Cabinet Room (White House)
The Cabinet Room is the meeting room for the cabinet secretaries and advisors serving the President of the United States. The body is defined as the United States Cabinet, the Cabinet Room is located in the West Wing of the White House, adjoining the Oval Office, and looks out upon the White House Rose Garden. Though completed in 1934 the room is built in the Georgian style, the neoclassical ceiling molding with triglyphs was installed in 1934. A series of French doors topped with arched windows are located on the east side of the room. The light switch can be found on the wall, to the right by said doors, a fireplace, flanked by two niches is located on the north side of the room. Busts of George Washington and Benjamin Franklin by Jean-Antoine Houdon fill the niches, above the mantel hangs a painting titled The Signing of the Declaration of Independence by Charles Édouard Armand-Dumaresq. Additional portraits along the west wall are chosen by an incumbent president, the large elliptical mahogany table was a gift from President Richard Nixon in 1970.
The president and the cabinet secretaries chairs are copies of a late-eighteenth century design, the presidents chair is centered on the table on the east side of the room. The back of the chair is two inches taller than those of the cabinet secretaries. Engraved brass plates with the names of the positions are attached to the back of the chairs. The presidents simply says THE PRESIDENT, the chairs are purchased by the cabinet members, who may keep the chair as a souvenir after they leave office. Some cabinet members have had their chairs returned to the room for several positions and administrations. This includes Art Deco style wall sconces with spread eagles supporting internally lit globes, three overhead Moderne style glass pendant lights were recreated from old photographs and a similar surviving example in a hallway between the Oval Office and Roosevelt Room. The room is painted a color called deauville. A custom made carpet, in shades of carmine, old gold and fern green with a pattern of overscaled stars and olive leaves was woven for the room.
The refurbishment of White House rooms is jointly undertaken by the Curator of the White House, the Committee for the Preservation of the White House, costs relating to construction are often funded by the White House Endowment Trust. The purchase of art, historic furniture, or the recreation of period decorative arts, is frequently paid for by the White House Acquisition Trust. Abbott James A. and Elaine M. Rice, designing Camelot, The Kennedy White House Restoration
Franklin D. Roosevelt
Franklin Delano Roosevelt, commonly known as FDR, was an American statesman and political leader who served as the 32nd President of the United States from 1933 until his death in 1945. A Democrat, he won a record four presidential elections and emerged as a figure in world events during the mid-20th century. He directed the United States government during most of the Great Depression and he is often rated by scholars as one of the three greatest U. S. Presidents, along with George Washington and Abraham Lincoln. Roosevelt was born in 1882 to an old, prominent Dutch family from Dutchess County and he attended the elite educational institutions of Groton School, Harvard College, and Columbia Law School. At age 23 in 1905, he married Eleanor Roosevelt, and he entered politics in 1910, serving in the New York State Senate, and as Assistant Secretary of the Navy under President Woodrow Wilson. In 1920, Roosevelt was presidential candidate James M. Coxs running mate and he was in office from 1929 to 1933 and served as a reform governor, promoting the enactment of programs to combat the depression besetting the United States at the time.
In the 1932 presidential election, Roosevelt defeated incumbent Republican president Herbert Hoover in a landslide to win the presidency, Roosevelt took office while in the United States was in the midst of the worst economic crisis in its history. Energized by his victory over polio, FDR relied on his persistent optimism and activism to renew the national spirit. He created numerous programs to support the unemployed and farmers, and to labor union growth while more closely regulating business. His support for the repeal of Prohibition in 1933 added to his popularity, the economy improved rapidly from 1933–37, but relapsed into a deep recession in 1937–38. The bipartisan Conservative Coalition that formed in 1937 prevented his packing the Supreme Court, when the war began and unemployment ended, conservatives in Congress repealed the two major relief programs, the WPA and CCC. However, they kept most of the regulations on business, along with several smaller programs, major surviving programs include the Securities and Exchange Commission, the Wagner Act, the Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation and Social Security.
His goal was to make America the Arsenal of Democracy, which would supply munitions to the Allies, in March 1941, with Congressional approval, provided Lend-Lease aid to Britain and China. He supervised the mobilization of the U. S. economy to support the war effort, as an active military leader, Roosevelt implemented a war strategy on two fronts that ended in the defeat of the Axis Powers and initiate the development of the worlds first atomic bomb. His work influenced the creation of the United Nations. Roosevelts physical health declined during the war years, and he died 11 weeks into his fourth term. One of the oldest Dutch families in New York State, the Roosevelts distinguished themselves in other than politics. One ancestor, Isaac Roosevelt, had served with the New York militia during the American Revolution, Roosevelt attended events of the New York society Sons of the American Revolution, and joined the organization while he was president
William Howard Taft
William Howard Taft served as the 27th President of the United States and as the tenth Chief Justice of the United States, the only person to have held both offices. In 1921, President Warren G. Harding appointed Taft to be chief justice, Taft was born in Cincinnati in 1857. His father, Alphonso Taft, was a U. S. Attorney General, William Taft attended Yale and was a member of Skull and Bones secret society like his father, and after becoming a lawyer was appointed a judge while still in his twenties. He continued a rapid rise, being named Solicitor General and as a judge of the Sixth Circuit Court of Appeals, in 1901, President William McKinley appointed Taft civilian governor of the Philippines. In 1904, Roosevelt made him Secretary of War, and he became Roosevelts hand-picked successor, despite his personal ambition to become chief justice, Taft declined repeated offers of appointment to the Supreme Court of the United States, believing his political work to be more important. With Roosevelts help, Taft had little opposition for the Republican nomination for president in 1908, in the White House, he focused on East Asia more than European affairs, and repeatedly intervened to prop up or remove Latin American governments.
Taft sought reductions to trade tariffs, a source of governmental income. Controversies over conservation and over antitrust cases filed by the Taft administration served to separate the two men. Roosevelt challenged Taft for renomination in 1912, Taft used his control of the party machinery to gain a bare majority of delegates, and Roosevelt bolted the party. The split left Taft with little chance of re-election, he took only Utah, after leaving office, Taft returned to Yale as a professor, continuing his political activity and working against war through the League to Enforce Peace. In 1921, President Harding appointed Taft as chief justice, an office he had long sought, Chief Justice Taft was a conservative on business issues, but under him, there were advances in individual rights. In poor health, he resigned in February 1930, after his death the next month, he was buried at Arlington National Cemetery, the first president and first Supreme Court justice to be interred there. Taft is generally listed near the middle in historians rankings of U. S.
presidents, William Howard Taft was born September 15,1857 in Cincinnati, Ohio, to Alphonso Taft and Louise Torrey. The Taft family was not wealthy, living in a modest home in the suburb of Mount Auburn, Alphonso served as a judge, ambassador and in the cabinet, as War Secretary and Attorney General under Ulysses S. Grant. William Taft was not seen as brilliant as a child, but was a worker, Tafts demanding parents pushed him and his four brothers toward success. He attended Woodward High School in Cincinnati, at Yale College, which he entered in 1874, the heavyset, jovial Taft was popular. One classmate described him succeeding through hard work rather than being the smartest, in 1878, Taft graduated, second in his class out of 121. He attended Cincinnati Law School, and graduated with a Bachelor of Laws in 1880, while in law school, he worked on The Cincinnati Commercial newspaper, edited by Murat Halstead
Counselor to the President
Counselor to the President is a title used by high-ranking assistants to the President of the United States and senior members of the Executive Office of the President. The position was created during the administration of Richard Nixon, where it was assigned cabinet-rank, the position would be considered at cabinet level until 1993. During Nixons presidency, no fewer than eight individuals held the position, during the presidency of Gerald Ford, the post was shared by Robert T. Hartmann and John O. Marsh, with Rogers Morton briefly joining them in early 1976. The position was vacant during the Jimmy Carter administration, as Carter left many senior White House positions unfilled and preferred a smaller corps of advisers, edwin Meese held the position during the first term of President Ronald Reagan, and was highly influential inside the White House. Meese, White House Chief of Staff James Baker and Deputy White House Chief of Staff Michael Deaver were nicknamed The Troika, Meese became Attorney General during Reagans second term as president and the position was left vacant.
The position was vacant in the first three years of President George H. W. Bushs term. In 1992 it was filled by Clayton Yeutter after he resigned as chairman of the Republican National Committee, during the Bill Clinton administration, the post became much more focused on communications. Two of Clintons counselors, David Gergen and Paul Begala, became CNN political analysts, during the administration of George W. Bush, the Counselor oversaw the Communications, Media Affairs and Press Offices. John Podesta was the last person to hold the position before he left to join the Hillary Clinton presidential campaign of 2016 as chairman. Soon after the 2016 election, President-elect Donald Trump announced his intention to name the manager of his presidential campaign, Kellyanne Conway. Senior Advisor to the President White House Chief Strategist
The Executive Residence is the central building of the White House complex located between the East Wing and West Wing. It is the most recognizable part of the complex, being the house part of the White House. This central building, first constructed from 1792 to 1800, is home to the President of the United States, the Executive Residence primarily occupies four floors, the Ground Floor, the State Floor, the Second Floor, and the Third Floor. A two-story sub-basement with mezzanine, created during the 1948–to-1952 Truman reconstruction, is used for HVAC and mechanical systems and this level was added during the 1948-to-1952 renovation, and contains the air conditioning and water softening equipment. The Ground Floor of the White House originally contained service rooms, the White House is built on a slight hill that slopes to the south. Architect James Hoban designed the Ground Floor so that the kitchen was directly beneath the Entrance Hall, storerooms were east of the kitchen, while a toilet and dishwashing room were to the west.
The kitchen was relocated into the two rooms in the northwest corner of the Ground Floor by 1846, while the old kitchen space as transformed into an informal sitting room/reception space. As of 2010, this central space originally occupied by the kitchen in the early 1800s had been subdivided into offices for the White House Curator. The kitchen, continues to occupy the three rooms in the northwest corner of the Ground Floor. The storeroom to the east of the kitchen became a pantry in 1809, a locker in 1825. This area remains unchanged as of 2010, with the exception of the narrowing of the stairs in 1952 to create an elevator shaft. The storeroom in the northeast corner of the Ground Floor remained in use as storage space only until 1809, in 1902, President Theodore Roosevelt hired the architectural firm of McKim, Mead & White to renovate the White House. They turned the room into a gentlemans anteroom and this room became the White House Library in 1935. First Lady Jacqueline Kennedy radically transformed the room in 1961, Kennedy consulted initially with a group consisting of members of the United States Commission of Fine Arts, designers from the American Institute of Interior Designers, and historians.
The AIID agreed to take on the job of refurbishing the room, Lenygon designed an early American library room in the Federal style. Except for minor changes, the White House Library remains the same as of 2010. The toilet and laundry room west of the kitchen became general-use work areas by 1809, and a pantry, small kitchen, by 1946, these had become general workrooms, with a narrow, winding staircase inserted into the room closest to the former kitchen. The 1952 renovation turned the winding staircase into a steep, straight stairs, as of 2010, a pantry-sized refrigerator occupied a portion of this space
The Roosevelt Room is a meeting room in the West Wing of the White House, the official home and principal workplace of the President of the United States. Theodore Roosevelt hired architect Charles Follen McKim to reorganize the layout and this included constructing the West Wing in 1902 and moving executive offices out of the central White House. The original structure, some of which is extant in the present West Wing, was originally intended to be temporary. With some modifications by William Howard Taft the West Wing remained largely unchanged until a fire on December 24,1929 during the administration of Herbert Hoover, because of the recent stock market crash, Hoover chose only to repair rather than expand. In 1933, early in the administration of Franklin Roosevelt, the president began a series of meetings with staff architect Eric Gugler to enlarge and modify the West Wing. Roosevelt moved Tafts Oval Office, centered on the side of the wing. This made moving to and from the Executive Residence to the Oval Office quicker, and allowed for more privacy, the present Roosevelt Room is located where Theodore Roosevelts first West Wing office was.
When FDR reconstructed the West Wing he used the present room for staff meetings, Franklin Roosevelt kept an aquarium and hung several mounted fish in the room, and the room became the fish room. President Kennedy continued the name and hung a large mounted sail fish on the wall. In 1969 President Nixon gave the room its present name, the Roosevelt Room, to honor Theodore Roosevelt who first built the West Wing, the east wall of the room is a half circle, with a centered fireplace and doors on either side. The room has no windows and is lit by a false skylight, a large conference table seating a maximum of 16 is located in the center. The room is painted a color with white trim. A triglyph molding, similar to found in Independence Hall encircles the room. The furniture is mostly twentieth century reproductions of Chippendale and Queen Anne Style furniture, traditionally paintings of both presidents Roosevelt have hung in the room. Republican administrations would, in turn, hang Teddy Roosevelts painting above the mantel, bill Clinton decided to keep the landscape formatted Teddy Roosevelt portrait above the mantel and FDRs portrait on the south wall.
The Roosevelt Room continues to be used for meetings, and is increasingly used to announce the appointment or nomination of new staff members. The room is used as a preparation room by large delegations meeting with the president before entering the Oval Office. Abbott James A. and Elaine M. Rice, designing Camelot, The Kennedy White House Restoration
The West Wing
The West Wing is an American serial political drama television series created by Aaron Sorkin that was originally broadcast on NBC from September 22,1999, to May 14,2006. The West Wing was produced by Warner Bros, for the first four seasons, there were three executive producers, Aaron Sorkin, Thomas Schlamme, and John Wells. The West Wing received acclaim from critics, as well as praise from political science professors, in total, The West Wing won three Golden Globe Awards and 26 Emmy Awards, including the award for Outstanding Drama Series, which it won four consecutive times from 2000 through 2003. In the years since its run, it has appeared on lists of the greatest television dramas ever made. The Writers Guild of America ranked it #10 in its 101 Best-Written TV Series list, the West Wing employed a broad ensemble cast to portray the many positions involved in the daily work of the federal government. The President, the First Lady, and the Presidents senior staff, numerous secondary characters, appearing intermittently, complement storylines that generally revolve around this core group.
Sam Seaborn is the Deputy Communications Director and he departs the White House following the re-election of President Bartlet to run for Congress. He is recruited to become Santos Deputy Chief of Staff at the series end, mandy Hampton is Josh Lymans ex-girlfriend and a media consultant contracted by the Bartlet administration. She departs without explanation following the first season, charlie Young is originally the Personal Aide to the President and a Deputy Special Assistant to the Chief of Staff. He is in a relationship with Zoey Bartlet, at the series end he begins to study law at Georgetown. She succeeds Leo McGarry as Chief of Staff and departs White House at the end of the Bartlet administration, post-series, she marries Danny Concannon and has a child. He is fired from the Bartlet administration during a leak investigation and he has twin children with his ex-wife who is a congresswoman from Maryland. Leo McGarry, Bartlets close personal friend and Chief of Staff, following a heart attack, he becomes Counselor to the President, and the Democratic Candidate for Vice President.
Josh Lyman, is the Deputy Chief of Staff to Leo McGarry and C. J. Cregg, when Santos is elected, Josh becomes White House Chief of Staff. Josiah Jed Bartlet is the President of the United States, an economist by training, he is a former Congressman and Governor from New Hampshire who unexpectedly won the Democratic Party nomination. He suffers from multiple sclerosis, a fact he hides from the electorate. Donna Moss is the Senior Assistant to Josh Lyman and she departs to be a spokesperson for the Russell campaign and the Santos campaign. Upon Santos election, she becomes Chief of Staff to the First Lady, abbey Bartlet is the First Lady, Jeds wife, and a physician
The White House is the official residence and principal workplace of the President of the United States, located at 1600 Pennsylvania Avenue NW in Washington, D. C. It has been the residence of every U. S. president since John Adams in 1800, the term White House is often used to refer to actions of the president and his advisers, as in The White House announced that. The residence was designed by Irish-born architect James Hoban in the Neoclassical style, construction took place between 1792 and 1800 using Aquia Creek sandstone painted white. When Thomas Jefferson moved into the house in 1801, he added low colonnades on each wing that concealed stables and storage. In 1814, during the War of 1812, the mansion was set ablaze by the British Army in the Burning of Washington, destroying the interior, reconstruction began almost immediately, and President James Monroe moved into the partially reconstructed Executive Residence in October 1817. Exterior construction continued with the addition of the semi-circular South portico in 1824, because of crowding within the executive mansion itself, President Theodore Roosevelt had all work offices relocated to the newly constructed West Wing in 1901.
Eight years in 1909, President William Howard Taft expanded the West Wing and created the first Oval Office, in the main mansion, the third-floor attic was converted to living quarters in 1927 by augmenting the existing hip roof with long shed dormers. A newly constructed East Wing was used as an area for social events. East Wing alterations were completed in 1946, creating additional office space, by 1948, the houses load-bearing exterior walls and internal wood beams were found to be close to failure. Under Harry S. Truman, the rooms were completely dismantled. Once this work was completed, the rooms were rebuilt. The Executive Residence is made up of six stories—the Ground Floor, State Floor, Second Floor, the property is a National Heritage Site owned by the National Park Service and is part of the Presidents Park. In 2007, it was ranked second on the American Institute of Architects list of Americas Favorite Architecture, in May 1790, New York began construction of Government House for his official residence, but he never occupied it.
The national capital moved to Philadelphia in December 1790, the July 1790 Residence Act named Philadelphia, Pennsylvania the temporary national capital for a 10-year period while the Federal City was under construction. The City of Philadelphia rented Robert Morriss city house at 190 High Street for Washingtons presidential residence, the first president occupied the Market Street mansion from November 1790 to March 1797, and altered it in ways that may have influenced the design of the White House. As part of an effort to have Philadelphia named the permanent national capital, Pennsylvania built a much grander presidential mansion several blocks away. President John Adams occupied the Market Street mansion from March 1797 to May 1800, on Saturday, November 1,1800, he became the first president to occupy the White House. The Presidents House in Philadelphia became a hotel and was demolished in 1832, the Presidents House was a major feature of Pierre Charles LEnfants plan for the newly established federal city, Washington, D. C
Republican Party (United States)
The Republican Party, commonly referred to as the GOP, is one of the two major contemporary political parties in the United States, the other being its historic rival, the Democratic Party. The party is named after republicanism, the dominant value during the American Revolution and it was founded by anti-slavery activists, modernists, ex-Whigs, and ex-Free Soilers in 1854. The Republicans dominated politics nationally and in the majority of northern States for most of the period between 1860 and 1932, there have been 19 Republican presidents, the most from any one party. The Republican Partys current ideology is American conservatism, which contrasts with the Democrats more progressive platform, its platform involves support for free market capitalism, free enterprise, fiscal conservatism, a strong national defense and restrictions on labor unions. In addition to advocating for economic policies, the Republican Party is socially conservative. As of 2017, the GOP is documented as being at its strongest position politically since 1928, in addition to holding the Presidency, the Republicans control the 115th United States Congress, having majorities in both the House of Representatives and the Senate.
The party holds a majority of governorships and state legislatures, the main cause was opposition to the Kansas–Nebraska Act, which repealed the Missouri Compromise by which slavery was kept out of Kansas. The Northern Republicans saw the expansion of slavery as a great evil, the first public meeting of the general anti-Nebraska movement where the name Republican was suggested for a new anti-slavery party was held on March 20,1854, in a schoolhouse in Ripon, Wisconsin. The name was chosen to pay homage to Thomas Jeffersons Republican Party. The first official party convention was held on July 6,1854, in Jackson and it oversaw the preserving of the union, the end of slavery, and the provision of equal rights to all men in the American Civil War and Reconstruction, 1861–1877. The Republicans initial base was in the Northeast and the upper Midwest, with the realignment of parties and voters in the Third Party System, the strong run of John C. Fremont in the 1856 United States presidential election demonstrated it dominated most northern states, early Republican ideology was reflected in the 1856 slogan free labor, free land, free men, which had been coined by Salmon P.
Chase, a Senator from Ohio. Free labor referred to the Republican opposition to labor and belief in independent artisans. Free land referred to Republican opposition to the system whereby slaveowners could buy up all the good farm land. The Party strove to contain the expansion of slavery, which would cause the collapse of the slave power, representing the fast-growing western states, won the Republican nomination in 1860 and subsequently won the presidency. The party took on the mission of preserving the Union, and destroying slavery during the American Civil War, in the election of 1864, it united with War Democrats to nominate Lincoln on the National Union Party ticket. The partys success created factionalism within the party in the 1870s and those who felt that Reconstruction had been accomplished and was continued mostly to promote the large-scale corruption tolerated by President Ulysses S. Grant ran Horace Greeley for the presidency. The Stalwarts defended Grant and the system, the Half-Breeds led by Chester A.
Arthur pushed for reform of the civil service in 1883
A dining room is a room for consuming food. In modern times it is adjacent to the kitchen for convenience in serving. In the Middle Ages, upper class Britons and other European nobility in castles or large manor houses dined in the great hall and this was a large multi-function room capable of seating the bulk of the population of the house. The family would sit at the table on a raised dais. Tables in the hall would tend to be long trestle tables with benches. The sheer number of people in a Great Hall meant it would probably have had a busy, suggestions that it would have been quite smelly and smoky are probably, by the standards of the time, unfounded. These rooms had large chimneys and high ceilings and there would have been a flow of air through the numerous door. In the first instance, the Black Death that ravaged Europe in the 14th Century caused a shortage of labour, the religious persecutions following the dissolution of the monasteries under Henry VIII made it unwise to talk freely in front of large numbers of people.
Over time, the nobility took more of their meals in the parlour, and the parlour became, functionally and it migrated farther from the Great Hall, often accessed via grand ceremonial staircases from the dais in the Great Hall. Eventually dining in the Great Hall became something that was primarily on special occasions. Toward the beginning of the 18th Century, a pattern emerged where the ladies of the house would withdraw after dinner from the room to the drawing room. The gentlemen would remain in the room having drinks. The dining room tended to take on a more masculine tenor as a result, a typical North American dining room will contain a table with chairs arranged along the sides and ends of the table, as well as other pieces of furniture, as space permits. Often tables in modern dining rooms will have a leaf to allow for the larger number of people present on those special occasions without taking up extra space when not in use. Although the typical family dining experience is at a table or some sort of kitchen area.
In modern American and Canadian homes, the room is typically adjacent to the living room. Smaller houses and condos may have a breakfast bar instead, often of a different height than the kitchen counter. If a home lacks a dinette, breakfast nook, or breakfast bar and this was traditionally the case in Britain, where the dining room would for many families be used only on Sundays, other meals being eaten in the kitchen
An aquarium is a vivarium of any size having at least one transparent side in which water-dwelling plants or animals are kept and displayed. Fishkeepers use aquaria to keep fish, amphibians, aquatic reptiles such as turtles, the term, coined by English naturalist Philip Henry Gosse, combines the Latin root aqua, meaning water, with the suffix -arium, meaning a place for relating to. An aquarist owns fish or maintains an aquarium, typically constructed of glass or high-strength acrylic, cuboid aquaria are known as fish tanks or simply tanks, while bowl-shaped aquaria are known as fish bowls. Size can range from a glass bowl to immense public aquaria. Specialized equipment maintains appropriate water quality and other characteristics suitable for the aquariums residents, in the Roman Empire, the first fish to be brought indoors was the sea barbel, which was kept under guest beds in small tanks made of marble. Introduction of glass panes around the year 50 AD allowed Romans to replace one wall of marble tanks, leonhard Baldner, who wrote Vogel-, Fisch- und Tierbuch in 1666, maintained weather loaches and newts.
In 1832, Jeanne Villepreux-Power, a pioneering French marine biologist, in 1836, soon after his invention of the Wardian case, Dr. Nathaniel Bagshaw Ward proposed to use his tanks for tropical animals. In 1841 he did so, though only with aquatic plants, however, he soon housed real animals. In 1838, Félix Dujardin noted owning a saltwater aquarium, though he did not use the term, in 1846, Anne Thynne maintained stony corals and seaweed for almost three years, and was credited as the creator of the first balanced marine aquarium in London. English chemist Robert Warington experimented with a 13-gallon container, which contained goldfish, eelgrass and he published his findings in 1850 in the Chemical Societys journal. The keeping of fish in an aquarium became a popular hobby, in the United Kingdom, it became popular after ornate aquaria in cast-iron frames were featured at the Great Exhibition of 1851. In 1853, the craze was launched in England by Philip Henry Gosse who created and stocked the first public aquarium in the London Zoo which came to be known as the Fish House.
Gosse coined the word aquarium, opting for this term in 1854 in his book The Aquarium, in this book, Gosse primarily discussed saltwater aquaria. In the 1850s, the became a fad in the United Kingdom. Tank designs and techniques for maintaining water quality were developed by Warington, edward Edwards developed these glass-fronted aquaria in his 1858 patent for a dark-water-chamber slope-back tank, with water slowly circulating to a reservoir beneath. Germans soon rivaled the British in their interest, in 1854, an anonymous author had two articles published about the saltwater aquaria of the United Kingdom, Die Gartenlaube entitled Der Ocean auf dem Tische. However, in 1856, Der See im Glase was published, discussing freshwater aquaria, during the 1870s, some of the first aquarist societies were appearing in Germany. Published in 1858, Henry D. Butlers The Family Aquarium was one of the first books written in the United States solely about the aquarium
Democratic Party (United States)
The Democratic Party is one of the two major contemporary political parties in the United States, along with the Republican Party. The Democrats dominant worldview was once socially conservative and fiscally classical liberalism, especially in the rural South, since Franklin D. Roosevelt and his New Deal coalition in the 1930s, the Democratic Party has promoted a social-liberal platform, supporting social justice. Today, the House Democratic caucus is composed mostly of progressives and centrists, the partys philosophy of modern liberalism advocates social and economic equality, along with the welfare state. It seeks to provide government intervention and regulation in the economy, the party has united with smaller left-wing regional parties throughout the country, such as the Farmer–Labor Party in Minnesota and the Nonpartisan League in North Dakota. Well into the 20th century, the party had conservative pro-business, the New Deal Coalition of 1932–1964 attracted strong support from voters of recent European extraction—many of whom were Catholics based in the cities.
After Franklin D. Roosevelts New Deal of the 1930s, the pro-business wing withered outside the South, after the racial turmoil of the 1960s, most southern whites and many northern Catholics moved into the Republican Party at the presidential level. The once-powerful labor union element became smaller and less supportive after the 1970s, white Evangelicals and Southerners became heavily Republican at the state and local level in the 1990s. However, African Americans became a major Democratic element after 1964, after 2000, Hispanic and Latino Americans, Asian Americans, the LGBT community, single women and professional women moved towards the party as well. The Northeast and the West Coast became Democratic strongholds by 1990 after the Republicans stopped appealing to socially liberal voters there, the Democratic Party has retained a membership lead over its major rival the Republican Party. The most recent was the 44th president Barack Obama, who held the office from 2009 to 2017, in the 115th Congress, following the 2016 elections, Democrats are the opposition party, holding a minority of seats in both the House of Representatives and the Senate.
The party holds a minority of governorships, and state legislatures, though they do control the mayoralty of cities such as New York City, Los Angeles, Chicago and Washington, D. C. The Democratic Party traces its origins to the inspiration of the Democratic-Republican Party, founded by Thomas Jefferson, James Madison and that party inspired the Whigs and modern Republicans. Organizationally, the modern Democratic Party truly arose in the 1830s, since the nomination of William Jennings Bryan in 1896, the party has generally positioned itself to the left of the Republican Party on economic issues. They have been liberal on civil rights issues since 1948. On foreign policy both parties changed position several times and that party, the Democratic-Republican Party, came to power in the election of 1800. After the War of 1812 the Federalists virtually disappeared and the national political party left was the Democratic-Republicans. The Democratic-Republican party still had its own factions, however.
As Norton explains the transformation in 1828, Jacksonians believed the peoples will had finally prevailed, through a lavishly financed coalition of state parties, political leaders, and newspaper editors, a popular movement had elected the president