean "meeting place", "winding river", or "river of the great bend". According to ethnographer James Mooney, the name "can not be analyzed" and its meaning is lost; the modern spelling, Tennessee, is attributed to James Glen, the governor of South Carolina, who used this spelling in his official correspondence during the 1750s. The spelling was popularized by the publication of Henry Timberlake's "Draught of the Cherokee Country" in 1765. In 1788, North Carolina created "Tennessee County", the third county to be established in what is now Middle Tennessee; when a constitutional convention met in 1796 to organize a new state out of the Southwest Territory, it adopted "Tennessee" as the name of the state. Tennessee is known as The Volunteer State, a nickname some claimed was earned during the War of 1812 because of the prominent role played by volunteer soldiers from Tennessee during the Battle of New Orleans.
Other sources differ on the origin of the state nickname. This explanation is more because President Polk's call for 2,600 nationwide volunteers at the beginning of the Mexican–American War resulted in 30,000 volunteers from Tennessee alone in response to the death of Davy Crockett and appeals by former Tennessee Governor and Texas politician, Sam Houston. Tennessee borders eight other states: Virginia to the north. Tennessee is tied with Missouri as the state bordering the most other states; the state is trisected by the Tennessee River. The highest point in the state is Clingmans Dome at 6,643 feet (
The Hatchie River is a 238-mile-long river in northern Mississippi and southwestern Tennessee. It is of considerable geographic and historic significance. In large measure this is because it is the only major river of West Tennessee that has never been impounded, channelized, or otherwise modified by human activity to any major degree, although several of its tributaries have, its environs are indicative of what much of West Tennessee must have resembled prior to the time of European settlement in early 19th century. The Hatchie rises in the northern part of Union County and travels through Tippah and Alcorn counties before crossing into Hardeman County, near the community of Pocahontas. After a short jog into adjoining McNairy County, the Hatchie flows north, in a serpentine fashion turns northwest toward Bolivar. While there is a discernible main channel, the Hatchie at this point is a zone of wetlands one mile wide. Bolivar was the head of navigation for small, shallow-draught steamboats in the 19th century.
From Bolivar, the Hatchie continues northwest, crossing into Haywood County and the southwestern corner of Madison County. It enters Hatchie National Wildlife Refuge; the rest of the stream course trends west. There is a "bow" to the north in the final part of the stream course, which forms the line between Tipton County and Lauderdale County; the Hatchie enters the Mississippi River just north of the Hatchie Towhead and just south of the Lower Hatchie National Wildlife Refuge. The Hatchie is designated as a "scenic river" under the Tennessee Scenic Rivers Act; the name "Hatchie River" is in a way a redundancy, as the word "hatchie" means "river" in many Native American languages of the southeast. Variant names of the Hatchie River include Big Hatchie River. List of Mississippi rivers List of Tennessee rivers U. S. Geological Survey Geographic Names Information System: Hatchie River
Lauderdale County, Alabama
Lauderdale County is a county located in the northwestern corner of the U. S. state of Alabama. As of the 2010 census the population was 92,709, its county seat is Florence. Its name is in honor of Tennessee. Lauderdale is part of the Florence-Muscle Shoals, AL Metropolitan Statistical Area known as "The Shoals". Lauderdale County was named in honor of Col. James Lauderdale, born in Virginia about 1780. In the early 19th century, who moved to West Tennessee, became a major in General John Coffee's cavalry of volunteers. Promoted to Lieutenant Colonel, he commanded a brigade of mounted riflemen, serving under Andrew Jackson in many battles against the Indians. According to reliable historians, Col. Lauderdale did not die in the Battle of New Orleans, but was wounded in the Battle of Talladega and died on December 23, 1814, seventeen days before Jackson's crushing defeat of the British at New Orleans. Several towns and counties in the southern states were named in his honor, though it is said that he never set foot in Lauderdale County.
Lauderdale County was established in 1818, a year. Florence, the county seat of Lauderdale County, was established in 1818. At this time a group of investors, under the name of Cypress Land Company purchased from the government 5,515 acres of land consisting of the original town site. Other towns in Lauderdale County competing for early settlers because of their proximity to the river were Savage's Spring, nine miles below Florence and Waterloo, some 20 miles downriver. Among the older settlements in the county is Center Star, located between Killen and Rogersville; this area was once claimed by both the Chickasaws and Cherokees, necessitating a cession of territory from each tribe before the settlement could be established. At one time, the remains of an old Indian village could be seen southwest of Center Star. Other old settlements included Middleton and Elgin, the latter known first as Ingram's Elgin Cross Roads. Rogersville, lying some 23 miles to the east of Florence, was named for John Rogers, an Indian trader, whose sons were fast friends of the great Sam Houston.
The late Will Rogers is said to have been a descendant of this same family. An early ferry that operated for many years was Lamb's Ferry near Rogersville. Lexington and Anderson lie to the north of the Lee Highway, the town of Lexington being a part of the territory once claimed by the Cherokee. Many of the settlers of that area came from Tennessee and the Carolinas; the first post office of record at Lexington was on the Loretto Road, north of town, in 1880. Mail at that time was brought in from Tennessee, by horseback and carts; the town of St. Florian was established in 1872 on the Jackson Highway and named by its German Catholic founders for their patron saint. Four Alabama governors were from the county - Hugh McVay, Robert M. Patton, Edward A. O'Neal and Emmett O'Neal. According to the U. S. Census Bureau, the county has a total area of 721 square miles, of which 668 square miles is land and 53 square miles is water. Key Cave National Wildlife Refuge Natchez Trace Parkway Tennessee River Elk River Wayne County, Tennessee - north Lawrence County, Tennessee - north Giles County, Tennessee - northeast Limestone County - east Lawrence County - southeast Colbert County - south Tishomingo County, Mississippi - west Hardin County, Tennessee - northwest According to the 2010 United States Census: 86.4% White 10.0% Black 0.4% Native American 0.7% Asian 0.0% Native Hawaiian or Pacific Islander 1.4% Two or more races 2.2% Hispanic or Latino As of the census of 2000, there were 87,966 people, 36,088 households, 25,153 families residing in the county.
The population density was 131 people per square mile. There were 40,424 housing units at an average density of 60 per square mile; the racial makeup of the county was 84.38% White or European American, 13.85% Black or African American, 0.25% Native American, 0.35% Asian, 0.02% Pacific Islander, 0.36% from other races, 0.79% from two or more races. 1.02% of the population were Hispanic or Latino of any race. In 2005 87.8% of the county population was non-Hispanic whites. African Americans Latinos 1.2 % of the population. According to the census of 2000, the largest ancestry groups in Lauderdale County were English 41.9%, African 13.85%, Scots-Irish 9.66%, Scottish 4.11%, Irish 3.19% and Welsh 2.5% In 2000 there were 36,088 households out of which 30.40% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 55.80% were married couples living together, 10.80% had a female householder with no husband present, 30.30% were non-families. 26.40% of all households were made up of individuals and 11.00% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older.
The average household size was 2.39 and the average family size was 2.89. In the county, the population was spread out with 23.00% under the age of 18, 10.10% from 18 to 24, 27.90% from 25 to 44, 23.90% from 45 to 64, 15.10% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 38 years. For every 100 females, there were 91.70 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 88.20 males. The median income for a household in the county was $33,354, the median income for a family was $41,438. Males had a median income of $33,943 versus $20,804 for females; the per capita income for the county was $18,626. About 10.50% of families and 14.40% of the population were below the poverty line, including 18.50% of those under age 18 and 11.30% of those age 65 or over. U. S. Highway 43 U. S. Highway 72 State Route 17 State Route 20 State Route 64 State Route 101 State Route 133 State Route 157 State
East Tennessee comprises the eastern third of the U. S. state of Tennessee, one of the three Grand Divisions of Tennessee defined in state law. East Tennessee consists of 33 counties, 30 located within the Eastern Time Zone and three counties in the Central Time Zone, namely Bledsoe and Marion. East Tennessee is located within the Appalachian Mountains, although the landforms range from densely forested 6,000-foot mountains to broad river valleys; the region contains the major cities of Knoxville and Johnson City, Tennessee's third and ninth largest cities, respectively. East Tennessee is both geographically and culturally part of Appalachia, has been included— along with Western North Carolina, North Georgia, Eastern Kentucky, Southwest Virginia, the state of West Virginia— in every major definition of the Appalachian region since the early 20th century. East Tennessee is home to the nation's most visited national park— the Great Smoky Mountains National Park— and hundreds of smaller recreational areas.
East Tennessee is called the birthplace of country music, due to the 1927 Victor recording sessions in Bristol, throughout the 20th and 21st centuries has produced a steady stream of musicians of national and international fame. Oak Ridge was the site of the world's first successful uranium enrichment operations which paved the way for the atomic age; the Tennessee Valley Authority, created to spur economic development and help modernize the region's economy and society, has its administrative operations headquartered in Knoxville and its power operations headquartered in Chattanooga. Unlike the geographic designations of regions of most U. S. states, the term East Tennessee has legal as well as socioeconomic meaning. East Tennessee, along with Middle Tennessee and West Tennessee, comprises one of the state's three Grand Divisions. According to the Tennessee State Constitution, no more than two of the Tennessee Supreme Court's five justices can come from any one Grand Division; the Supreme Court rotates meeting in courthouses in each of the three divisions.
The Supreme Court building for East Tennessee is in Knoxville. A similar rule applies to certain other commissions and boards as well, to prevent them from showing a geographic bias. East Tennessee includes parts of three major geological divisions— the Blue Ridge on the border with North Carolina in the east, the Ridge-and-Valley Appalachians in the center, the Cumberland Plateau in the west, bordering Middle Tennessee; the Blue Ridge section comprises the western section of the Blue Ridge Province, the crest of which forms most of the Tennessee-North Carolina border and consists of the highest parts of the state. The Blue Ridge is subdivided into several subranges— the Iron Mountains, Roan Highlands, Bald Mountains in the north, the Great Smoky Mountains in the center, the Unicoi Mountains and Little Frog and Big Frog Mountain areas in the south. Most of the Blue Ridge section is forested and protected by various state and federal entities, the largest of which include the Great Smoky Mountains National Park and the Cherokee National Forest.
The Ridge-and-Valley section called the Tennessee Valley or "Great Valley," is the region's largest and most populous section. It consists of a series of alternating elongate ridges and broad river valleys oriented northeast-to-southwest; this section's most notable feature, the Tennessee River, forms at the confluence of the Holston and French Broad rivers in Knoxville, flows southwestward to Chattanooga, where it enters the Tennessee River Gorge. Other notable rivers in the upper Tennessee watershed include the Clinch, Watauga, Little Tennessee, Hiwassee and Ocoee rivers. Notable "ridges" in the Ridge-and-Valley range include Clinch Mountain, Bays Mountain, Powell Mountain; the Cumberland Plateau rises nearly 1,000 feet above the Tennessee Valley, stretching from Cumberland Gap at the Tennessee-Kentucky-Virginia border southwestward to the Alabama border. The "Tennessee Divide" runs along the western part of the plateau, separates the watersheds of the Tennessee and Cumberland rivers. Plateau counties east of this divide— i.e. Cumberland and Scott— are grouped with East Tennessee, whereas plateau counties west of this divide are considered part of Middle Tennessee.
Three counties— Bledsoe and Marion— are located in the Sequatchie Valley, a long narrow valley in the southern part of the Cumberland Plateau. These three counties were traditionally part of East Tennessee; however and Marion counties were reassigned to the Middle Tennessee grand division circa 1932. Marion County was returned to East Tennessee, but Sequatchie County remains part of Middle Tennessee. One notable detached section of the Plateau is Lookout Mountain; the Official Tourism Website of Tennessee has a definition of East Tennessee different from the legal definition.: The website excludes Cumberland County while including Grundy and Sequatchie Counties. The major cities of East Tennessee are Knoxville and the "Tri-Cities" of Bristol, Johnson City, Kingsport located in the extreme northeasternmost part of the state; the Blue Ridge section of the state is much more sparsely populated, its main cities being Elizabethton and Tellico Plains. Crossville and Jasper are prominent cities in the Plateau region.
Cities and towns with 10,000+ population (2016 estim