Maximilian I, Holy Roman Emperor
Maximilian I was Holy Roman Emperor from 1508 until his death. He was never crowned by the Pope, he was instead proclaimed Emperor elect by Pope Julius II at Trent, thus breaking the long tradition of requiring a papal coronation for the adoption of the imperial title. Maximilian was the son of Frederick III, Holy Roman Emperor, Eleanor of Portugal, he ruled jointly with his father for the last ten years of the latter's reign, from c. 1483 to his father's death in 1493. Maximilian expanded the influence of the House of Habsburg through war and his marriage in 1477 to Mary of Burgundy, the heiress to the Duchy of Burgundy, though he lost the Austrian territories in today's Switzerland to the Swiss Confederacy. Through marriage of his son Philip the Handsome to eventual queen Joanna of Castile in 1498, Maximilian helped to establish the Habsburg dynasty in Spain, which allowed his grandson Charles to hold the thrones of both Castile and Aragon. Maximilian was born at Wiener Neustadt on 22 March 1459.
His father, Frederick III, Holy Roman Emperor, named him for an obscure saint, Maximilian of Tebessa, who Frederick believed had once warned him of imminent peril in a dream. In his infancy, he and his parents were besieged in Vienna by Albert of Austria. One source relates that, during the siege's bleakest days, the young prince would wander about the castle garrison, begging the servants and men-at-arms for bits of bread; the young prince was an excellent hunter, his favorite hobby was the hunting for birds as a horse archer. At the time, the dukes of Burgundy, a cadet branch of the French royal family, with their sophisticated nobility and court culture, were the rulers of substantial territories on the eastern and northern boundaries of France; the reigning duke, Charles the Bold, was the chief political opponent of Maximilian's father Frederick III. Frederick was concerned about Burgundy's expansive tendencies on the western border of his Holy Roman Empire, and, to forestall military conflict, he attempted to secure the marriage of Charles's only daughter, Mary of Burgundy, to his son Maximilian.
After the Siege of Neuss, he was successful. The wedding between Maximilian and Mary took place on 19 August 1477. Maximilian's wife had inherited the large Burgundian domains in France and the Low Countries upon her father's death in the Battle of Nancy on 5 January 1477. Before his coronation as the King of the Romans in 1486, Maximilian decided to secure this distant and extensive Burgundian inheritance to his family, the House of Habsburg, at all costs; the Duchy of Burgundy was claimed by the French crown under Salic Law, with Louis XI of France vigorously contesting the Habsburg claim to the Burgundian inheritance by means of military force. Maximilian undertook the defence of his wife's dominions from an attack by Louis XI and defeated the French forces at Guinegate, the modern Enguinegatte, on 7 August 1479. Maximilian and Mary's wedding contract stipulated that their children would succeed them but that the couple could not be each other's heirs. Mary tried to bypass this rule with a promise to transfer territories as a gift in case of her death, but her plans were confounded.
After Mary's death in a riding accident on 27 March 1482 near the Wijnendale Castle, Maximilian's aim was now to secure the inheritance to his and Mary's son, Philip the Handsome. Some of the Netherlander provinces were hostile to Maximilian, and, in 1482, they signed a treaty with Louis XI in Arras that forced Maximilian to give up Franche-Comté and Artois to the French crown, they rebelled twice in the period 1482–1492, attempting to regain the autonomy they had enjoined under Mary. Flemish rebels managed to capture Philip and Maximilian himself, but they were defeated when Frederick III intervened. Maximilian continued to govern Mary's remaining inheritance in the name of Philip the Handsome. After the regency ended and Charles VIII of France exchanged these two territories for Burgundy and Picardy in the Treaty of Senlis, thus a large part of the Netherlands stayed in the Habsburg patrimony. Maximilian was elected King of the Romans on 16 February 1486 in Frankfurt-am-Main at his father's initiative and crowned on 9 April 1486 in Aachen.
He became ruler of the Holy Roman Empire upon the death of his father in 1493. Much of Austria was under Hungarian rule when he took power, as they had occupied the territory under the reign of Frederick. In 1490, Maximilian entered Vienna; as the Treaty of Senlis had resolved French differences with the Holy Roman Empire, King Louis XII of France had secured borders in the north and turned his attention to Italy, where he made claims for the Duchy of Milan. In 1499/1500 he drove the Sforza regent Lodovico il Moro into exile; this brought him into a potential conflict with Maximilian, who on 16 March 1494 had married Bianca Maria Sforza, a daughter of Galeazzo Maria Sforza, duke of Milan. However, Maximilian was unable to hinder the French from taking over Milan; the prolonged Italian Wars resulted in Maximilian joining the Holy League to counter the French. In 1513, with Henry VIII of England, Maximilian won an important victory at the battle of the Spurs against the French, stopping their advance in northern France.
His campaigns in Italy were not as successful, his progress there was checked. The situation in Italy was not the only problem; the Swiss won a decisive victory against the Empire in the Battle of Dornach on 22 July 1499. Maximilian had no choice but to agree to a peace treaty signed on 22 September 1499 in Basel that granted the Swiss Confederacy independence from the Holy Roman Empire. In addition, the Cou
The Noorderkerk is a 17th-century Protestant church in Amsterdam, The Netherlands. A number of other towns in the Netherlands have a Noorderkerk church, including The Hague and Kampen; the church was built in the years 1620–1623 to serve the growing population of the new Jordaan neighbourhood. The Jordaan had a church, the Westerkerk, but the city government decided that a second church should be built to serve the northern part of the neighbourhood; the Noorderkerk became the church for the common people, while the Westerkerk was used by the middle and upper classes. The architect was Hendrick de Keyser, who designed the Zuiderkerk and Westerkerk, among others. After de Keyser's death in 1621, his son Pieter de Keyser oversaw the completion. While the Zuiderkerk and Westerkerk have a more traditional basilica design, the Noorderkerk has a symmetrical, cross-shaped layout, reflecting the ideals of the Renaissance and protestantism. De Keyser's unique design combines an octagonal floor plan with a structure shaped like a Greek cross, with four arms of equal length.
Annex buildings occupy each corner of the cross, a small tower sits in the centre of the cross. Large Tuscan pillars dominate the church interior; the church was restored in the period 1993–1998. The small tower was restored in 2003–2004 and the organ, built in 1849 by H. Knipscheer, was restored in 2005; the bell tower was built in 1621 by J. Meurs; the church is still used for Dutch Reformed Church services and is used for classical music concerts. The Noorderkerk is located along Prinsengracht canal, on the Noordermarkt square, where regular markets are held, including an organic farmer's market on Saturdays. In 1941, illicit public meetings were held on the square by organisers of the February Strike; this is commemorated by a plaque on the south face of the church. Caspar Stoll Amsterdam Heritage Noorderkerk
An architect is a person who plans and reviews the construction of buildings. To practice architecture means to provide services in connection with the design of buildings and the space within the site surrounding the buildings that have human occupancy or use as their principal purpose. Etymologically, architect derives from the Latin architectus, which derives from the Greek, i.e. chief builder. Professionally, an architect's decisions affect public safety, thus an architect must undergo specialized training consisting of advanced education and a practicum for practical experience to earn a license to practice architecture. Practical and academic requirements for becoming an architect vary by jurisdiction. Throughout ancient and medieval history, most of the architectural design and construction was carried out by artisans—such as stone masons and carpenters, rising to the role of master builder; until modern times, there was no clear distinction between engineer. In Europe, the titles architect and engineer were geographical variations that referred to the same person used interchangeably.
It is suggested that various developments in technology and mathematics allowed the development of the professional'gentleman' architect, separate from the hands-on craftsman. Paper was not used in Europe for drawing until the 15th century but became available after 1500. Pencils were used more for drawing by 1600; the availability of both allowed pre-construction drawings to be made by professionals. Concurrently, the introduction of linear perspective and innovations such as the use of different projections to describe a three-dimensional building in two dimensions, together with an increased understanding of dimensional accuracy, helped building designers communicate their ideas. However, the development was gradual; until the 18th-century, buildings continued to be designed and set out by craftsmen with the exception of high-status projects. In most developed countries, only those qualified with an appropriate license, certification or registration with a relevant body may practice architecture.
Such licensure requires a university degree, successful completion of exams, as well as a training period. Representation of oneself as an architect through the use of terms and titles is restricted to licensed individuals by law, although in general, derivatives such as architectural designer are not protected. To practice architecture implies the ability to practice independently of supervision; the term building design professional, by contrast, is a much broader term that includes professionals who practice independently under an alternate profession, such as engineering professionals, or those who assist in the practice architecture under the supervision of a licensed architect such as intern architects. In many places, non-licensed individuals may perform design services outside the professional restrictions, such design houses and other smaller structures. In the architectural profession and environmental knowledge and construction management, an understanding of business are as important as design.
However, the design is the driving force throughout the project and beyond. An architect accepts a commission from a client; the commission might involve preparing feasibility reports, building audits, the design of a building or of several buildings and the spaces among them. The architect participates in developing the requirements. Throughout the project, the architect co-ordinates a design team. Structural and electrical engineers and other specialists, are hired by the client or the architect, who must ensure that the work is co-ordinated to construct the design; the architect, once hired by a client, is responsible for creating a design concept that both meets the requirements of that client and provides a facility suitable to the required use. The architect must meet with, question, the client in order to ascertain all the requirements of the planned project; the full brief is not clear at the beginning: entailing a degree of risk in the design undertaking. The architect may make early proposals to the client, which may rework the terms of the brief.
The "program" is essential to producing a project. This is a guide for the architect in creating the design concept. Design proposal are expected to be both imaginative and pragmatic. Depending on the place, finance and available crafts and technology in which the design takes place, the precise extent and nature of these expectations will vary. F oresight is a prerequisite as designing buildings is a complex and demanding undertaking. Any design concept must at a early stage in its generation take into account a great number of issues and variables which include qualities of space, the end-use and life-cycle of these proposed spaces, connections and aspects between spaces including how they are put together as well as the impact of proposals on the immediate and wider locality. Selection of appropriate materials and technology must be considered and reviewed at an early stage in the design to ensure there are no setbacks which may occur later; the site and its environs, as well as the culture and history of the place, will influence the design.
The design must countenance increasing concerns with environmental sustainability. The architect may introduce, to greater or lesser degrees, aspects of mathematics and a
Imperial Crown of Austria
The Imperial Crown of Austria was made in 1602 in Prague by Jan Vermeyen as the personal crown of Holy Roman Emperor Rudolf II, therefore is known as the Crown of Emperor Rudolf II. The crown was used as a private crown of the Holy Roman Emperors and Kings of Hungary and Bohemia from the House of Habsburg. In 1804 it became the official crown of the newly constituted Austrian Empire. After 1867 it remained the imperial crown of the Cisleithanian part of the Austro-Hungarian Empire until 1918; the Imperial Crown consists of three principal elements possessing great symbolic significance: the circlet, the high arch, the mitre. The circlet is dominated by eight large squares of diamonds, forming a crown in itself, which symbolises royal authority. Between the stones are two large pearls arranged vertically and set within white enamel rosettes surrounded by scrollwork. From the circlet emerge eight lilies, which were inspired by the Bohemian Crown of St. Wenceslas; the lilies are associated with the fleurs-de-lis of the House of Valois.
The use of eight elements was taken from the Imperial Crown of the Holy Roman Empire, which includes a circlet made out of eight plates. In the circlet are precious stones such as spinels and pearls; the zircons are cut in such a way. Preparing precious stones for mounting in this way was a new technique at the time the crown was made; the mitre symbolises the divine right to rule, the spiritual position of the emperor, who during coronation was consecrated symbolically as a deacon. The mitre fills the left and right sides of the crown, leaving an opening in the middle through which the high arch passes; the mitre is made with a band of enamel work depicting birds and plants. The mitre is divided into four sections representing the high honours of Holy Roman Emperor Rudolf II; the first section shows him kneeling, receiving the Imperial Crown of the Holy Roman Empire in Regensburg as Holy Roman Emperor. The second section shows him riding onto the coronation hill in Pressburg during his coronation as King of Hungary.
The third section shows his coronation procession through Prague as King of Bohemia. The fourth section depicts an allegory of his victory over the invading Turks; the Latin inscription inside the arch reads, RVDOLPHVS II ROM IMP AVGVSTUS HVNG ET BOH REX CONSTRVXIT MDCII. The high arch was inspired by the arch of the Imperial Crown of the Holy Roman Empire, it rises from the front and back of the circlet and is studded with eight diamonds, which symbolise Christ. The emperor was regarded as governor on earth in the name of Christ. At the top of the arch is a blue-green emerald, which symbolises heaven; the emerald was not cut. Since the Imperial Regalia of the Holy Roman Empire, including the Crown, were kept in Nuremberg and could only leave the city for a coronation, some rulers had their own personal crowns made. For example, when they attended a session of the Imperial Diet, they attended with their own crowns; the oldest depiction of such a private crown is an etching by the artist Albrecht Dürer of Emperor Maximilian I, where a depiction of a crown is seen that might have influenced the appearance of the crown of Rudolf II.
The Imperial Crown of the Habsburg Empire of Austria was never used for a coronation, unlike the Holy Roman Empire, it was a hereditary monarchy and such an act of legitimization was not seen as necessary. The ceremony held was an act of investiture to mark the monarch's official ascension to the throne rather than a coronation; the crown of Rudolf II was made in 1602 in Prague by Jan Vermeyen, one of the most outstanding goldsmiths of his time, called specially from Antwerp. The crown is made out of three parts: the circlet, the high arch, a mitre. In the earlier forms of the Western mitre the peaks or ‘horns’ were over the ears, rather than over the face and back of the head; the form of mitre used in the imperial mitral crown preserved this earlier form. This form of the imperial mitre-crown can be seen in the extant portraits of such emperors as Frederick III and Maximilian I The bronze effigy of Maximilian I found on his monumental cenotaph in the court church in Innsbruck has a crown with two arches which cross over the top of the mitre and the unique form of the imperial crown adopted by Maximilian as Emperor of Mexico appears to have been modeled on this form, but with the half-arches and the eagles on the circlet on the front and sides.
In the 17th century Baroque form of mitral crown of Leopold I the peaks of the mitre have been rounded into the hemispherical form Peter the Great would adopt as the Imperial Crown of Russia when he took the title emperor as Russian sovereign. Although it is assumed that the Imperial Crown made for Otto I with its single arch over its inner red cap was the original prototype for the western imperial crown, it is possible that the Byzantine imperial crown, which in the twelfth century became closed with two arches, inspired the western emperors to follow their example and close their crowns with such a pair of arches; the Imperial Crown is associated with the Imperial Orb and Sceptre, they are displayed together in the Imperial Treasury at the Hofburg Palace in Vienna, Austria. The Imperial Orb was commissioned in 1612 by Rudolf's brother and successor, Holy Roman Emperor Matthias, was created by Andreas Ochsenbruck; the shape takes its inspiration from the crown the enamel-work, in the same style.
It is topped by a large sapphire. A peculiarity of the
Zaandam is a city in the province of North Holland, Netherlands. It is the main city of the municipality of Zaanstad, received city rights in 1811, it is located on the river Zaan, just north of Amsterdam. The statistical district Zaandam, which covers the city and the surrounding countryside, has a population of around 76,804. Zaandam was a separate municipality until 1974, when it became a part of the new municipality of Zaanstad; the history of Zaandam and the surrounding Zaan River region is intimately tied to industry. In the Dutch Golden Age, Zaandam served as a large milling centre. Thousands of windmills powered saws that processed Scandinavian wood for the shipbuilding and paper industries. A statue that commemorates this industry was commissioned from sculptor Slavomir Miletić, the statue, De houtwerker, was installed on 20 June 2004. Zaandam was a leading city in the first Industrial Revolution. Into the second half of the 20th century, Zaandam was still an important lumber port. Zaandam is historically linked with the whaling industry.
In 1697, Czar Peter I of Russia spent some time in Zaandam. He stayed in a little wooden house from 1632, but was soon forced to leave because he attracted too much attention from the local population; the wooden house he stayed was turned into a museum, the Czar Peter House. A statue honoring him was placed on the nearby Dam Square in 1911, was declared a Rijksmonument. In 1871, the impressionist painter Claude Monet lived in Zaandam for half a year. During that time, he made 25 paintings of the area, including Houses on the Achterzaan, Bateaux en Hollande pres de Zaandam and A windmill at Zaandam; the first European McDonald's restaurant opened in Zaandam in 1971. The Albert Heijn supermarket chain, now grown into the Ahold Delhaize retail company, is headquartered in Zaandam. Chocolate manufacturer Verkade hails from Zaandam. Football club AZ was founded in Zaandam on May 10, 1967. Zaandam railway station Zaandam Kogerveld railway station Jan Saenredam, copperplate engraver Anton Mauve, painter Jan Verkade, painter Kees Bruynzeel, wood merchant Arie Smit, painter Piet Kee and composer Han Bennink, jazz musician Hendrik Lenstra, mathematician Johnny Rep, football player Elisabeth van Houts, historian Kathinka Pasveer, flautist Erwin Koeman, football player and football coach Ronald Koeman, football player and football coach Robert Molenaar, football player Ali Bouali, rapper Harm van den Dorpel, conceptual artist Patricia van der Vliet, model Oğuzhan Özyakup, football player Melissa Venema, musician J. Kuyper, Gemeente Atlas van Nederland, 1865-1870, "Zaandam".
Map of the former municipality, around 1868
Queen of Sheba
The Queen of Sheba is a figure first mentioned in the Hebrew Bible. In the original story, she brings a caravan of valuable gifts for King Solomon; this tale has undergone extensive Jewish and Ethiopian elaborations, has become the subject of one of the most widespread and fertile cycles of legends in the Orient. Modern historians identify Sheba with the South Arabian kingdom of Saba in present-day Yemen; the queen's existence has not been confirmed by historians. The Queen of Sheba came to Jerusalem "with a great retinue, with camels bearing spices, much gold, precious stones". "Never again came such an abundance of spices" as those she gave to Solomon. She came "to prove him with hard questions,", they exchanged gifts. The use of the term ḥiddot or'riddles', an Aramaic loanword whose shape points to a sound shift no earlier than the sixth century B. C. indicates a late origin for the text. Since there is no mention of the fall of Babylon in 539 BC, Martin Noth has held that the Book of Kings received a definitive redaction around 550 BC.
All modern scholars agree that Sheba was the South Arabian kingdom of Saba, centered around the oasis of Marib, in present-day Yemen. Sheba was quite well known in the classical world, its country was called Arabia Felix. Around the middle of the first millennium B. C. there were Sabaeans in the Horn of Africa, in the area that became the realm of Aksum. There are five places in the Bible where the writer distinguishes Sheba, i. e. the Yemenite Sabaeans, from Seba, i. e. the African Sabaeans. In Ps. 72:10 they are mentioned together: "the kings of Sheba and Seba shall offer gifts". This spelling differentiation, may be purely factitious; the alphabetic inscriptions from South Arabia furnish no evidence for women rulers, but Assyrian inscriptions mention Arab queens in the north. Queens are well attested in Arabia, though according to Kitchen, not after 690 B. C. Furthermore, Sabaean tribes knew the title of mqtwyt. Makada or Makueda, the personal name of the queen in Ethiopian legend, might be interpreted as a popular rendering of the title of mqtwyt.
This title may be derived from Ancient Egyptian m'kit "protectress, housewife". The queen's visit could have been a trade mission. Early South Arabian trade with Mesopotamia involving wood and spices transported by camels is attested in the early ninth century B. C. and may have begun as early as the tenth. The ancient Sabaic Awwām Temple, known in folklore as Maḥram Bilqīs, was excavated by archaeologists, but no trace of the Queen of Sheba has been discovered so far in the many inscriptions found there. Bible stories of the Queen of Sheba and the ships of Ophir served as a basis for legends about the Israelites traveling in the Queen of Sheba's entourage when she returned to her country to bring up her child by Solomon. Christian scriptures mention a "queen of the South", who "came from the uttermost parts of the earth", i.e. from the extremities of the known world, to hear the wisdom of Solomon. The mystical interpretation of the Canticles, felt of supplying a literal basis for the speculations of the allegorists, makes its first appearance in Origen, who wrote a voluminous commentary on the Canticles.
In his commentary, Origen identified the bride of the Canticles with the "queen of the South" of the Gospels, i. e. the Queen of Sheba, assumed to have been Ethiopian. Others have proposed either the marriage of Solomon with Pharaoh's daughter, or his marriage with an Israelitish woman, the Shulamite; the former was the favorite opinion of the mystical interpreters to the end of the 18th century. The bride of the Canticles is assumed to have been black due to a passage in Cant. 1:5, which the Revised Standard Version translates as "I am dark, but comely", as does Jerome, while the New Revised Standard Version has "I am black and beautiful", as the Septuagint. One legend has it that the Queen of Sheba brought Solomon the same gifts that the Magi gave to Christ. During the Middle Ages, Christians sometimes identified the queen of Sheba with the sibyl Sabba. According to Josephus, the queen of Sheba was the queen of Egypt and Ethiopia, brought to Israel the first specimens of the balsam, which grew in the Holy Land in the historian's time.
Josephus represents Cambyses as conquering the capital of Aethiopia, changing its name from Seba to Meroe. Josephus affirms that the Queen of Sheba or Saba came from this region, that it bore the name of Saba before it was known by that of Meroe. There seems some affinity between the word Saba and the name or title of the kings of the Aethiopians, Sabaco; the Talmud insists that it was not a woman but a kingdom of Sheba that came to Jerusalem intended to discredit existing stories about the relations between Solomon and the Queen. Baba Bathra 15b: "Whoever says malkath Sheba means a woman is mistaken; this is explained to
The Netherlands is a country located in Northwestern Europe. The European portion of the Netherlands consists of twelve separate provinces that border Germany to the east, Belgium to the south, the North Sea to the northwest, with maritime borders in the North Sea with Belgium and the United Kingdom. Together with three island territories in the Caribbean Sea—Bonaire, Sint Eustatius and Saba— it forms a constituent country of the Kingdom of the Netherlands; the official language is Dutch, but a secondary official language in the province of Friesland is West Frisian. The six largest cities in the Netherlands are Amsterdam, The Hague, Utrecht and Tilburg. Amsterdam is the country's capital, while The Hague holds the seat of the States General and Supreme Court; the Port of Rotterdam is the largest port in Europe, the largest in any country outside Asia. The country is a founding member of the EU, Eurozone, G10, NATO, OECD and WTO, as well as a part of the Schengen Area and the trilateral Benelux Union.
It hosts several intergovernmental organisations and international courts, many of which are centered in The Hague, dubbed'the world's legal capital'. Netherlands means'lower countries' in reference to its low elevation and flat topography, with only about 50% of its land exceeding 1 metre above sea level, nearly 17% falling below sea level. Most of the areas below sea level, known as polders, are the result of land reclamation that began in the 16th century. With a population of 17.30 million people, all living within a total area of 41,500 square kilometres —of which the land area is 33,700 square kilometres —the Netherlands is one of the most densely populated countries in the world. It is the world's second-largest exporter of food and agricultural products, owing to its fertile soil, mild climate, intensive agriculture; the Netherlands was the third country in the world to have representative government, it has been a parliamentary constitutional monarchy with a unitary structure since 1848.
The country has a tradition of pillarisation and a long record of social tolerance, having legalised abortion and human euthanasia, along with maintaining a progressive drug policy. The Netherlands abolished the death penalty in 1870, allowed women's suffrage in 1917, became the world's first country to legalise same-sex marriage in 2001, its mixed-market advanced economy had the thirteenth-highest per capita income globally. The Netherlands ranks among the highest in international indexes of press freedom, economic freedom, human development, quality of life, as well as happiness; the Netherlands' turbulent history and shifts of power resulted in exceptionally many and varying names in different languages. There is diversity within languages; this holds for English, where Dutch is the adjective form and the misnomer Holland a synonym for the country "Netherlands". Dutch comes from Theodiscus and in the past centuries, the hub of Dutch culture is found in its most populous region, home to the capital city of Amsterdam.
Referring to the Netherlands as Holland in the English language is similar to calling the United Kingdom "Britain" by people outside the UK. The term is so pervasive among potential investors and tourists, that the Dutch government's international websites for tourism and trade are "holland.com" and "hollandtradeandinvest.com". The region of Holland consists of North and South Holland, two of the nation's twelve provinces a single province, earlier still, the County of Holland, a remnant of the dissolved Frisian Kingdom. Following the decline of the Duchy of Brabant and the County of Flanders, Holland became the most economically and politically important county in the Low Countries region; the emphasis on Holland during the formation of the Dutch Republic, the Eighty Years' War and the Anglo-Dutch Wars in the 16th, 17th and 18th century, made Holland serve as a pars pro toto for the entire country, now considered either incorrect, informal, or, depending on context, opprobrious. Nonetheless, Holland is used in reference to the Netherlands national football team.
The region called the Low Countries and the Country of the Netherlands. Place names with Neder, Nieder and Nedre and Bas or Inferior are in use in places all over Europe, they are sometimes used in a deictic relation to a higher ground that consecutively is indicated as Upper, Oben, Superior or Haut. In the case of the Low Countries / Netherlands the geographical location of the lower region has been more or less downstream and near the sea; the geographical location of the upper region, changed tremendously over time, depending on the location of the economic and military power governing the Low Countries area. The Romans made a distinction between the Roman provinces of downstream Germania Inferior and upstream Germania Superior; the designation'Low' to refer to the region returns again in the 10th century Duchy of Lower Lorraine, that covered much of the Low Countries. But this time the corresponding Upper region is Upper Lorraine, in nowadays Northern France; the Dukes of Burgundy, who ruled the Low Countries in the 15th century, used the term les pays de par deçà for the Low Countries as opposed to les pays de par delà for their original