Western Ghats

The Western Ghats known as Sahyadri, are a mountain range that covers an area of 140,000 square kilometres in a stretch of 1,600 kilometres parallel to the western coast of the Indian peninsula, traversing the states of Kerala, Tamil Nadu, Goa and Gujarat. It is a UNESCO World Heritage Site and is one of the eight "hottest hot-spots" of biological diversity in the world, it is sometimes called the Great Escarpment of India. It contains a large proportion of the country's flora and fauna, many of which are only found in India and nowhere else in the world. According to UNESCO, the Western Ghats are older than the Himalayas, they influence Indian monsoon weather patterns by intercepting the rain-laden monsoon winds that sweep in from the south-west during late summer. The range runs north to south along the western edge of the Deccan Plateau, separates the plateau from a narrow coastal plain, called Konkan, along the Arabian Sea. A total of thirty-nine areas in the Western Ghats, including national parks, wildlife sanctuaries and reserve forests, were designated as world heritage sites in 2012 – twenty in Kerala, ten in Karnataka, five in Tamil Nadu and four in Maharashtra.

The range starts near the Songadh town of Gujarat, south of the Tapti river, runs 1,600 km through the states of Maharashtra, Karnataka and Tamil Nadu ending at Marunthuvazh Malai, at Swamithope, near the southern tip of India. These hills cover 160,000 km2 and form the catchment area for complex riverine drainage systems that drain 40% of India; the Western Ghats block southwest monsoon winds from reaching the Deccan Plateau. The average elevation is around 1,200 m; the area is one of the world's ten "hottest biodiversity hotspots" and has over 7,402 species of flowering plants, 1,814 species of non-flowering plants, 139 mammal species, 508 bird species, 179 amphibian species, 6,000 insects species and 290 freshwater fish species. At least 325 globally threatened; the word ghat is explained by numerous Dravidian etymons such as Tamil kattu, Kannada gaati and ghatta, Tulu gatta, ghattam in Malayalam. Ghat, a term used in the Indian subcontinent, depending on the context could either refer to a range of stepped-hill such as the Eastern Ghats and Western Ghats.

Roads passing through ghats are called Ghat Roads. The Western Ghats are the mountainous eroded edge of the Deccan Plateau. Geologic evidence indicates that they were formed during the break-up of the supercontinent of Gondwana some 150 million years ago. Geophysical evidence indicates that the west coast of India came into being somewhere around 100 to 80 mya after it broke away from Madagascar. After the break-up, the western coast of India would have appeared as an abrupt cliff some 1,000 m in elevation. Basalt is the predominant rock found in the hills reaching a thickness of 3 km. Other rock types found are charnockites, granite gneiss, leptynites, metamorphic gneisses with detached occurrences of crystalline limestone, iron ore and anorthosites. Residual laterite and bauxite ores are found in the southern hills; the Western Ghats extend from the Satpura Range in the north. It traverses south through the states of Maharashtra, Goa and Kerala. Major gaps in the range are the Goa Gap, between the Maharashtra and Karnataka sections, the Palghat Gap on the Tamil Nadu and Kerala border between the Nilgiri Hills and the Anaimalai Hills.

The mountains intercept the rain-bearing westerly monsoon winds, are an area of high rainfall on their western side. The dense forests contribute to the precipitation of the area by acting as a substrate for condensation of moist rising orographic winds from the sea, releasing much of the moisture back into the air via transpiration, allowing it to condense and fall again as rain; the northern portion of the narrow coastal plain between the Western Ghats and the Arabian Sea is known as the Konkan, the central portion is called Kanara and the southern portion is called Malabar. The foothill region east of the Ghats in Maharashtra is known as Desh, while the eastern foothills of the central Karnataka state is known as Malenadu; the range is known as Sahyadri in Karnataka. The Western Ghats meet the Eastern Ghats at the Nilgiri mountains in northwestern Tamil Nadu; the Nilgiris connect the Biligiriranga Hills in southeastern Karnataka with the Shevaroys and Tirumala hills. South of the Palghat Gap are the Anamala Hills, located in western Tamil Nadu and Kerala with smaller ranges further south, including the Cardamom Hills Aryankavu pass, Aralvaimozhi pass near Kanyakumari.

The range is known as Sahian in Kerala. In the southern part of the range is Anamudi, the highest peak in the Western Ghats; the Western Ghats have many peaks that rise with Anamudi being the highest peak. The Western Ghats form one of the four watersheds of India; the major river systems originating in the Western Ghats are the Godavari, Krishna and Tungabhadra rivers. The majority of streams draining the Western Ghats join these rivers, carry a large volume of water during the monso


Hypergraphia is a behavioral condition characterized by the intense desire to write or draw. Forms of hypergraphia can vary in writing content, it is a symptom associated with temporal lobe changes in epilepsy, the cause of the Geschwind syndrome, a mental disorder. Structures that may have an effect on hypergraphia when damaged due to temporal lobe epilepsy are the hippocampus and Wernicke's area. Aside from temporal lobe epilepsy, chemical causes may be responsible for inducing hypergraphia. In some cases hypergraphia can manifest with compulsive drawing. Drawings by patients with hypergraphia exhibit repetition and a high level of detail, sometimes mixing both compulsive writing and drawing together. Waxman and Geschwind were the first to describe hypergraphia, in the 1970s; the patients they observed displayed extensively compulsive detailed writing, sometimes with literary creativity. The patients kept diaries, which some used to meticulously document minute details of their everyday activities, write poetry, or create lists.

Case 1 of their study wrote lists of her relatives, her likes and dislikes, the furniture in her apartment. Beside lists, the patient wrote poetry with a moral or philosophical undertone, she described an incident in which she wrote the lyrics of a song she learned when she was 17 several hundred times and another incident in which she felt the urge to write a word over and over again. Another patient wrote certain sentences in repetition. A patient from a separate study experienced "continuously rhyming in his head" for five years after a seizure and said that he "felt the need to write them down." The patient did not talk in rhyme, nor did he read poetry. Language capacity and mental status were normal for this patient, except for recorded right temporal spikes on electroencephalograms; this patient had right hemisphere epilepsy. Functional MRI scans of other studies suggest that rhyming behavior is produced in the left hemisphere, but Mendez proposed that hyperactive electrical activity of the right hemisphere may induce a release of writing and rhyming abilities in the left hemisphere.

In addition to writing in different forms, hypergraphia patients differ in the complexity of their writings. While some writers use their hypergraphia to help them write extensive papers and books, most patients do not write things of substance. Flaherty defines hypergraphia, as a result of temporal lobe epilepsy, as a condition that "increase idea generation, sometimes at the expense of quality." Patients hospitalized with temporal lobe epilepsy and other disorders causing hypergraphia have written memos and lists and recorded their dreams in extreme length and detail. Some patients who suffer from temporal lobe epilepsy record the times and locations of each seizure compiled as a list. There are many accounts of patients writing in nonsensical patterns including writing in a center-seeking spiral starting around the edges of a piece of paper. In one case study, a patient wrote backwards, so that the writing could only be interpreted with the aid of a mirror. Sometimes the writing can consist of scribbles and frantic, random thoughts that are jotted down on paper frequently.

Grammar can be present, but the meaning of these thoughts is hard to grasp and the sentences are loose. In some cases, patients write detailed accounts of events that are occurring or descriptions of where they are; some studies have suggested that hypergraphia is related to bipolar disorder and schizophrenia. Although creative ability was observed in the patients of these studies, signs of creativity were observed, not hypergraphia specifically. Therefore, it is difficult to say with absolute certainty that hypergraphia is a symptom of these psychiatric illnesses because creativity in patients with bipolar disorder, hypomania, or schizophrenia may manifest into something aside from writing. However, other studies have shown significant accounts between hypergraphia and temporal lobe epilepsy and chemical causes. Hypergraphia is a symptom of temporal lobe epilepsy, a condition of reoccurring seizures caused by excessive neuronal activity, but it is not a common symptom among patients. Less than 10 percent of patients with temporal lobe epilepsy exhibit characteristics of hypergraphia.

Temporal lobe epilepsy patients may exhibit irritability, discomfort, or an increasing feeling of dread if their writing activity is disrupted. To elicit such responses when interrupting their writing suggests that hypergraphia is a compulsive condition, resulting in an obsessive motivation to write. A temporal lobe epilepsy may influence frontotemporal connections in such a way that the drive to write is increased in the frontal lobe, beginning with the prefrontal and premotor cortex planning out what to write, leading to the motor cortex executing the physical movement of writing. Most temporal lobe epilepsy patients who suffer from hypergraphia can write words, but not all may have the capacity to write complete sentences that have meaning. Certain drugs have been known to induce hypergraphia including donepezil. In one case study, a patient taking donepezil reported an elevation in mood and energy levels which led to hypergraphia and other excessive forms of speech. Six other cases of patients taking donepezil and experiencing mania have been reported.

These patients had cases of dementia, cognitive impairment from a cerebral aneurysm, bipolar I disorder, and/or depression. Researchers are unsure why donepezil can induce hypergraphia, it could result from an increase in acetylcholine levels, which would have an effect on the other n

Östergötland Runic Inscription 224

Östergötland Runic Inscription 224 or Ög 224 is the Rundata catalog number for a Viking Age memorial runestone, located in Stratomta, 9 kilometers east of Linköping, Östergötland, Sweden. The runestone has an inscription on two sides with an image of a ship on the south side; this runic inscription is carved on two sides of a stone, 1.7 meters in height. On one side, which faces south, the inscription consists of text in the younger futhark within a band that circles an image of a ship. On the side that faces north, the inscription consists of text within a serpent. At the top on this side is a stylized Christian cross; because of the depiction on the north side, the inscription is classified as being carved in runestone style Fp, the classification for inscriptions where the text bands end in serpent or beast heads depicted as seen from above. Ship images appear on several Viking Age runic inscriptions. Other runic inscriptions from the Viking Age which depict ships include DR 77 in Hjermind, DR 119 in Spentrup, DR 220 in Sønder Kirkeby, DR 258 in Bösarp, DR 271 in Tullstorp, DR 328 in Holmby, DR EM85.

Three stones, the Hørdum and Långtora kyrka stones and U 1001 in Rasbo, depict ships but do not have any runes on them and may never have had any. The runic text, which starts on the south side of the stone and is designated in Rundata as line A, states that the runestone was raised as a memorial by Ástríðr, Ásvaldi, Augmundr in memory of their father Halfdan, by Ástríðr in memory of her "good husbandman." The south side has line B of the text and the last rune on the final word, an a-rune, is located at the top of the inscription. The last word of the inscription, kuþan or goðan, was placed on the east side of the stone and is designated as line C. §A: estriþ: ausualti: aukmuntr: þau: litu: rais:a §B: stain: þansi: aftiʀ: halftan: faþur: sin: auk: astriþ: at: bunta: sin: §C: kuþan: §A Æstrið, Augmundr, þau letu ræisa §B stæin þannsi æftiʀ Halfdan, faður sinn, ok Æstrið at bonda sinn §C goðan. §A Ástríðr, Ásvaldi, they had §B this stone raised in memory of Halfdan, their father.