Macedonia is a geographic and former administrative region of Greece, in the southern Balkans. Macedonia is the largest and second-most-populous Greek region, with a population of 2.38 million in 2017. The region is mountainous, with most major urban centres such as Thessaloniki and Kavala being concentrated on its southern coastline. Together with Thrace, sometimes Thessaly and Epirus, it is part of Northern Greece. Greek Macedonia encompasses the southern part of the region of Macedonia, making up 51% of the total area of the region, it contains Mount Athos, an autonomous monastic region of Greece. Macedonia forms part of Greece's national frontier with three countries: Bulgaria to the north-east, the Republic of North Macedonia to the north, Albania to the north-west. Macedonia incorporates most of the territories of ancient Macedon, a kingdom ruled by the Argeads and whose most celebrated members were Alexander the Great and his father Philip II; the name Macedonia was applied to a number of widely-differing administrative areas in the Roman and Byzantine empires, resulting in modern geographical Macedonia.
Prior to the establishment of the modern Greek state in 1830 Macedonia was identified as a Greek province, albeit without defined geographical borders. Modern Macedonia was established in 1913, in the aftermath of the Treaty of Bucharest which ended the Balkan Wars, it continued as an administrative subdivision of Greece until the administrative reform of 1987, when it was divided into the regions of West Macedonia, Central Macedonia, part of the region of East Macedonia and Thrace, the latter containing the whole Greek part of the region of Thrace. The region remains an important economic centre for Greece. Macedonia accounts for the majority of Greece's agricultural production and is a major contributor to the country's industrial and tourism sectors. Central Macedonia is Greece's fourth-most-popular tourist region and the most popular region, not an island, it is home to four UNESCO World Heritage sites, including Aigai, one of the ancient Macedonian capital cities. Pella, which replaced Aigai as the capital of Macedon in the fourth century BC, is located in Greek Macedonia.
The name Macedonia derives from the Greek Μακεδονία, a kingdom named after the ancient Macedonians, who were the descendants of a Bronze-age Greek tribe. Their name, Μακεδόνες, is cognate to the Ancient Greek adjective μακεδνός, meaning "tall, slim", it was traditionally derived from the Indo-European root *mak-, meaning'long' or'slender'. Linguist Robert S. P. Beekes supports the idea that both terms are of Pre-Greek substrate origin and cannot be explained in terms of Indo-European morphology. However, Beekes' views are not mainstream; the region has also been known as Македония in Bulgarian and the local South Slavic dialects, Makedonya in Turkish, Machedonia in Aromanian or Vlach. Macedonia lies at the crossroads of human development between the Aegean and the Balkans; the earliest signs of human habitation date back to the palaeolithic period, notably with the Petralona cave in, found the oldest yet known European humanoid, Archanthropus europaeus petraloniensis. In the Late Neolithic period, trade took place with quite distant regions, indicating rapid socio-economic changes.
One of the most important innovations was the start of copper working. According to Herodotus, the history of Macedonia began with the Makednoi tribe, among the first to use the name, migrating to the region from Histiaeotis in the south. There they lived near Thracian tribes such as the Bryges who would leave Macedonia for Asia Minor and become known as Phrygians. Macedonia was named after the Makednoi. Accounts of other toponyms such as Emathia are attested to have been in use before that. Herodotus claims that a branch of the Macedonians invaded Southern Greece towards the end of the second millennium B. C. Upon reaching the Peloponnese the invaders were renamed Dorians, triggering the accounts of the Dorian invasion. For centuries the Macedonian tribes were organized in independent kingdoms, in what is now Central Macedonia, their role in internal Hellenic politics was minimal before the rise of Athens; the Macedonians claimed to be Dorian Greeks and there were many Ionians in the coastal regions.
The rest of the region was inhabited by various Thracian and Illyrian tribes as well as coastal colonies of other Greek states such as Amphipolis, Potidea and many others, to the north another tribe dwelt, called the Paeonians. During the late 6th and early 5th century BC, the region came under Persian rule until the destruction of Xerxes at Plataea. During the Peloponnesian War, Macedonia became the theatre of many military actions by the Peloponnesian League and the Athenians, saw incursions of Thracians and Illyrians, as attested by Thucidydes. Many Macedonian cities were allied to the Spartans, but Athens maintained the colony of Amphipolis under her control for many years; the kingdom of Macedon, was reorganised by Philip II and achieved the union of Greek states by forming the League of Corinth. After his assassination, his son Alexander succeeded to the throne of Macedon and carrying the title of Hegemon of League of Corinth started his long campaign towards the east. Macedonia remained an important and powerful kingdom until the Battle of Pydna, in which the Roman general Aemilius Paulus defeated King Perseus of Macedon, ending the reign of the Antigonid dynasty over Macedonia.
For a brief period a Macedonian republic
A marble is a small spherical toy made from glass, steel, plastic or agate. These balls vary in size. Most they are about 1 cm in diameter, but they may range from less than 1 mm to over 8 cm, while some art glass marbles for display purposes are over 30 cm wide. Marbles can be used for a variety of games called marbles, they are collected, both for nostalgia and for their aesthetic colors. In the North of England the objects and the game are called "taws", with larger taws being called bottle washers after the use of a marble in Codd-neck bottles, which were collected for play. In the early twentieth century, small balls of stone, identified by archaeologists as marbles, were found on excavation near Mohenjo-daro. Marbles are mentioned in Roman literature, as in Ovid's poem Nux, there are many examples of marbles from excavations of sites associated with Chaldeans of Mesopotamia and ancient Egypt, they were made of clay, stone or glass. Marbles arrived during the medieval era. In 1503 the town council of Nuremberg, limited the playing of marble games to a meadow outside the town.
It is unknown where marbles were first manufactured, but the "original" marbles were designated "made in Germany". The game has become popular throughout other countries. Ceramic marbles entered inexpensive mass production in the 1870s. A German glassblower invented marble scissors, a device for making marbles, in 1846; the first mass-produced toy marbles made in the US were made in Akron, Ohio, by S. C. Dyke, in the early 1890s; some of the first US-produced glass marbles were made in Akron, by James Harvey Leighton. In 1903, Martin Frederick Christensen—also of Akron, Ohio—made the first machine-made glass marbles on his patented machine, his company, The M. F. Christensen & Son Co. manufactured millions of toy and industrial glass marbles until they ceased operations in 1917. The next US company to enter the glass marble market was Akro Agate; this company was located in Clarksburg, West Virginia. Today, there are only two American-based toy marble manufacturers: Jabo Vitro in Reno and Marble King, in Paden City, West Virginia.
In Australia, games were played with marbles of different sizes. The smallest and most common was about 15 mm in diameter; the two larger, more valuable sizes were referred to as semi-bowlers and tom-bowlers, being about 20 mm and 25 mm in diameter respectively. They were used in much the same way as ordinary marbles, although sometimes they would be declared invalid because of the advantage of their larger mass and inertia. Owners of large marbles were afraid to use them lest they be lost to another player as "keepsies", they were of the clear "cat's eye" or milk glass type, just bigger. "Firing" a marble meant that a player had to flick his/her marble from a stationary position of his hand. No part of the hand firing the marble was permitted to be in front of the position where the marble had been resting on the ground. Using that hand, he would flick or fire the marble from his/her hand with the knuckle on the back of his/her hand resting on the ground, using the thumb of that hand to do so.
All shots of the game were conducted in this manner throughout except the initial pitch towards the bunny hole that started the game. Once a player was able to land his/her marble within the hole, he would then fire his marble at his opponents' marbles. However, if any player hit another player's marble before his/her own marble had been to'visit' the bunny hole, the act would be referred to as "a kiss". This, of course, could be quite annoying or frustrating if a player had built up quite a few hits on another player's marble. So, most skilled players did not resort to this kind of tactic; the overall aim was to hit a particular marble 3 times after getting into the hole you had to "run away", before the final contact shot was allowed to be played -, called "the kill". Once a player made a kill on another marble, if the game was'for keeps', he would get to keep the marble he had'killed'; the format of playing this game was that each time you hit another player's marble, you were to have another shot - if it was not the marble you had intended to hit.
Of course, the ploy was to hit the particular opponent marble 3 times, then'run away' to the bunny hole, because once you rested the marble into the hole, you had your shot again, thus leaving no opportunity at all for your opponent to retreat his/her marble before "the Kill" was made on it. In India, there are many games with marbles. One simple game with marbles is called "Cara" in which every player puts one or more marbles in a long line of marbles with each marble being one centimeter or more, apart from each other. After this, each player throws another marble as far perpendicularly. In this game, the player whose marble is farthest from the line of marbles gets the first chance to hit the marble's line and subsequent players who get to hit the line have their distance from the line in decreasing order. Any player who hits and displaces a marble in the line of marbles gets to take that and all marbles to the right of it. Marbles in the line are smaller marbles and the players have bigger marbles for hitting the line of smaller marbles.
This game needs the playground to be flat and hard and with no loose soil for ef
Ptolemaida, is a town and a former municipality in Kozani regional unit, West Macedonia, Greece. Since the 2011 local government reform it is part of the municipality Eordaia, of which it is the seat and a municipal unit, it is known for its coal mines and its power stations. During the Ottoman period, the city was named Kayılar, rendered into English as Kaïlar. Kailar refers to the Kayı tribe, the tribe of Osman I, the founder of the Ottoman Empire; the modern name Ptolemaida was introduced by decree on January 20, 1927, honoring Ptolemy son of Lagus, a comrade-in-arms of Alexander the Great and founder of the Ptolemaic dynasty, his daughter Ptolemaïs, who are said to originate from that region. His statue stands in the central square of the city. According to archaeologists, the Ptolemaida region has been occupied since 6000 BC. Archaeologists, in November 2005, discovered the remains of two farming villages dating back to the Neolithic period. A press report notes that such farming villages were trading centres and had a "developed knowledge of metalworking".
A golden necklace dating to 4500 BC was discovered on February 16, 2006. Associated Press reporter Costas Kantouris describes the item as a "flat ring-shaped had religious significance and would have been worn on a necklace by a prominent member of society."Lately in the lake Zazari near Ptolemaida there were found 16 houses that belong in the Neolithic era due to archaaeologists. These houses were in the lake and were exposed because of the decreased water level of the lake; that particular small settlement gives information about the society and the people in the Neolithic era. In the area of Ptolemaida many archeological findings have occurred in the last 30 years due to mining operations. Ceramic artifacts, dating to the 6th century BC have been found at two sites near Grevena and Ptolemaida. Archaeologists found the artifacts at two prehistoric farming settlements. Two Ancient Macedonian graves have been found in the area of Ptolemaida, dated from the 5th century BC. At various times, Ptolemaida was part of the Latin Empire, the Kingdom of Thessalonica, the Empire of Nicaea, the Despotate of Epirus.
During the Ottoman period, Ptolemaida was called Kayılar, it had two parts: Aşağı Kayılar and Yukarı Kayılar. Aşağı Kayılar was Bektaşi and Yukarı Kayılar was Rufai, Hanefi. Before 1360, large numbers of nomad shepherds, or Yörüks, from the district of Konya, in Asia Minor, had settled in Macedonia. Further immigration from this region took place from time to time up to the middle of the 18th century. After the establishment of the feudal system in 1397, many of the Seljuk noble families came over from Asia Minor. At the beginning of the 18th century, the Turkish population was quite considerable, but since that time until at least the early 20th century it continuously decreased. A low birth rate, the exhaustion of the male population by military service, a large mortality from epidemics brought about a decline, hastened by emigration; the Turkish rural population around Kayılar was composed of Konariot shepherds. In the late 19th and early 20th century, Ptolemaida was part of the Manastir Vilayet of the Ottoman Empire.
Ptolemaida was taken by the Greek forces on October 15, 1912 during the First Balkan War. Ptolemaida's football club is called "Eordaikos". Other teams include AE Ptolemaidas. Ptolemaida has schools, gymnasia, banks, a post office, a train station, a police station, a water tower, squares. There is the potential of a university being established by the state in the near future; the Anthropological and Folklore Museum is based in the town. Ptolemaida is a industrialized area; the four power plants in this area produce 70% of Greece's electrical power, using the large local deposits of lignite as fuel. The plants are owned by the Public Power Corporation, the major employer in the city; the plant was dedicated by the prime minister of Greece at that time, Constantine Karamanlis. The other two are in Amyntaio in Florina regional unit and in Agios Dimitrios; the city, situated in the middle of the Eordaia plain of Western Macedonia, has a humid continental climate. Summers can be hot with thunderstorms in unsettled spells, whereas winters are among the coldest in Greece.
It was here that the absolute low temperature record of Greece was recorded. It was the lowest in Europe for 1963; the current municipal unit of Ptolemaida is constituted by the city of Ptolemaida and 11 small communities. At the 2011 census, the population of the city was 32,142 residents; the total population of the municipality Eordaia in 2011 was 45,592 residents. The city lies in the valley of Eordaia, between the Askio mountains to the southwest and the Vermio mountains to the northeast, it is located north of Kozani, east of Kastoria, south of Florina, south-west of Edessa. The municipal unit has an area of 217.901 km2, the community has an area of 57.508 km2. Motorway 27 passes east of the city. Ptolemaida was the seat of the former province of Eordaia. Ptolemaida is twinned with: Enkomi, Cyprus Pantelis Kapetanos, football player Ieroklis Michailidis, actor Battle of Ptolemaida List of settlements in the Kozani regional unit Ptolemaida news Weather station of the National Observatory of Athens in Ptolemaida
Kozani (regional unit)
Kozani is one of the regional units of Greece. It is part of the region of West Macedonia, its capital is the city of Kozani. Kozani borders the regional units of Kastoria to the west and northwest, Florina to the north, Pella to the northeast and Pieria to the east, Larissa to the southeast, Grevena to the south; the main mountain ranges are Askio in the northwest, Voio in the west, Vermio in the northeast and the Pierian Mountains in the southeast. The river Aliakmon flows through the southern part, through the large reservoir Lake Polyfytos. Lignite is mined around Ptolemaida, its climate ranges from continental to mountainous. Kozani has warm to hot summers and cool winters, cooler than Thessaloniki, the mountainous, the western and the eastern portion receives cold winters and features snow, its sunshine days are days shorter than the south and by the coastline, it is rainier than the south. Temeperatures ranges from 25 to 30 °C during the summer months; the regional unit Kozani is subdivided into 4 municipalities.
These are: Eordaia Kozani Servia-Velventos Voio Kozani was created as a prefecture in 1915. As a part of the 2011 Kallikratis government reform, the regional unit Kozani was created out of the former prefecture Kozani; the prefecture had the same territory as the present regional unit. At the same time, the municipalities were reorganised, according to the table below. Kozani had three provinces: Kozani Province - Kozani Eordea Province - Ptolemaida Voio Province - Siatista The area was made up of several kingdoms including the ancient Eordaia, it was ruled by the Kingdom of Macedonia and the Roman Empire after the Third Macedonian War, it became a part of the Byzantine Empire after the breakup into the West and the East, in the early 14th to the 15th century, it was ruled by the Ottoman Empire and lasted until the Balkan Wars of 1913; the Kozani Prefecture was created in 1915 and included the present Florina and the Kastoria regional units. Refugees from Asia Minor and Pontus during the Greco-Turkish War of 1919 to 1922 brought refugees to the area including Kozani and villages and towns that removed the Turkish population to the country which became only known as Turkey.
The economy boomed and was disrupted on. After World War II and the Greek Civil War, most of the buildings were repaired. Kozani opened its airport and its hospital. Kozani has been a prosperous area in the course of its history, its merchants are known to have dominated the commerce of the Balkan peninsula, expanding their trade activities to the north and along the Danube. Nowadays, Kozani is still among the most prosperous areas of the Greek province, but for a different reason, its rich mining industry. Kozani produces lignite, the main source of the electric power produced in Greece, nitrous salts which are processed into fertilizers, chromium. There was an asbestos mine that remained operational until the mid-1990s, which has now ceased its operation. In the regional unit of Kozani there is the artificial lake and hydroelectric dam of Polyfytos, which further contributes to the electricity production of Greece; the region's vast industrial advancement in a short period of time has raised environmentalist concerns.
National Roads Greek National Road 3, SE, Cen. N Greek National Road 15, SW, W Greek National Road 20, SW, W, Cen. Via Egnatia Air transport: Kozani National Airport "Filippos", 4 km from Kozani. Rail transport: Kozani-Amyntaio railway line List of settlements in the Kozani regional unit
Saffron is a spice derived from the flower of Crocus sativus known as the "saffron crocus". The vivid crimson stigmata and styles, called threads, are collected and dried to be used as a seasoning and colouring agent in food. Saffron was long among the world's most costly spices by weight. Although some doubts remain on its origin, it is believed; however and Mesopotamia have been suggested as the possible region of origin of this plant. C. sativus is a triploid form of Crocus cartwrightianus. Saffron crocus propagated throughout much of Eurasia and was brought to parts of North Africa, North America, Oceania. Saffron's taste and iodoform- or hay-like fragrance result from the chemicals picrocrocin and safranal, it contains a carotenoid pigment, which imparts a rich golden-yellow hue to dishes and textiles. Its recorded history is attested in a 7th-century BC Assyrian botanical treatise compiled under Ashurbanipal, it has been traded and used for over four millennia. Iran now accounts for 90% of the world production of saffron.
A degree of uncertainty surrounds the origin of the English word "saffron". It might stem from the 12th-century Old French term safran, which comes from the Latin word safranum, from the Arabic za'farān, which comes from the Persian word zarparan meaning "flower with golden petals"; the domesticated saffron crocus, Crocus sativus, is an autumn-flowering perennial plant unknown in the wild. It descends from the eastern Mediterranean autumn-flowering Crocus cartwrightianus, known as "wild saffron" and originated in Crete or Central Asia. C. thomasii and C. pallasii are other possible sources. As a genetically monomorphic clone, it propagated throughout much of Eurasia, it is a sterile triploid form, which means that three homologous sets of chromosomes compose each specimen's genetic complement. Being sterile, the purple flowers of C. sativus fail to produce viable seeds. A corm survives for one season, producing via this vegetative division up to ten "cormlets" that can grow into new plants in the next season.
The compact corms are small, brown globules that can measure as large as 5 cm in diameter, have a flat base, are shrouded in a dense mat of parallel fibres. Corms bear vertical fibres and net-like, that grow up to 5 cm above the plant's neck; the plant sprouts 5 -- 11 non-photosynthetic leaves known as cataphylls. These membrane-like structures cover and protect the crocus's 5 to 11 true leaves as they bud and develop; the latter are thin and blade-like green foliage leaves, which are 1–3 mm, in diameter, which either expand after the flowers have opened or do so with their blooming. C. sativus cataphylls are suspected by some to manifest prior to blooming when the plant is irrigated early in the growing season. Its floral axes, or flower-bearing structures, bear bracteoles, or specialised leaves, that sprout from the flower stems. After aestivating in spring, the plant sends up each up to 40 cm in length. Only in October, after most other flowering plants have released their seeds, do its brilliantly hued flowers develop.
The flowers possess a honey-like fragrance. Upon flowering, the plants are 20 -- 30 cm in bear up to four flowers. A three-pronged style 25–30 mm in length, emerges from each flower; each prong terminates with a vivid crimson stigma. The saffron crocus, unknown in the wild descends from Crocus cartwrightianus, it is a triploid, "self-incompatible" and male sterile. Crocus sativus thrives in the Mediterranean maquis, an ecotype superficially resembling the North American chaparral, similar climates where hot and dry summer breezes sweep semi-arid lands, it can nonetheless survive cold winters, tolerating frosts as low as −10 °C and short periods of snow cover. Irrigation is required if grown outside of moist environments such as Kashmir, where annual rainfall averages 1,000–1,500 mm. What makes this possible is the timing of the local wet seasons. Rain preceding flowering boosts saffron yields. Persistently damp and hot conditions harm the crops, rabbits and birds cause damage by digging up corms.
Nematodes, leaf rusts, corm rot pose other threats. Yet Bacillus subtilis inoculation may provide some benefit to growers by speeding corm growth and increasing stigma biomass yield; the plants fare poorly in shady conditions. Fields that slope towards the sunlight are optimal. Planting is done in June in the Northern Hemisphere, where corms are lodged 7–15 cm deep. Planting
Korçë County is one of the 12 counties of Albania, located in the eastern part of the country. The population at the 2011 census was 220,357, in an area of 3711 km², it is the largest county of Albania by area. Its capital is the city Korçë. Topographically, most of Korçë County is elevated, including the Gramos range, which forms the connection between the Scardus to the north and the Pindus range to the south. Korçë's eastern border is Albania's eastern border, as the county borders North Macedonia to the northeast and Greece to the southeast. Domestically, it borders on Gjirokastër County. Berat County and Elbasan County. Most of the region's inhabitants are ethnic Albanians, but there are important communities of Greeks, Macedonians and Roma. With regards to religion, the region hosts large concentrations of both Muslims and Orthodox Christians. According to the last national census from 2011, the county has 220,357 inhabitants. Ethnic groups in the county include Albanians, Macedonians, Aromanians, Egyptians.
Until 2000, Korçë County was subdivided into four districts: Devoll, Kolonjë, Korçë, Pogradec. Since the 2015 local government reform, the county consists of the following 6 municipalities: Devoll, Kolonjë, Korçë, Maliq and Pustec. Before 2015, it consisted of the following 37 municipalities: The municipalities consist of about 340 towns and villages in total. See Villages of Korçë County for a structured list. Regional Council of Korçë Korçë County Tourist Guide
Kastoria is a city in northern Greece in the region of Western Macedonia. It is the capital of Kastoria regional unit, it is situated on a promontory on the western shore of Lake Orestiada, in a valley surrounded by limestone mountains. The town is known for its many Byzantine churches and Ottoman-era domestic architecture, fur clothing industry, trout; the name "Kastoria" first appears in 550 AD, mentioned by Procopius as follows: "There was a certain city in Thessaly, Diocletianopolis by name, prosperous in ancient times, but with the passage of time and the assaults of the barbarians it had been destroyed, for a long time it had been destitute of inhabitants. There is an island for the most part surrounded by water, and a lofty mountain stands above the island, one half being covered by the lake while the remainder rests upon it." Although Procopius refers to it as "a city of Thessaly", the description is undoubtedly that of Kastoria, a city on a promontory in a lake. There are several theories about the origin of the name Kastoria.
The dominant of these is that the name derives from the Greek word κάστορας. Trade in the animal's fur, sourced from nearby Lake Orestiada, has traditionally been an important element of the city's economy. Other theories propose that the name derives from the Greek word κάστρο or from the mythical hero Κάστωρ, who may have been honoured in the area; the word is sometimes written with a C, Castoria in older works. From Greek, the name was borrowed into Turkish as Kesriye; the Serbian and Macedonian name of the city is Kostur. The municipality Kastoria was formed at the 2011 local government reform by the merger of the following 9 former municipalities, that became municipal units: Agia Triada Agioi Anargyroi Kastoria Kastraki Kleisoura Korestia Makednoi Mesopotamia VitsiThe municipality has an area of 763.330 km2, the municipal unit 57.318 km2. For Orthodox and Latin ecclesiastical history, see Metropolis of Kastoria Kastoria is believed to have ancient origins. Livy mentions a town near a lake in Orestis, called Celetrum, whose inhabitants surrendered to Sulpitius during the Roman war against Philip V of Macedon.
The ancient town was located on a hill above the town's current location. The Roman Emperor Diocletian founded the town of Diocletianopolis in the vicinity. Procopius relates that, after Diocletianopolis was destroyed by barbarians, Emperor Justinian relocated it on a promontory projecting into Lake Orestiada, the town's current location, "gave it an appropriate name" indicating that he renamed it Justinianopolis. Th. L. Fr. Tafel, in his study on the Via Egnatia, suggested that Celetrum and Kastoria are three successive names of the same place. Kastoria itself does not appear, until the Byzantine–Bulgarian wars of the late 10th/early 11th century; the town was in Bulgarian hands until 1018, when it was conquered by Basil II. Kastoria was occupied by the Normans under Bohemond I in 1082/83, but was soon recovered by Alexios I Komnenos; the town had a significant Jewish presence, most notably the 11th-century scholar Tobiah ben Eliezer. During the 13th and 14th centuries, the town became contested between several powers and changed hands often.
The Second Bulgarian Empire held the city under Kaloyan and Ivan Asen II, until it was recovered by the Despotate of Epirus. The Nicaean Empire captured. 1252, but lost it again to Epirus in ca. 1257, only for the Nicaeans to recapture it following the Battle of Pelagonia. In the early 14th century, Kastoria was part of the domain of John II Doukas, "doux of Great Vlachia and Kastoria". After his death, the town became part of the semi-autonomous domain of Stephen Gabrielopoulos. After the latter's death in 1332/3, the Byzantine emperor Andronikos III Palaiologos took over the town, but in the next year it was surrendered to the Serbs by the renegade Syrgiannes Palaiologos; the Serbian ruler Stephen Dushan captured Kastoria in 1342/3, taking advantage of the ongoing Byzantine civil war, made it part of his Serbian Empire. After Dushan's death, Kastoria became the seat of Symeon Uroš; the town came under the Epirote ruler Thomas Preljubović, under the Albanian Muzaka family, until it was conquered by the Ottoman Empire in the mid-1380s.
The Ottoman Turks conquered Kastoria around 1385, but it is unclear whether by force or by an agreement with its Albanian rulers. During the Ottoman period Kastoria acquired a sizeable Muslim population and several mosques and tekkes could be found in the city. According to the findings of Vasil Kanchov, at the turn of the 20th century, the town had 3000 Greek Christians, 1600 Turkish Muslims, 750 Jews, 300 Bulgarian Christians, 300 Albanian Christians, 240 Roma, for a total of 6190 inhabitants; the city would remain under Ottoman rule until the First Balkan War. The 1913 treaties of London and Bucharest incorporated Kastoria into the Greek state. Following the end of the First World War the bulk of the Muslim element of Kastoria's population was transferred