Western Norway is the region along the Atlantic coast of southern Norway. It consists of Vestland and Møre og Romsdal; the region has a population of 1.3 million people. The largest city is Bergen and the second-largest is Stavanger; the regions of Agder, Vest-Telemark, Hallingdal and northern parts of Gudbrandsdal have been included in Western Norway. Western Norway, as well as other parts of historical regions of Norway, shares a common history with Denmark, the Faroe Islands and Iceland and to a lesser extent the Netherlands and Britain. For example, the Icelandic horse is a close relative of the Fjord horse and both the Faroese and Icelandic languages are based on the Old West Norse. In early Norse times, people from Western Norway became settlers at the Western Isles in the Northern Atlantic, so that Orkney, the Faroe Islands and Iceland. During the Viking age settlements were made at the Hebrides and Ireland proper. In early modern time, Western Norway has had much emigration to the United States, to a lesser extent to the United Kingdom.
This applies to the US states of Minnesota and South Dakota, Wisconsin and the Canadian province of Manitoba. The Icelandic and Faroese people, many people in the British Isles, are descendants of Norsemen and Vikings who emigrated from Western Norway during the Viking Age. On the other hand, thousands of Western Norwegians are descendants of Dutch and German traders who arrived in the 16th and the 17th centuries in Bergen. Western Norway has the lowest unemployment rates, lowest crime rates, smallest public sector, fewest people on welfare and the most innovative economy in the country, it is regarded as Norway's most functional region. Vestland is the name chosen for a future administrative region consisting of two of the four counties, viz. Hordaland and Sogn og Fjordane; the two counties will be re-merged after having been split in 1763. Norway's history begins on the west coast in Rogaland. Excavations and rock art tells us that it was in Rogaland that the first humans settled in Norway, when the ice retreated after the last ice age ca. 10,000 years ago.
There are many artifacts from the Stone Age in Rogaland. The preliminary oldest traces of humans are found in a settlement on Galta, Rennesøy, near the ferry terminal Mortavika and Vista on Randaberg. In the beginning there has been sure short visits by people from the south who hunted along the coast, it is thought that people came from Doggerland, the North Sea land area between Denmark and England, which disappeared when the ice retreated and sea levels rose. The people who lived there must now find a new land; some retreated south again, while a few passed the Norwegian Trench in its hunt for deer and the new country. The region includes most of the scope of the old Gulating, founded around the year 900; the Gulating Act divided the country into the Western counties, which consisted of the former småkongedømmene that existed in the area before the unification of the 800's and was converted to jarle judge. These were Sunnmørafylke, Firda County, Sygna County, Hordafylke and Egdafylke. Before the millennium, iron was introduced and used in agriculture, there was a shortage of land to cultivate.
In the same period, the kings’ power increased, large tax claims caused many to seek freedom and fortune abroad. Many emigrated, looting became an alternative source of income. Effective boats and weapons made, but the images of Vikings as bloodthirsty plunderers are not always representative. The Vikings were involved in a wealthy merchant trade, not only in Europe but including the Byzantine Empire and the Baghdad Caliphate. Vikings are introduced with the Viking attack on Lindisfarne in 793, when they made their mark in European history; the era ends with the Battle of Stamford Bridge in 1066. Vikings' seaworthiness and wanderlust resulted in new areas being developed. Norwegian settlers moved into the North Sea westward to Iceland, the Faroe Islands, Shetland, Isle of Mann and the Hebrides. Settlements were established in the southeast corner of Ireland including in Dublin and Wexford. Norwegians settled along the northwest area of England, principally in the area of modern-day Cumbria; the Norwegian Vikings discovered Vinland, present-day America, long before Christopher Columbus.
Christianity became the dominant religion in Norway in the 11th century, but the religion was known among Norwegians in the 7th century. While Eastern Norway was introduced to Christianity by missionaries and monks from Germany and Friesland, Western Norway was introduced to the religion by English, Irish people and Vikings who had converted to Christianity. Norse paganism existed in some areas in Western Norway until they were replaced by Christianity in the 13th century; the coastal areas were the first to introduce the new faith, the inland areas. Churches were planted everywhere; the main source of information about the settlement period in Iceland is the Book of Settlements, written in the 12th century, which gives a detailed account of the first settlers. According to this book, Western Norwegian sailors accidentally discovered the country. A few voyages of exploration were made soon after that and the settlement started. Ingólfur Arnarson was said to be the first settler, he was a chieftain from Norwa
Đồng Tâm may refer to several places in Vietnam, including: Đồng Tâm, Hai Bà Trưng District, a ward of Hai Bà Trưng District, Hanoi Đồng Tâm, Vĩnh Phúc, a ward of Vĩnh Yên Đồng Tâm, Yên Bái, a ward of Yên Bái Đồng Tâm, Bắc Kạn, a township and capital of Chợ Mới District, Bắc Kạn Đồng Tâm, Mỹ Đức, a rural commune of Mỹ Đức District, Hanoi Đồng Tâm, Bắc Giang, a rural commune of Yên Thế District Đồng Tâm, Bình Phước, a rural commune of Đồng Phú District Đồng Tâm, Hà Giang, a rural commune of Bắc Quang District Đồng Tâm, Hải Dương, a rural commune of Ninh Giang District Đồng Tâm, Hòa Bình, a rural commune of Lạc Thủy District Đồng Tâm, Quảng Ninh, a rural commune of Bình Liêu District Đồng Tâm Base Camp
St. Ignatius of Loyola Catholic Secondary School is a separate school in Oakville, Ontario; the school teaches curriculum based on the Catholic faith, has close ties with the Diocese of Hamilton and the local church, St. Matthew's Parish; the academic program at Loyola is taught by ten principal departments, with the efforts of each coordinated by a department head. The departments at Loyola are: Mathematics Science English French/Moderns Technological Studies Physical Education Business Canadian and World Studies Religion and Social Sciences Special EducationThe school has an academic staff numbering over 90. Loyola has one of the best technology programs in the region, with students from other schools participating in technology programs offered by the school; the school has a strong English program, with 92% of students in grade ten in 2008 passing the OSSLT. Loyola has the highest literacy rate in all of Canada. Loyola offers a wide variety of extracurricular activities. In addition to over 46 varsity sports teams, the school is home to dozens of clubs of various disciplines.
Clubs and organizations at the school include: Student Council Chess Club Social Justice Club Prefects Debate Club Student Athletic Council Multicultural Club Concert Band Jazz Band Free The Children Club SOMA Hawk Watch Swim Team Math Club Celebrate Life Club H. O. P. E. Gay Straight Alliance Mock Trial Glee Club Environmental ClubThe school offers opportunities for various trips and exchanges to countries including the United States, Germany, France and Japan. Loyola provides opportunities for its students to participate in regional activities, such as the Southern Ontario Model United Nations Assembly. Particular emphasis has been placed on the Loyola athletics program, with the school holding numerous buyouts and pep rallies in order to drum up support for various sports teams. Additionally, since 2007, the school has upgraded numerous sports facilities at the school, including replacing the gymnasium floor, purchasing electronic bleachers for spectators and spending over $2 million Canadian on a new sports field, now completed.
Josh Janniere - Professional Soccer Player Adam van Koeverden - Olympic rower, winner of Gold medal in the 2004 Olympics Kojo Aidoo - Professional Canadian Football Player List of high schools in Ontario
Thomas Maitland Cleland was an American book designer, painter and type designer. Thomas Maitland Cleland was born August 1880 in Brooklyn, New York. Cleland was otherwise self-taught. Cleland began his career as a book designer for the Caslon Press and created title pages for Merrymount Press. D. B. Updike of Merrymount Press was a mentor who encouraged him to strive for perfection with commissions and criticism; when the Caslon Press folded in 1900, Cleland acquired a small foot-powered press and some fonts and launched his own printing shop from a room he constructed in his father's basement. He managed to produce two small books along with small job printing projects, his work caught the notice of printing enthusiasts in Boston, who persuaded him to move his operation there and launch the Cornhill Press. From 1907 to 1908, Cleland was art director of McClure’s Magazine redesigning the periodical during his tenure. In 1925, he created illustrations and typography for Wesvaco Paper Corporation's in-house magazine.
In 1929, he was hired on as art director to design Fortune magazine by Henry Luce. The initial issue in February 1930 was hailed as a masterpiece of classical design and was pitched to Luce at the initial meeting. In 1937, he planned a typographical refresh of Newsweek, he designed the newspaper PM. The design of the newspaper earned him the Ayer Award, he worked on eight books for the Limited Editions Club of The Heritage Press, designing a variety of illustrations and complete books. He consulted printers on ink printing, he was a member of the Architectural League of New York, the Society of Illustrators and the Century Club, an honorary member of the Boston Society of Arts and Crafts and the American Institute of Graphic Arts and was associated with American Type Founders for most of the early twentieth century. In 1940, he won the AIGA medal for his work. In 1960, in recognition of his work the New York Public Library held an exhibition for two months. In 1978, he was induced into the Art Directors Club Hall of Fame.
Cleland died November 1964 in Danbury, Connecticut. Della Robbia cast by Lanston Monotype, Deberny & Peignot and Intertype, cast as Westminster Oldstyle by Stephenson Blake, as Firenze by Typefoundry Amsterdam. Della Robbia Light was copied by Damon & Peat as Armstrong. Della Robbia Initials are not related at all. Garamond No. 3 + Italic in collaboration with Morris Fuller Benton Swash letters for Caslon Oldstyle Italic No. 471 Swash letters for Garamond No. 3 + Italic Cleland, T. M. Giambattista Bodoni of Parma Cleland, T. M.. M. Cleland, A Record and Review, Pynson Printers, New York Rollins, Carl Purlington American Type Designers and Their Work. in Print, V. 4, #1. Jaspert, W. Pincus, W. Turner Berry and A. F. Johnson, The Encyclopedia of Type Faces, Blandford Press Lts. 1983, ISBN 0-7137-1347-X. MacGrew, American Metal Typefaces of the Twentieth Century, Oak Knoll Books, New Castle Delaware, 1993, ISBN 0-938768-34-4. Friedl and Stein, Typography: an Encyclopedic Survey of Type Design and Techniques Throughout History.
Black Dog & Levinthal Publishers: 1998. ISBN 1-57912-023-7; the decorative work of T. M. Cleland: a record and review / with a biographical and critical introduction by Alfred E. Hamill, a portrait lithograph by Rockwell Kent, Pynson Printers, New York, 1929. Works by or about Thomas Maitland Cleland at Internet Archive Images of his typefaces at Myfonts UNCG American Publishers' Trade Bindings: Thomas Maitland Cleland T. M. Cleland Costume Designs for Scaramouche, held by the Billy Rose Theatre Division, New York Public Library for the Performing Arts
Apollo was an American Thoroughbred racehorse best known as the winner of the 1882 Kentucky Derby. He was the only horse to have won the Derby without racing at age two, until the 2018 Kentucky Derby, when Justify equalled the achievement, he went on to race 21 times at age three, 30 times at age four and 4 times at age five, winning a total of 24 races. Apollo was bred by Daniel Swigert. Apollo's dam was Rebecca T. Price. At the advanced age of 20, Rebecca T. Price was bred to two stallions and Lever, her resulting foal of 1879 was a chestnut colt, subsequently gelded, with a white sock on his left hind leg. As DNA testing was not available at the time, his paternity was listed with both stallions named; the pedigree available on Equineline.com, run by The Jockey Club, shows Ashstead as the sire. However, Apollo was said to resemble Lever's sire, more leading to the common belief that Lever was Apollo's sire. Trained for Swigert by Henry Brown, Apollo was injured as a two-year-old, he was sold to trainer Green B. Morris and his partner James Patton for $1,200.
Unraced at age two, Apollo made his first three starts as a three-year-old in April 1882 in New Orleans. He finished second in his first start on April 11 in the Pickwick Stakes, run at a distance of 1 1⁄4 miles, he finished second in a couple of one-mile heats a week later. On April 26, he broke his maiden in the Cottrill Stakes over a distance of 1 1⁄2 miles. On May 16, Apollo entered the 1882 Kentucky Derby run at a distance of 1 1⁄2 miles, as part of a field of fourteen; the 4-5 favorite was Runnymede, a multiple stakes winner, while Apollo was grouped with two other horses as a field entry at 10-1. Apollo worked his way up to sixth after a mile. Runnymede was in third, positioned on the outside to avoid traffic. Turning into the stretch, Runnymede made his move and took the lead in deep stretch, looking the winner. However, Apollo closed with a "cyclonic rush" and caught up in the final strides, winning by half a length; the two horses met up again just six days in the Clark Stakes, with Runnymede winning "in a canter" while Apollo finished third.
Runnymede and Belmont Stakes winner Forester were retroactively acknowledged as the co-champion three-year-olds of 1882. Apollo had a solid season himself, winning a total of ten races from 21 starts and only finishing out of the money once. In addition to the Derby and his maiden win in the Cottrill Stakes, he won the Coal, St. Leger and Montgomery Stakes; as a four-year-old in 1883, Apollo started 30 times, winning fourteen of them, including the Merchant Stakes. He finished second seven times and had six third-place finishes. In September alone, he won seven consecutive races. Apollo was retired from racing, he was given to a friend of Morris' wife. He died in November 1887 of lockjaw; the pedigree shown here assumes. Longshot Apollo wins the Kentucky Derby, 1882
Philip Haas was an American inventor and entrepreneur who lived in Dayton, Ohio. Altogether, he received 31 patents in connection with innovations in the field of plumbing, his work was instrumental to the development of the modern toilet and was featured in the 2004 book Ingenious Inventions How They Work and How They Came to Be. Haas was born in Michelstadt, Hesse, Germany on June 7, 1874, his parents were Michael Johann Haas, from the nearby village of Vielbrunn, Albertina Brand, from Kleinheubach in Bavaria. He was the fifth of ten known children; the family emigrated to the United States in 1888. The family settled in Dayton, which was, at the time, a center of innovation and invention. Haas apprenticed as a plumber shortly after his arrival. On October 25, 1895, he became a naturalized citizen of the United States in the Probate Court of Dayton. On August 26, 1900, 26-year-old Philip Haas married 23-year-old Catherine "Katie" Steiger at St. John's Evangelical Lutheran Church in Dayton; the couple had six daughters.
In order of birth, they were: Albertina Anna Haas, Marie K Haas, Helen Anna Haas, Alma Helen Haas, Esther Haas, Martha Nancy Haas. Over the course of his career, Haas would receive 31 patents. All of these, in one way or another, associated devices; the toilet was not the invention of a single person. It evolved into its present form through contributions from various sources; the Romans had toilets. In the 1590s, Sir John Harington contrived a crude flush toilet. However, Haas' efforts more so than those of any other one person, helped transform the toilet from a notoriously unreliable device into the modern commode. Most of Haas' early work as an inventor focused on the improvement of frost-proof toilets, it was in this field that, on February 10, 1903, he was issued his first two patents, numbers 720,021 and 720,022. At the time, many toilets were located in unheated spaces, such as warehouses. During periods of cold weather, bursting of pipes and stoppages were constant problems. Frost-free toilets had no water in the bowl and relied on a water supply from below the frost line in the soil.
Haas' innovations in this field would provide few lasting benefits. That is because, over the next few decades, frost-free toilets faded into obscurity as sanitary facilities were moved within the envelopes of heated buildings. On June 23, 1911, Haas applied for a patent for the detachable flush rim toilet; the key feature was a ring that, through downward pointing perforations, discharged multiple jets of water beneath the rim of the bowl. The object of the invention, he stated, was to "insure the thorough washing of every portion of the hopper or bowl from its highest point, adapted to concentrate a powerful jet of water upon that portion of the bowl most susceptible to soiling." On August 18, 1914 the US Patent Office issued patent number 1,107,515 for the flush rim toilet. Haas focused considerable energy on improving the commercial flush valve; these efforts resulted in a series of patents issued throughout the late early 1920s. On June 5, 1924 he submitted a patent application for a hydraulic flush valve with many similarities to commercial fixtures in use today.
It is characterized by a metal toggle knob protruding from a socket in the side of a cylindrical valve. In his application, Haas indicated "the construction of the valve mechanism is simplified, rendered more efficient and certain of operation, whereby the valve may be installed and adjusted to accommodate variations in the pressure of water available in the connected supply...." The design is incorporated in Patent 1,614,468. Haas' designs in this area have been cited in numerous patent applications over the intervening years. From 1924 forward, Haas focused exclusively on improving the internal workings of the water closet for toilets in homes and light commercial settings, his first endeavors in this regard dealt with inlet valve mechanisms. However, his efforts soon led him to design and perfect an entire system, leading to at least six patents; the last of these, number 1,660,922, issued posthumously. Modern toilets incorporate many elements of Haas' water closet designs. Philip Haas went into the plumbing business with William.
The 1898-1900 Dayton City Directory listed the business under the heading "Philip Haas." The brothers subsequently operated as the William Haas Company. This concern grew eventually branching into commercial contracting and parts supply. In 1907, the brothers agreed to an amicable separation of their business interests. William continued in business as a contractor and supplier, while Philip went into business as a plumbing specialties manufacturer, he incorporated under the Philip Haas Company, moved his operations into a substantial facility at 123 North Webster Street in Dayton. Haas' factory was damaged in the Great Dayton Flood of March, 1913, which inundated and destroyed large portions of the city. A trade journal published in April of that year indicated: "The plant of the Philip Haas Co. Dayton, manufacturer of the Haas Frost-proof Water Closets and other specialties, was damaged by the floods to the extent of $5,000; the plant was under water to the depth of 16 feet, but the company expects to be in active operation again by April 20.