Chinese dictionary

Chinese dictionaries date back over two millennia to the Han Dynasty, a longer lexicographical history than any other language. There are hundreds of dictionaries for the Chinese language, this article discusses some of the most important; the general term císhū semantically encompasses "dictionary. The Chinese language has two words for dictionary: zidian for written forms, that is, Chinese characters, cidian, for spoken forms. For character dictionaries, zidian combines dian. For word dictionaries, cidian is interchangeably written or. Zidian is a much older and more common word than cidian, Yang notes zidian is "used for both'character dictionary' and'word dictionary'." The precursors of Chinese dictionaries are primers designed for students of Chinese characters. The earliest of them only survive in quotations within Chinese classic texts. For example, the Shizhoupian was compiled by one or more historians in the court of King Xuan of Zhou, was the source of the 籀文 zhòuwén variant forms listed in the Han Dynasty Shuowen Jiezi dictionary.

The Cangjiepian "Chapters of Cang Jie"), named after the legendary inventor of writing, was edited by Li Si, helped to standardize the Small seal script during the Qin Dynasty. The collation or lexicographical ordering of a dictionary depends upon its writing system. For a language written in an alphabet or syllabary, dictionaries are ordered alphabetically. Samuel Johnson defined dictionary as "a book containing the words of any language in alphabetical order, with explanations of their meaning" in his dictionary, but Johnson's definition cannot be applied to the Chinese dictionaries, as Chinese is written in characters or logograph, not alphabets. To Johnson, not having an alphabet is not to the Chinese's credit, as in 1778, when James Boswell asked about the Chinese characters, he replied "Sir, they have not an alphabet, they have not been able to form what all other nations have formed." The Chinese made their dictionaries, developed three original systems for lexicographical ordering: semantic categories, graphic components, pronunciations.

The first system of dictionary organization is by semantic categories. The circa 3rd-century BCE Erya is the oldest extant Chinese dictionary, scholarship reveals that it is a pre-Qin compilation of glosses to classical texts, it contains lists of synonyms arranged into 19 semantic categories. The Han Dynasty dictionary Xiao Erya reduces these 19 to 13 chapters; the early 3rd century CE Guangya, from the Northern Wei Dynasty, followed the Erya's original 19 chapters. The circa 1080 CE Piya, from the Song Dynasty, has 8 semantically-based chapters of names for plants and animals. For a dictionary user wanting to look up a character, this arbitrary semantic system is inefficient unless one knows, or can guess, the meaning. Two other Han Dynasty lexicons are loosely organized by semantics; the 1st century CE Fangyan is the world's oldest known dialectal dictionary. The circa 200 CE Shiming employs paranomastic glosses to define words; the second system of dictionary organization is by radicals. The famous 100–121 CE Shuowen Jiezi arranged characters through a system of 540 bushou radicals.

The 543 CE Yupian, from the Liang Dynasty, rearranged them into 542. The 1615 CE Zihui, edited by Mei Yingzuo during the Ming Dynasty, simplified the 540 Shuowen Jiezi radicals to 214, it originated the "radical-stroke" scheme of ordering characters on the number of residual graphic strokes besides the radical. The 1627 Zhengzitong used 214; the 1716 CE Kangxi Zidian, compiled under the Kangxi Emperor of the Qing Dynasty, became the standard dictionary for Chinese characters, popularized the system of 214 radicals. As most Chinese characters are semantic-phonetic ones, the radical method is effective, thus it continues to be used in the present day. However, sometimes the radical of a character is not obvious. To compensate this, a "Chart of Characters that Are Difficult to Look up", arranged by the number of strokes of the characters, is provided; the third system of lexicographical ordering is by character pronunciation. This type of dictionary collates its entries by syllable rime and tones, comprises the so-called "rime dictionary".

The first surviving rime dictionary is the 601 CE Qieyun from the Sui Dynasty. During the Song Dynasty, it was expanded into the 1037 CE Jiyun; the clear problem with these old phonetically arrange

The Lone Chipmunks

The Lone Chipmunks is a 1954 American animated short film directed by Jack Kinney and produced by Walt Disney. In the short film, Chip'n' Dale are in the old west, trying to bring in Black Pete for a $10,000 reward; this cartoon marks Pete's final appearance in the Golden Age of American animation, the last of the three cartoons in the Chip n' Dale series. In this spoof of popular cowboy series The Lone Ranger, the villainous Pete robs a western bank and makes his getaway, decides to hide his loot in a tree inhabited by two chipmunks, the chattering-and-clattering Chip'n' Dale, they resent the intrusion but begin to give Pete a hard time when they discover a reward if posted for his capture. The cavalry arrives but Dale have the situation well in hand; the episode begins with Black Pete entering an Old West town guns blazing. He robs the town bank and escapes on his horse; the scene shows Chip and Dale preparing for winter and stash their acorns in their tree. A wanted poster of Pete with a reward or $10,000 is placed on the hole where Chip went with some acorns.

He accidentally puts his face in the poster which Dale thought his friend turned to crime. Pete stashes the money in a chest he hid in a tree; the tree the chest was in was the home of Chip and Dale with their stash of acorns. Pete make breakfast while singing Home on The Range. Seeing the wanted outlaw, they make many attempts to capture him, they try to pull him off with a rock on a rope. Chip is held by Pete. Chip is pulled away which panics Pete who hides behind a rock and begins firing wildly at nothing, he brushes it off Chip and Dale load a tobacco bag with gunpowder from some of Pete's bullets and turns it into a cigarette. He throws it away which it lands behind the explodes. Pete again fires blindly, he becomes frantic and decides to move on He grabs his chest only to find it full of acorns. He finds his money on the ground in a path, gathers the money while falling into a pit trap, only to find the chipmunks and begins to shoot at them, they retreat to their tree, attempt to take one of the guns away from Pete.

Chip falls due to the weight of the gun. It begins to fire off out of control, Pete retaliates pulling out his gun but instead pulls out Dale, stuck in the holster to which Dale acts like a gun. Chip points the gun at Pete to which he surrenders. Chip ironically twirls the gun too fast to which he twirls with it; the gun goes off again which shoots off his hat and grazes some hair off his head. Pete tries to sweet talk his way out which Chip denies, He spins the chamber of the gun which falls out of the gun disarming it. Dale grabs one of the spurs on Pete's boots and using the spike to trigger the bullets on Pete's belt, they tickle him, Dale rides the spur down Pete's back which hurts him to the point of charging after him. Chip grabs the frying pan with the eggs and bacon and puts it in the path of Pete which he hits it and is the dazed and covered in maple syrup and the money he stole, he is captured by the cavalry. Chip and Dale ride off to town, now known as the Lone Chipmunks. Billy Bletcher as Black Pete Jimmy MacDonald as Chip Dessie Flynn as Dale Pinto Colvig Clarence Nash The animation of Pete robbing the bank and shooting up the town is reused from the 1952 cartoon "Two-Gun Goofy".

The gag with Pete mistaking Dale for his gun was reused in the Chip'n Dale Rescue Rangers pilot, "To the Rescue." The gag with Chip and Dale entering Pete to tickle him was reused in the Chip'n Dale Rescue Rangers episode, "Throw Mummy from the Train." Walt Disney anthology series, episode #5.20: "The Adventures of Chip'n' Dale" Walt Disney's Wonderful World of Color, episode #8.5: "The Hunting Instinct" Disney's Rootin' Tootin' Roundup Donald's Quack Attack, episode #61 The Adventures of Chip'n' Dale A Tale of Two Chipmunks Bonus on Davy Crockett 50th anniversary double feature set The Lone Chipmunks on IMDb The Lone Chipmunks at The Internet Animation Database The Lone Chipmunks on BFI The Lone Chipmunks on Filmaffinity