click links in text for more info
SUMMARY / RELATED TOPICS

Westerbork transit camp

Camp Westerbork was a transit camp in Drenthe province, northeastern Netherlands, during World War II. Established by the Dutch government in the summer of 1939, Camp Westerbork was meant to serve as a refugee camp for Jews who had illegally entered the Netherlands. Camp Westerbork was utilized as a staging ground for the deportation of Jews. Only one-half square kilometer in area, the camp was not built for the purpose of industrial murder as were Nazi extermination camps. Indeed, Westerbork was seen as “humane” by Nazi standards. Jewish inmates with families were housed in 200 interconnected cottages that contained two rooms, a toilet, a hot plate for cooking, a small yard. Single inmates were placed in oblong barracks. Transport trains arrived at Westerbork every Tuesday from July 1942 to September 1944, left with an estimated 97,776 Jews. Jewish inmates were deported in waves to Auschwitz, Theresienstadt ghetto, Bergen-belsen concentration camp. All of the 94,643 persons deported to Auschwitz and Sobibor in German-occupied Poland were killed upon arrival.

Camp Westerbork had a school, orchestra and restaurants designed by SS officials to give inmates a false sense of hope for survival and to aid in avoiding problems during transportation. Cultural activities provided by the Nazis for designated deportees included metalwork, jobs in health services, other cultural activities. A special, separate work cadre of 2,000 “permanent” Jewish inmates was used as a camp labor force. Within this group was a sub-group constituting a camp police force, required to assist with transports and keep order; the SS had little to do with selecting transferees. Most of these 2,000 "permanent" inmates were sent to concentration or death camps themselves. Notable prisoners in Westerbork included Anne Frank, transported to Camp Westerbork on August 4, 1944 and Etty Hillesum, each of whom wrote of their experiences in diaries discovered after the war. Anne remained at the camp in a small hut until September 3. Etty Hillesum was able to avoid the Nazi dragnet that identified Jews until April 1942.

After being labeled a Jew, Hillesum began to report on antisemitic policies. She took a job with Judenrat for two weeks and volunteered to accompany the first group of Jews sent to Westerbork. Hillesum stayed at Westerbork until September 1943, when she was deported to Auschwitz, she died there three months later. Camp Westerbork housed German film actress and cabaret singer Dora Gerson, interned there with her family before being sent to Auschwitz, Professor Sir William Asscher, who survived the camp when his mother secured his family's release by fabricating English ancestry. Jona Oberski wrote of his experience as a small child at Westerbork in his book, published in the Netherlands in 1978 and made into the film, Jonah Who Lived in the Whale. Maurice Frankenhuis chronicled his family's experiences while interned in Westerbork and in 1948 conducted an interview with its Commander Albert Gemmeker while awaiting trial; the published interview in Dutch and English became the basis for a docudrama created in September 2019.

The film features colorization of original video of transports from Westerbork by photographer Rudolf Breslauer. German authorities took control of Westerbork from the Dutch government on July 1, 1942. Deportations began under the orders of Gestapo sub-Department IV-B4, headed by Adolf Eichmann. Within the confines of the camp, German SS commanders were in charge of inmates, but squads of Jewish police and security were used to keep order and aid in transport, as noted above. Transports came to a halt at Camp Westerbork in September 1944. Allied troops neared Westerbork in early April, 1945 after German officials abandoned the camp. Westerbork was liberated by Canadian forces on April 12, 1945. A total of 876 inmates were found. Following the war, Westerbork was first used as a remand prison for alleged and accused Nazi collaborators, housed Dutch nationals who fled the former Dutch East Indies. Westerbork was disassembled in the 1960s by the Dutch government; the Dutch built the Westerbork Synthesis Radio Telescope, a large radio telescope, on the site.

Only the former camp commander’s house has been preserved, in a glass container. In 1950, the Dutch government appointed Jewish historian Jacques Presser to investigate the events connected with the mass deportation of Dutch Jewry and the extent of the collaboration by the non-Jewish Dutch population; the results were published fifteen years in The Catastrophe. Presser published a novel, The Night of the Girondins, set in Westerbork. In 1949, when the Dutch left their over 300 year occupation of Indonesia, native Indonesians were left in political unrest; some people who had collaborated with French and Dutch militaries were evacuated, because they were the subject of anger by the other indigenous people who had resisted colonization and felt betrayed at the Moluccan peoples siding with their colonizers. The peoples were promised a quick return to their homeland. However, from 1951 to 1971, former indigenous Moluccan KNIL soldiers and their families were made to stay in the camp. During this time, the camp was renamed Kamp Schattenberg.

A museum was created two miles from Westerbork to keep the memories of those imprisoned in the camp alive. As a tribute to those inmat

Józef Ładowski

Józef Ładowski - Polish restaurateur, the hero of the ballad Bal u starego Joska. In the 1920s and early 1930s he was the owner of a small restaurant on the Rynkowa Street 7 in the Jewish district of Warsaw, his tavern was a beloved place for Warsaws poor. Colonel Wieniawa-Długoszowski, marshal Piłsudski's personal adjutant, was frequent visitor and many others from Warsaw's high society, he married Maria Lipowicz. He lived with his family at the Rynkowa Street 7 and had four children: Alicja Ładowska, Mieczysław, Ryszard and Franciszka. Josek Ładowski's cousin Aaron Ładowski arrived in Toronto in Canada in 1906 from Kielce and established the United Bakers Dairy Restaurant there in 1912 which still exists today; when he died on October 7, 1932, at 11 pm, Warsaw's ABC newspaper reported that Gruby Josek was respected among Warsaw's criminal underground and that he had served as a judge in many disputes. He is buried in the Jewish Cemetery in Warsaw; the tavern was known as U Grubego Joska. It was notorious enough that a song was written about it in 1934, Bal u starego Joska, which remains as one of the most popular Polish underground ballads sung in the specific dialect of Warsaw's Praga district.

His grandson Ron Davis recorded jazz versions of Bal u starego Joska on his 2010 album My Mother's Father's Song

William Thomas Rowland Powell

William Thomas Rowland Powell was a Welsh landowner and Conservative politician who serves as Member of Parliament for Cardiganshire from 1859 until 1865. Powell was born on 8 August 1815, son of Colonel W. E. Powell of Nanteos and his first wife, Laura-Edwyna, eldest daughter of James Sacksville Tufton Phelp, of Coston House, Leicestershire, his father was MP for Cardiganshire from 1816 until his death in 1852, served as Lord Lieutenant of the same county. He was educated at Westminster School, he gained a commission in the army, served for some years in the West Indies before retiring in 1854 with the rank of captain. Powell served as Colonel of the Royal Cardiganshire Militia and as a magistrate and deputy lieutenant for Cardiganshire and a magistrate for Montgomeryshire. On 1 May 1839, Powell married Rosa Edwyna, daughter of William George Cherry of Buckland, Herefordshire in 1839, they had two children, namely: George Powell Harriet, who died of tuberculosis aged 13. Powell and his wife lived apart for many years.

Laura died in 1860. Though he suffered from ill-health, most notably a paralysis that restricted the use of his lower limbs, Powell was elected MP for Cardiganshire, his father's former constituency, at the 1859 General Election, when he defeated Saunders Davies of Pentre by a small margin, his opponent's father, D. A. Saunders Davies, had served as MP for Carmarthenshire until his death in 1857. Powell was successful despite the fact that his opponent had the support of the majority of the county's landed gentry, most of whom were located in the south of the county; this was demonstrated by the fact. However, in Aberystwyth district, the northern part of the county, where Nanteos was located, Powell won by an more decisive margin Both candidates were said to hold similar political views and Powell sat in Parliamnent as a Liberal-Conservative, The fact that he was supported by the former Conservative MP for Cardigan Boroughs, John Lloyd Davies, demonstrates that Powell was hardly a radical candidate.

In February 1865, Powell was embroiled in a public and embarrassing court case which attracted considerable public attention. It was alleged that he had made an offer of marriage to a Miss Lewis, withdrawn. A case of breach of promise was brought against Powell which resulted in Miss Lewis being awarded damages of £2000. Powell had announced his retirement some time before the 1865 General Election on account of his ill-health. Thomas Lloyd of Bronwydd emerged as a Liberal candidate to contest the seat but, shortly before the election, Powell reversed his decision and announced that he would once again contest the seat. However, there was some opposition to Powell within Conservative ranks on account of his alleged neglect of his parliamentary responsibilities. In May 1865 he was absent from a vote on parliamentary reform when an attempt was made by Edward Baines to introduce a motion to extend the borough franchise. Lloyd withdrew in his favour. However, it soon became apparent that he would be challenged by a more radical Liberal candidate and both David Davies and Henry Richard canvassed for support in the constituency.

Reluctant to face a contested election, Powell retired from the fray. At the consequent election, Lloyd was returned after a narrow victory over David Davies. Powell's retirement marked the end of the long period where the squire of Nanteos sat in the House of Commons. Powell's son, was mentioned as a potential candidate for the Cardigan Boroughs in 1868 but nothing came of the suggestion. Unlike his father, Powell did not speak Welsh, neither did his cousin, William Edward Phelp, who managed the estate at Nanteos; this may have accounted for poor relationships with tenants on the estate. During the 1868 General Election campaign, Powell supported the Conservative candidate and, while there were no evictions as recorded elsewhere, this caused a further deterioration in the relationship between landowner and tenants. In years, Powell's health was poor and he spent his winters in Italy or the south of France. In the spring of 1878 he returned from Nice and set up residence at the Crystal Palace Hotel, London.

He died there on 13 May 1878. On 16 May, Powell's body was brought to Aberystwyth by train, he was buried two days in the family vault at Llanbadarn Fawr church. Colyer, R. J.. "Nanteos: A Landed Estate in Decline, 1800-1930". Ceredigion. 9: 58–77. Retrieved 18 December 2018. Jones, Ieuan Gwynedd. "Cardiganshire Politics in the Mid-Nineteenth Century". Ceredigion. 5: 14–41. Retrieved 30 April 2018. Kilsby Jones, J. R.. "Etholiadau Ceredigion a Meirionnydd". Traethodydd. XX: 488–512. Retrieved 14 July 2018. Hansard 1803–2005: contributions in Parliament by Mr William Powell

Half-collared kingfisher

The half-collared kingfisher is a kingfisher in the subfamily Alcedininae, found in southern and eastern Africa. It feeds exclusively on fish and frequents streams and larger bodies of water; the half-collared kingfisher was described by the English ornithologist William John Swainson in 1823 and given its current binomial name Alcedo semitorquata. The word Alcedo is the Latin for a "kingfisher"; the specific epithet semitorquata is from the Latin semi- for "half" or "small" and torquatus for "collared". The blue-eared kingfisher is one of seven species in the genus Alcedo and is most related to the shining-blue kingfisher; the half-collared kingfisher is a medium sized kingfisher. It is around 18 cm in length with a weight of 35–40 g, it has a white throat and pale orange underparts. The head has alternating light blue and dark blue bands running across the crown and each side of the neck has a creamy white stripe; the dark blue patches on either side of the neck form a half collar. The legs and feet are red.

The sexes are similar but the bill of the male is black while the female has some red at the base of the lower mandible. Half-collared kingfisher - Species text in The Atlas of Southern African Birds. Animal Diversity Web's Taxon Tree

Peeters II Government

The Peeters II Government is the Flemish Government formed following the 2009 Flemish Parliament election. The cabinet consists of a coalition of the Christian democratic CD&V, the social democratic sp.a and the nationalist N-VA. The largest opposition parties in the Flemish Parliament were far-right Vlaams Belang and liberal Open Vld; the Peeters II Government consists of the following nine ministers: Flanders in Action Di Rupo Government Vlaamse Regering, krispeeters.be vlaamseregering.be "Nieuwe Vlaamse regering legt maandag eed af". Het Nieuwsblad. 10 July 2009

ISSF 10 meter running target

10 meter running target is one of the ISSF shooting events, shot with an airgun at a target that moves sideways. The target is pulled across a two meter wide aisle at the range of 10 metres from the firing point; the target is pulled at either of two speeds, slow or fast, where it is visible for 5 or 2.5 seconds, respectively. The course of fire is 30 slow runs followed by 30 fast runs for men, 20 slow runs followed by 20 fast runs for women; the men's event replaced 50 metre running target on the Olympic program starting from 1992, but after the 2004 Summer Olympics it was again taken off the program, leaving the running target shooters with no Olympic events at all. This meant that finals were no longer held, but it has been announced that a replacement will be held in the form of knockout semi-final and final stages. A separate World Championship was held in 2008, filling the void after the Olympics; this event was held in 1981–2009. This event was held in 1981–2009; this event was held in 1994–2009.

This event was held in 1998–2006