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Western European Union

The Western European Union was the international organisation and military alliance that succeeded the Western Union after the 1954 amendment of the 1948 Treaty of Brussels. The WEU implemented the Modified Brussels Treaty. During the Cold War, the Western Bloc included the WEU member states and the United States as part of the North Atlantic Treaty Organization. At the turn of the 21st century, after the end of the Cold War, WEU tasks and institutions were transferred to the European Union, providing central parts of the EU's new military component, the European Common Security and Defence Policy; this process was completed in 2009 when a solidarity clause between the member states of the European Union, similar to the WEU's mutual defence clause, entered into force with the Treaty of Lisbon. The states party to the Modified Treaty of Brussels decided to terminate that treaty on 31 March 2010, with all the WEU's remaining activities to be ceased within 15 months. On 30 June 2011, the WEU was declared defunct.

The Treaty of Brussels was signed by the United Kingdom, Belgium and the Netherlands on 17 March 1948, establishing the Western Union - an intergovernmental defence alliance that promoted economic and social collaboration. The need to back up the commitments of the North Atlantic Treaty with appropriate political and military structures led to the creation of the North Atlantic Treaty Organisation. In December 1950 the parties to the Treaty of Brussels decided to transfer the headquarters and plans of the Western Union Defence Organisation to NATO, whose Supreme Headquarters Allied Powers Europe took over responsibility for the defence of Western Europe; the establishment of NATO, along with the signing of a succession of treaties establishing the Organisation for European Economic Cooperation, the North Atlantic Treaty Organisation, the Council of Europe and the European Coal and Steel Community, left the Treaty of Brussels and its Western Union devoid of authority. The Western Union's founding Treaty of Brussels was amended at the 1954 Paris Conference as a result of the failure of the Treaty establishing the European Defence Community to gain French ratification: The General Treaty of 1952 formally named the EDC as a prerequisite of the end of Allied occupation of Germany, there was a desire to include Germany in the Western defence architecture.

The Modified Brussels Treaty transformed the Western Union into the Western European Union, at which point Italy and West Germany were admitted. Although the WEU established by the Modified Brussels Treaty was less powerful and ambitious than the original Western Union, German membership of the WEU was considered sufficient for the occupation of the country to end in accordance with the General Treaty; the signatories of the Paris Agreements stated their three main objectives in the preamble to the Modified Brussels Treaty: To create in Western Europe a firm basis for European economic recovery. The social and cultural aspects of the Treaty of Brussels were handed to the Council of Europe to avoid duplication of responsibilities. This, in addition to the existence of NATO, marginalised the WEU, caused it to be defunct. On 1 January 1960 in accordance with the decision taken on 21 October 1959 by the Council of Western European Union and with Resolution23 adopted on 16 November 1959 by the Committee of Ministers of the Council of Europe, the WEU activities in social and cultural areas were transferred to the Council of Europe, running programmes in these fields.

The European Universities Committee was transferred to the Council of Europe separately from the rest of WEU cultural activities. From the late 1970s onwards, efforts were made to add a security dimension to the European Communities' European Political Cooperation. Opposition to these efforts from Denmark and Ireland led the remaining EC countries - all WEU members - to reactivate the WEU in 1984 by adopting the Rome Declaration. Prior to this point there had been minimal use of the provisions of the Modified Brussels Treaty. In 1992, the WEU adopted the Petersberg Declaration, defining the so-called Petersberg tasks designed to cope with the possible destabilising of Eastern Europe; the WEU itself depended on cooperation between its members. Its tasks ranged from the most modest to the most robust, included humanitarian and peacekeeping tasks as well as tasks for combat forces in crisis management, including peacemaking. At the 1996 NATO ministerial meeting in Berlin, it was agreed that the Western European Union would oversee the creation of a European Security and Defence Identity within NATO structures.

The ESDI was intended as a European'pillar' within NATO to allow European countries to act militarily where NATO wished not to, to alleviate the United States' financial burden of maintaining military bases in Europe, which it had done since the Cold War. The Berlin agreement allowed European countries to use NATO assets. In 1998 the United Kingdom, which had traditionally opposed the introduction of European autonomous defence capacities, signed the Saint-Malo declaration; this marked a turning point as the

Mario Giordana

Mario Giordana is an Italian prelate of the Catholic Church who worked in the diplomatic service of the Holy See from 1976 until he retired in 2017. Mario Giordana was born in Barge, in the Italian province of Cuneo, on 16 January 1942, he was ordained a priest of the Diocese of Saluzzo on 25 June 1967. He earned a doctorate in canon law and entered the diplomatic service of the Holy See on 8 March 1976 and fulfilled assignments in Indonesia, in the offices of the Secretariat of Staye, in Switzerland, France and Italy. On 27 April 2004, Pope John Paul II appointed him Titular Archbishop of Minora and Apostolic Nuncio to Haiti, he received his episcopal consecration in the Cathedral of Saluzzo on 29 May from Cardinal Angelo Sodano, Secretary of State. On 15 March 2008, Pope Benedict XVI appointed him Apostolic Nuncio to Slovakia, his term as apostolic nuncio ended with the appointment Giacomo Guido Ottonello on 1 April 2017 to succeed him. On 4 October 2017, Pope Francis appointed him a member of the Congregation for the Evangelization of Peoples and on 15 December 2018 a member of the Congregation for the Causes of Saints

Raz de Sein

The Raz de Sein is a stretch of water located between the Isle of Sein and the Pointe du Raz in Finistère in the Brittany region of France. This tidal water is an essential passage for vessels wishing to pass between the Atlantic and the English Channel, because further west at high tide the Isle of Sein and its embankment stretch for more than thirty miles; this is a dangerous zone for navigation due to the violent sea currents from the tides. The current causes the sea to rise and it is recommended that heavy vessels should only attempt to cross this strait at still water during calmer conditions; the Raz de Sein is bounded by the La Vieille and Petite Vieille lighthouses and by the shoreline of the île de Sein. During the French Revolutionary and Napoleonic Wars, the British navy blockaded the strategically important port of Brest. French ships leaving Brest had several options, the Raz de Sein was among them, so it was the scene of several important actions. Notably, during the Expédition d'Irlande, on 16 December 1796 the Séduisant was lost as the French invasion fleet transited the Raz de Sein at night in stormy weather in an attempt to avoid the British blockade.

On May 26, 2006, Édouard Michelin died while fishing for sea bass on his ship Liberté. The skipper of the boat, Guillaume Normant lost his life in the accident; the boat was found two days with no apparent damage, 70 meters deep and 15 km from the Île de Sein. State Lighthouse "la VIEILLE" dated April 19, 2009 State Lighthouse "Enez-Sun" dated April 19, 2009

Nettie Wild

Nettie Wild is a Canadian filmmaker with a focus on documentaries that highlight marginalized groups and discrimination that these groups face, including people in Canada and around the world. She has worked throughout her professional career as an actor, director and cameraperson. Wild, full name Nettie Barry Canada Wild, was born in New York City on May 18, 1952 to a British father and a Kitsilano mother, their occupations were opera singer, respectively. Wild's mother felt that Nettie sticking to her Canadian roots was important, hence the name, one month after Wild was born, the family moved to Vancouver where Wild would live the majority of her life. While studying at the University of British Columbia, Wild gained a Bachelor of Fine Arts with a major in creative writing along with a minor in film and theatre. Alongside her studies, Wild co-founded Touchstone Theatre and Headlines Theatre with David Diamond, a fellow student. Wild worked with the Touchstone Theatre in 1975-1976 and Headlines Theatre during 1980-1985.

In 1991, she founded the Canada Wild Production with producer Betsy Carson. The production company was named in part after Wild's full name and reflects their general interest in Canadian based issues, despite making several films on more global issues. One of Wild's earliest documentaries was Right to Fight which focused on the housing crisis, taking place in Vancouver, British Columbia, which caused many people to have difficulty finding adequate housing or to live under the poverty line; this issue was close to Wild as she grew up in Vancouver. Despite this, the film did not gain the filmmaker critical acclaim. Wild would go on to make A Rustling of Leaves: Inside the Philippine Revolution after spending months in the Philippines, recording footage and interviewing individuals. During her time in the country, one of Wild's interviews was with a local DJ broadcasting anti-guerrilla propaganda. After threats of violence from this individual, Wild would go on to interview the president of the Philippines who showed support for the DJ.

Wilds motivations behind this film was to show a look inside the revolution taking place in this country. This documentary would gain Wild support for future endeavors. A Place Called Chiapas is a documentary by Wild following the protests and revolts that took place in Chiapas, a rural state in Mexico, known for its high rates of poverty; the events that are documented in this film take place after the signing of NAFTA and shows its immediate effects. This includes that it caused the Zapatista National Liberation Army to take over several towns and ranches in the area; the group was led by Marcos and caused much chaos for the town, surrounding area, the Mexican government. Wild focused her documentary on an outsider's perspective of the rebellion, in that way the film became immensely successful. One of Wild's most successful films was Fix: The Story of an Addicted City which focused on the drug issue in Vancouver and the fight over whether safe injection sites should be constructed. Wild, working as the co-producer and director of the documentary, wanted to show the issues plaguing her home town.

The film followed the two sides of the fight over safe injection sites and how to remedy the drug issue killing hundreds of residents every year. The film would go on to become one of Wild's most acclaimed films and lead to governmental involvement. Right to Fight dealing with the housing crisis in Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada A Rustling of Leaves: Inside the Philippine Revolution Blockade about a Gitksan logging blockade at Gitwangak A Place Called Chiapas about Zapatistas in Chiapas, Mexico. FIX: The Story of an Addicted City which deals with efforts to provide a safe injection site in Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada Koneline: Our Land Beautiful, about the Tahltan people, its culture, its lands. Wild was awarded the audience award for best documentary film at the 1998 AFI Fest for A Place Called Chiapas, she was given Genie Awards for Best Feature Length Documentary for both A Place Called Chiapas and Fix, won two awards at the Berlin International Film Festival for A Rustling of Leaves.

At the 2016 Hot Docs Canadian International Documentary Festival, Wild won the Best Canadian Feature Documentary Award for KONELĪNE: our land beautiful. At the 2016 Vancouver International Film Festival, Wild's film KONELĪNE: our land beautiful won the Women in Film and Television Artistic Merit Award, presented to a Canadian feature film at VIFF written and/or directed by a woman. Official website Netties Wild on IMDb Nettie Wild on Northernstar

Characters of Holby City

Holby City is a British medical drama television series that premiered on 12 January 1999 on BBC One. The series was created by Tony McHale and Mal Young as a spin-off from the established BBC medical drama Casualty, it is set in the same hospital as Casualty, Holby General, in the fictional city of Holby, features occasional crossovers of characters and plots with both Casualty and the show's 2007 police procedural spin-off HolbyBlue. Holby City follows the professional and personal lives of surgeons, other medical and ancillary staff and patients at Holby General, it features an ensemble cast of regular characters, began with 11 main characters in its first series, all of whom have since left the show. New main characters have been both written out of the series since. In addition, Holby City features guest stars each week, as well as recurring guests that take part in story arcs that span a portion of a series; the recurring guest storylines will span multiple series. Many actors in the series have made prior, minor appearances as both patients and staff members in both Holby City and Casualty - in some instances crediting these former appearances for their casting as main characters in Holby City.

In casting the first series of Holby City, Young selected actors who were established names in the acting industry from a soap opera background. He cast Michael French as Nick Jordan, George Irving as Anton Meyer, Angela Griffin as Jasmine Hopkins, Lisa Faulkner as Victoria Merrick and Nicola Stephenson as Julie Bradford. Young explained: "Soap actors are the best actors. There's been so much snobbery before; the whole thing about typecasting was invented by actors who couldn't get other work. From day one I knew. There’s no downside to that." This propensity for hiring established actors continued as the soap progressed, with roles being awarded to comedian Adrian Edmondson, Patsy Kensit and veteran actor Robert Powell. When Jane Asher was cast in the recurring role of Lady Byrne in 2007, Inside Soap magazine asked series producer Diane Kyle whether the production team intentionally sought out "well-known-names", or whether roles went to the actor best-suited for the part. Kyle responded: "It's lovely when we have a new member of the cast come in and bring an audience with them.

But we want the best actors, the star names we cast are always the best -, why we go for them."Many cast members who play main characters have made previous appearances in Holby City and Casualty in minor roles. Amanda Mealing, who plays cardiothoracic consultant Connie Beauchamp, appeared as the mother of a paediatric patient in the show's fourth series. Luke Roberts, who plays registrar Joseph Byrne, appeared as the son of a medical professor in Holby City's seventh series, Rosie Marcel, who plays registrar Jac Naylor appeared in both Holby City and Casualty as a patient on three occasions. Stella Gonet, who plays CEO Jayne Grayson, had a minor role as an anaesthetist in Casualty, while Hari Dhillon, who plays general surgical consultant Michael Spence appeared as a recurring anaesthetist in Holby City. In some instances, actors have stated that it was their guest appearances which led to their casting in more permanent roles. Roberts believes that his single scene in series seven was enough for him to be called in for the part of Joseph, explaining: "I hear it got the attention of the producers.

Amanda Mealing put a good word in for me that day as well." Conversely, Dhillon dismissed his minor role as Dr Sunil Gupta as a part he took after leaving drama school, unable to recall the year of his appearance. Jeremy Sheffield plays a cardiothoracic registrar and a protege of Anton Meyer, he appears from series three, episode one until series five, episode 45. A romance with SHO Sam Kennedy ends his career, when Sam gets him drunk in an attempt to lure him into spending the night with her. Unaware he is over the speed limit, Alex causes the death of a young boy due to drink driving, he departs for America when Meyer accepts a position overseas. He returns and has a brief romance with Jess Griffin, as a result of which she becomes pregnant, but opts for an abortion. Alex goes on to suffer from the onset of Parkinson's disease, he comes close to attempting suicide, but is talked out of it by Diane Lloyd, after which he leaves Holby for good. Rebecca Grant plays nurse Daisha Anderson, who first appears in the episode "Twelve Hour Nightmare", series ten, episode 24.

Daisha is described by the BBC as "a forthright and assertive Filipina with a tuned sense of right and wrong. She doesn't understand hierarchy or tact but is straightforward and honest and has a natural antenna when it comes to flirting." Holby City was Grant's first television role. She explained of her introductory storyline: "Some characters get a huge introduction, but mine has a'flow' to it." Daisha's first appearance in Holby City explains that, although the character has been working at Holby City Hospital for some time in order to financially support her family in the Philippines, she has only worked on the Orthopedic ward - not one of the four wards the show focuses on. Daisha forms a close friendship with nursing consultant Mark Williams, she flirts with Mark in order to win a transfer to Darwin ward, moves in with him after breaking up with her boyfriend and being assaulted by her landlord, coming to rely on him yet further upon discovering herself to be pregnant. Mark aids Daisha in becoming ambassador of the Byrne Foundation for cardiothoracic care, promotes her to Sister of Keller ward

HMS Stag (1899)

HMS Stag was a two funnel, 30 knot destroyer ordered by the Royal Navy under the 1896 – 1897 Naval Estimates. She was the sixth ship to carry this name, she was first assigned to the Mediterranean. She served in the North Sea and Irish Sea during World War I, was sold for breaking in 1921, she was laid down as yard number 324 on 16 April 1898 at the John I Thornycroft and Company shipyard at Chiswick on the River Thames. She was launched on 18 November 1899. During her builder's trials her maximum average speed was 30.5 knots. She proceeded to Portsmouth to have her armament fitted, she was completed and accepted by the Royal Navy in September 1900. During her acceptance trials and work ups her average sea speed was 25 knots. Lieutenant and Commander B. A. Austen was appointed in command of the Stag on 14 February 1902, commissioned her at Chatham on 25 February for service with the Instructional Flotilla. Only weeks Lieutenant John Maxwell D. E. Warren was appointed in command from 18 March 1902.

In May 1902 she transferred her officers and crew to HMS Sturgeon. She was commissioned at Chatham on 2 September 1902 by Commander Sir Douglas Egremont Robert Brownrigg for outbound journey to the Mediterranean, where she was placed in the fleet reserve at Malta, her crew returned home, while Brownrigg succeeded in command of HMS Coquette, tender to HMS Orion, depot ship for destroyers on the Mediterranean Station. She remained with the Mediterranean Fleet until 1913. On 30 August 1912 the Admiralty directed all destroyer classes were to be designated by alpha characters starting with the letter'A'. Since her design speed was 30-knots and she had two funnels she was retrospectively assigned to the D class. After 30 September 1913, she was known as a D-class destroyer and had the letter ‘D’ painted on the hull below the bridge area and on either the fore or aft funnel. On her return to the UK she was assigned to the 8th Destroyer Flotilla based at Sheerness. In July 1914 she was in active commission assigned to the 8th Destroyer Flotilla based at Sheerness tendered to the destroyer depot ship Tyne.

In August 1914 the 8th was re-deployed to the River Tyne. The 8th was a patrol flotilla tasked with counter-mining patrols. On 25 September while on patrol off the Isle of May at the mouth of the Firth of Forth she was missed by two torpedoes fired by an unknown submarine. In November 1917 she was deployed to the Irish Sea Hunting Flotilla until the cessation of hostilities providing anti-submarine and counter-smuggling patrols. In 1919 she was paid off and laid-up in reserve awaiting disposal, she was sold on 17 May 1921 to Thos W Ward of Sheffield for breaking at Grays, Essex on the Thames Estuary. Jane, Fred T.. Jane’s All the World's Fighting Ships 1898. New York: first published by Sampson Low Marston, London 1898, Reprinted ARCO Publishing Company. Jane, Fred T.. Jane’s Fighting Ships of World War I. Jane’s Publishing. ISBN 1 85170 378 0. Conway’s All the World’s Fighting Ships 1906 to 1922. Conway Maritime Press. 2006. ISBN 0 85177 245 5