Pennsylvania the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania, is a state located in the northeastern and Mid-Atlantic regions of the United States. The Appalachian Mountains run through its middle; the Commonwealth is bordered by Delaware to the southeast, Maryland to the south, West Virginia to the southwest, Ohio to the west, Lake Erie and the Canadian province of Ontario to the northwest, New York to the north, New Jersey to the east. Pennsylvania is the 33rd-largest state by area, the 6th-most populous state according to the most recent official U. S. Census count in 2010, it is the 9th-most densely populated of the 50 states. Pennsylvania's two most populous cities are Philadelphia, Pittsburgh; the state capital and its 10th largest city is Harrisburg. Pennsylvania has 140 miles of waterfront along the Delaware Estuary; the state is one of the 13 original founding states of the United States. Part of Pennsylvania, together with the present State of Delaware, had earlier been organized as the Colony of New Sweden.
It was the second state to ratify the United States Constitution, on December 12, 1787. Independence Hall, where the United States Declaration of Independence and United States Constitution were drafted, is located in the state's largest city of Philadelphia. During the American Civil War, the Battle of Gettysburg was fought in the south central region of the state. Valley Forge near Philadelphia was General Washington's headquarters during the bitter winter of 1777–78. Pennsylvania is 170 miles north to south and 283 miles east to west. Of a total 46,055 square miles, 44,817 square miles are land, 490 square miles are inland waters, 749 square miles are waters in Lake Erie, it is the 33rd-largest state in the United States. Pennsylvania has 51 miles of coastline along Lake Erie and 57 miles of shoreline along the Delaware Estuary. Of the original Thirteen Colonies, Pennsylvania is the only state that does not border the Atlantic Ocean; the boundaries of the state are the Mason–Dixon line to the south, the Twelve-Mile Circle on the Pennsylvania-Delaware border, the Delaware River to the east, 80° 31' W to the west and the 42° N to the north, with the exception of a short segment on the western end, where a triangle extends north to Lake Erie.
Cities include Philadelphia, Reading and Lancaster in the southeast, Pittsburgh in the southwest, the tri-cities of Allentown and Easton in the central east. The northeast includes the former anthracite coal mining cities of Scranton, Wilkes-Barre and Hazleton. Erie is located in the northwest. State College serves the central region while Williamsport serves the commonwealth's north-central region as does Chambersburg the south-central region, with York and the state capital Harrisburg on the Susquehanna River in the east-central region of the Commonwealth and Altoona and Johnstown in the west-central region; the state has five geographical regions, namely the Allegheny Plateau and Valley, Atlantic Coastal Plain and the Erie Plain. New York Ontario Maryland Delaware West Virginia New Jersey Ohio Pennsylvania's diverse topography produces a variety of climates, though the entire state experiences cold winters and humid summers. Straddling two major zones, the majority of the state, with the exception of the southeastern corner, has a humid continental climate.
The southern portion of the state has a humid subtropical climate. The largest city, has some characteristics of the humid subtropical climate that covers much of Delaware and Maryland to the south. Summers are hot and humid. Moving toward the mountainous interior of the state, the winter climate becomes colder, the number of cloudy days increases, snowfall amounts are greater. Western areas of the state locations near Lake Erie, can receive over 100 inches of snowfall annually, the entire state receives plentiful precipitation throughout the year; the state may be subject to severe weather from spring through summer into fall. Tornadoes occur annually in the state, sometimes in large numbers, such as 30 recorded tornadoes in 2011; as of 1600, the tribes living in Pennsylvania were the Algonquian Lenape, the Iroquoian Susquehannock & Petun and the Siouan Monongahela Culture, who may have been the same as a little known tribe called the Calicua, or Cali. Other tribes who entered the region during the colonial era were the Trockwae, Saponi, Nanticoke, Conoy Piscataway, Iroquois Confederacy—possibly among others.
Other tribes, like the Erie, may have once held some land in Pennsylvania, but no longer did so by the year 1600. Both the Dutch and the English claimed both sides of the Delaware River as part of their colonial lands in America; the Dutch were the first to take possession. By June 3, 1631, the Dutch had begun settling the Delmarva Peninsula by establishing the Zwaanendael Colony on the site of present-day Lewes, Delaware. In 1638, Sweden established the New Sweden Colony, in the region of Fort Christina, on the site of present-day Wilmington, Delaware. New Sweden claimed and, for the most part, controlled the lower Delaware River region (parts of present-day Delaware, New Jersey, Pe
Philadelphia, sometimes known colloquially as Philly, is the largest city in the U. S. state and Commonwealth of Pennsylvania, the sixth-most populous U. S. city, with a 2017 census-estimated population of 1,580,863. Since 1854, the city has been coterminous with Philadelphia County, the most populous county in Pennsylvania and the urban core of the eighth-largest U. S. metropolitan statistical area, with over 6 million residents as of 2017. Philadelphia is the economic and cultural anchor of the greater Delaware Valley, located along the lower Delaware and Schuylkill Rivers, within the Northeast megalopolis; the Delaware Valley's population of 7.2 million ranks it as the eighth-largest combined statistical area in the United States. William Penn, an English Quaker, founded the city in 1682 to serve as capital of the Pennsylvania Colony. Philadelphia played an instrumental role in the American Revolution as a meeting place for the Founding Fathers of the United States, who signed the Declaration of Independence in 1776 at the Second Continental Congress, the Constitution at the Philadelphia Convention of 1787.
Several other key events occurred in Philadelphia during the Revolutionary War including the First Continental Congress, the preservation of the Liberty Bell, the Battle of Germantown, the Siege of Fort Mifflin. Philadelphia was one of the nation's capitals during the revolution, served as temporary U. S. capital while Washington, D. C. was under construction. In the 19th century, Philadelphia became a railroad hub; the city grew from an influx of European immigrants, most of whom came from Ireland and Germany—the three largest reported ancestry groups in the city as of 2015. In the early 20th century, Philadelphia became a prime destination for African Americans during the Great Migration after the Civil War, as well as Puerto Ricans; the city's population doubled from one million to two million people between 1890 and 1950. The Philadelphia area's many universities and colleges make it a top study destination, as the city has evolved into an educational and economic hub. According to the Bureau of Economic Analysis, the Philadelphia area had a gross domestic product of US$445 billion in 2017, the eighth-largest metropolitan economy in the United States.
Philadelphia is the center of economic activity in Pennsylvania and is home to five Fortune 1000 companies. The Philadelphia skyline is expanding, with a market of 81,900 commercial properties in 2016, including several nationally prominent skyscrapers. Philadelphia has more outdoor murals than any other American city. Fairmount Park, when combined with the adjacent Wissahickon Valley Park in the same watershed, is one of the largest contiguous urban park areas in the United States; the city is known for its arts, culture and colonial history, attracting 42 million domestic tourists in 2016 who spent US$6.8 billion, generating an estimated $11 billion in total economic impact in the city and surrounding four counties of Pennsylvania. Philadelphia has emerged as a biotechnology hub. Philadelphia is the birthplace of the United States Marine Corps, is the home of many U. S. firsts, including the first library, medical school, national capital, stock exchange and business school. Philadelphia contains 67 National Historic Landmarks and the World Heritage Site of Independence Hall.
The city became a member of the Organization of World Heritage Cities in 2015, as the first World Heritage City in the United States. Although Philadelphia is undergoing gentrification, the city maintains mitigation strategies to minimize displacement of homeowners in gentrifying neighborhoods. Before Europeans arrived, the Philadelphia area was home to the Lenape Indians in the village of Shackamaxon; the Lenape are a Native American tribe and First Nations band government. They are called Delaware Indians, their historical territory was along the Delaware River watershed, western Long Island, the Lower Hudson Valley. Most Lenape were pushed out of their Delaware homeland during the 18th century by expanding European colonies, exacerbated by losses from intertribal conflicts. Lenape communities were weakened by newly introduced diseases smallpox, violent conflict with Europeans. Iroquois people fought the Lenape. Surviving Lenape moved west into the upper Ohio River basin; the American Revolutionary War and United States' independence pushed them further west.
In the 1860s, the United States government sent most Lenape remaining in the eastern United States to the Indian Territory under the Indian removal policy. In the 21st century, most Lenape reside in Oklahoma, with some communities living in Wisconsin, in their traditional homelands. Europeans came to the Delaware Valley in the early 17th century, with the first settlements founded by the Dutch, who in 1623 built Fort Nassau on the Delaware River opposite the Schuylkill River in what is now Brooklawn, New Jersey; the Dutch considered the entire Delaware River valley to be part of their New Netherland colony. In 1638, Swedish settlers led by renegade Dutch established the colony of New Sweden at Fort Christina and spread out in the valley. In 1644, New Sweden supported the Susquehannocks in their military defeat of the English colony of Maryland. In 1648, the Dutch built Fort Beversreede on the west bank of the Delaware, south of the Schuylkill near the present-day Eastwick neighborhood, to reassert their dominion over the area.
The Swedes responded by building Fort Nya Korsholm, or New Korsholm, named after a town in Finland with a Swedish majority. In 1655, a
Kittanning was an 18th-century Native American village in the Ohio Country, located on the Allegheny River at present-day Kittanning, Pennsylvania. The village was at the western terminus of the Kittanning Path, an Indian trail that provided a route across the Alleghenies between the Ohio and Susquehanna river basins; the village, inhabited by Delaware and Shawnee Indians, was most the largest such village on the western side of the Alleghenies at the time, having an estimated 300–400 residents in 1756. Kittanning was settled in 1724 by Indians who had migrated from eastern Pennsylvania as white settlement expanded; the name Kithanink means'on the main river' in the Lenape language, from kit-'big' + hane'mountain river' + -ink. "The main river" is a Lenape epithet for the Ohio, considered as all one river. During the French and Indian War, Kittanning was used as a staging point for raids by Delaware and Shawnee warriors against British colonists at Fort Granville in the Juniata River valley in central Pennsylvania.
In response, Lieutenant Colonel John Armstrong led Pennsylvania militiamen on the Kittanning Expedition, which destroyed the village on about 8 September 1756. McConnell, Michael N. A Country Between: The Upper Ohio Valley and Its Peoples, 1724–1774. Lincoln, Nebraska: University of Nebraska Press, 1992. ISBN 0-8032-3142-3
University of Pittsburgh Press
The University of Pittsburgh Press is a scholarly publishing house and a major American university press, part of the University of Pittsburgh. The university and the press are located in Pennsylvania, in the United States; the Press publishes several series in the humanities and social sciences, including Illuminations—Cultural Formations of the Americas. The Press is known for literary publishing its Pitt Poetry Series, the Agnes Lynch Starrett Poetry Prize, the Drue Heinz Literature Prize; the press publishes the winner of the annual Donald Hall Prize, awarded by the Association of Writers & Writing Programs and the winner of the Cave Canem Poetry Prize. One of its perennial bestselling titles is Thomas Bell's historical novel Out of This Furnace, reissued by the press in 1976; the Press was established in September 1936 by University of Pittsburgh Chancellor John Gabbert Bowman. Paul Mellon committed the majority of the necessary startup funding from the A. W. Mellon Educational and Charitable Trust.
Other contributors were the Buhl Foundation, the Historical Society of Western Pennsylvania, the university itself. The first full-time director of the Press was Agnes Lynch Starrett, followed by Frederick A. Hetzel, Cynthia Miller, Peter Kracht. In recent years the Press was housed on the fifth floor of the Eureka Building on Pitt's main campus in the Oakland section of Pittsburgh, but moved into a new the university's Thomas Boulevard Library Resource Facility in the Point Breeze section of Pittsburgh in July 2013; the University of Pittsburgh Press is a Charter Member of the Association of American University Presses. In 2008, the Press began making out-of-print scholarly books available on-line at the University of Pittsburgh Press Digital Editions collection through the University Library System’s D-Scribe Digital Publishing program. By 2010, the University of Pittsburgh Press Digital Editions included more than 750 titles, more than 350 out-of-print titles have been reissued in paperback format as Prologue Editions.
The Press is collaborating with the University Library System on a new online scholarly journals program. Most of the journals are open access and published in electronic format only, while a few titles are available in print editions through the Espresso Book Machine in the University Book Center. In 2010, the Press received major funding from the A. W. Mellon Foundation to develop a history of science list and expand its existing philosophy of science list, working in collaboration with the University's History and Philosophy of Science Department and World History Center; this new program will lead to a 50% increase in the number of new titles published by the Press each year. Alberts, Robert C.. Pitt: The Story of the University of Pittsburgh 1787-1987. Pittsburgh: University of Pittsburgh Press. ISBN 0-8229-1150-7; the Pittsburgh Reader: Seventy-Five Years of Books about Pittsburgh. Pittsburgh: University of Pittsburgh Press. 2011. University of Pittsburgh Press website. About the University of Pittsburgh Press.
Retrieved January 10, 2006. University of Pittsburgh Press Homepage
Bedford County, Pennsylvania
Bedford County is a county located in the U. S. state of Pennsylvania. As of the 2010 census, the population was 49,762; the county seat is Bedford. In 1750 Robert MacRay, a Scots-Irish immigrant, opened the first trading post in Raystown on the land, now Bedford County; the early Anglo-American settlers had a difficult time dealing with raids from Native Americans. In 1754 fierce fighting erupted as Native Americans became allied with the British or French in the North American front, known as the French and Indian War, of the Seven Years' War between those nations in Europe. In 1759, after the capture of Fort Duquesne in Allegheny County, on the Allegheny and Monongahela rivers, English colonists built a road between the fort to the newly built Fort Bedford in Raystown; the English defeated the French in the war and took over their territories in North America east of the Mississippi River. Treaties with the Indians opened more land for future peaceful settlement; this road improved on ancient Indian trails.
In years it was widened and paved as "Forbes Road". When the Pennsylvania Turnpike was built, this interstate toll road became the main highway through Bedford County. Bedford County was created on 9 March 1771 from part of Cumberland County and named in honor of Fort Bedford; the 1767 Mason-Dixon Line had stabilized the southern border with Maryland. In the aftermath of the American Revolution, the population increased due to emigration. Within a lifetime Old Bedford County was reduced from its original boundaries. Huntingdon County was created on 20 September 1787 from the north part of Bedford County, plus an addition of territory on the east from Cumberland County. Somerset County was created from part of Bedford County on 17 April 1795. Centre was created on 13 February 1800 from parts of Huntingdon, Lycoming and Northumberland counties. Cambria County was created on 26 March 1804 from parts of Bedford and Somerset Counties. Blair County was created on February 1846 from parts of Huntingdon and Bedford Counties.
Fulton County was created on 19 April 1850 from part of Bedford County, setting the county at its current boundaries. The land was developed into lush farms with woodlands, it was developed as a trading center on the way to Pittsburgh and farther west of Pennsylvania. In 1794 President George Washington came to the county in response to the Whiskey Rebellion. In the late 19th century, the Bedford Springs Hotel became an important site for wealthy vacationers, it was built near natural springs, important to the Native Americans for hundreds of years. During the administration of President James Buchanan, he moved much of his administration to the hotel, which became the informal summer White House; the U. S. Supreme Court met at the hotel once, it was the only time. During the late 19th century, the county had a population boom, with the number of people doubling between 1870 and 1890. Railroads constructed through the town connected the county with the mining industry; the story of the Lost Children of the Alleghenies originates from Blue Knob State Park in the county.
According to the U. S. Census Bureau, the county has a total area of 1,017 square miles, of which 1,012 square miles is land and 4.6 square miles is water. Evitts Mountain Morrison Cove Tussey Mountain Blue Knob, highest mountain in the county at 3,120 feet Blair County Huntingdon County Fulton County Allegany County, Maryland Somerset County Cambria County Bedford County is situated along the western border of the Ridge and Valley physiographic province, characterized by folded and faulted sedimentary rocks of early to middle Paleozoic age; the northwestern border of the county is at the Allegheny Front, a geological boundary between the Ridge and Valley Province and the Allegheny Plateau. The stratigraphic record of sedimentary rocks within the county spans from the Cambrian Warrior Formation to the Pennsylvanian Conemaugh Group. No igneous or metamorphic rocks of any kind exist within the county; the primary mountains within the county extend from the southern border with Maryland to the northeast into Blair County, are held up by the Silurian Tuscarora Formation, made of quartz sandstone and conglomerate.
Chestnut Ridge is a broad anticline held up by the Devonian Ridgeley Member of the Old Port Formation made of sandstone and conglomerate. Broad Top, located north of Breezewood, is a plateau of flat-lying rocks that are stratigraphically higher, thus younger, than most of the other rocks within the county. Broad Top extends into Huntingdon County to Fulton County to the east; the Raystown Branch of the Juniata River is the main drainage in the northern two-thirds of the county. The river flows to the east through the mountains within the county through several water gaps caused by a group of faults trending east–west through the central part of the county; the river turns north and flows into Raystown Lake in Huntingdon County. The southern third of the county is drained by several tributaries of the Potomac River. Both the Potomac and Juniata rivers are part of the Chesapeake Bay Watershed. Several limestone quarries exist in Bedford County, most of which are owned and operated by New Enterprise Stone and Lime Company.
Clarion County, Pennsylvania
Clarion County is a county located in the U. S. state of Pennsylvania. As of the 2010 census, the population was 39,988, its county seat is Clarion. The county was formed on March 1839, from parts of Venango and Armstrong counties. Clarion County is defined as part of the Pittsburgh media market. According to the U. S. Census Bureau, the county has a total area of 610 square miles, of which 601 square miles is land and 9.0 square miles is water. Forest County Jefferson County Armstrong County Butler County Venango County Part of Cook Forest State Park is in Clarion County; the Clarion County Park is located in Paint Township. Clarion County Veterans Memorial Park is located near the Clarion County Courthouse in the center of the Borough of Clarion. I-80 US 322 PA 28 PA 36 PA 58 PA 66 PA 68 PA 157 PA 208 PA 338 PA 368 PA 478 PA 536 PA 861 As of the census of 2000, there were 41,765 people, 16,052 households, 10,738 families residing in the county; the population density was 69 people per square mile.
There were 19,426 housing units at an average density of 32 per square mile. The racial makeup of the county was 98.16% White, 0.79% Black or African American, 0.11% Native American, 0.34% Asian, 0.08% from other races, 0.52% from two or more races. 0.41% of the population were Hispanic or Latino of any race. 45.0 % were of 10.3 % American, 9.8 % Irish, 6.7 % Italian and 6.2 % English ancestry. There were 16,052 households out of which 28.60% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 54.90% were married couples living together, 8.40% had a female householder with no husband present, 33.10% were non-families. 26.00% of all households were made up of individuals and 11.30% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.46 and the average family size was 2.95. In the county, the population was spread out with 21.60% under the age of 18, 15.40% from 18 to 24, 25.20% from 25 to 44, 22.70% from 45 to 64, 15.20% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 36 years.
For every 100 females there were 93.30 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 90.40 males. Wayne Brosius. Miller, district judge Mark T. Aaron; the Pennsylvania Department of Education projects that they will continue to experience declining enrollment through 2019. A new school district composed of Clarion Area School District, Clarion-Limestone Area School District and North Clarion County School District would have a student population of 2500 with declining enrollment projected in all three former districts through 2019. A new district composed of Union School District, Keystone School District and adding Perry Township and Richland Township would have a student population under 2000 pupils. Consolidation would bring the elimination of administrator positions; this would assist the district residents with the rising school administrator and teachers' pension costs by controlling the need to raise taxes. Over the next 10 years, rural Pennsylvania school enrollment is projected to decrease 8 percent.
The most significant enrollment decline is projected to be in western Pennsylvania, where rural school districts may have a 16 percent decline. More than 40 percent of elementary schools and more than 60 percent of secondary schools in western Pennsylvania are projected to experience significant enrollment decreases; as the enrollment declines, per pupil administrative costs of the schools will continue to rise. Pennsylvania has one of the highest numbers of school districts in the nation. In Pennsylvania, 80% of the school districts serve student populations under 5,000, 40% serve less than 2,000. Less than 95 of Pennsylvania's 501 school districts have enrollment below 1250 students, in 2007; this results in not enough course diversity. In a survey of 88 superintendents of small districts, 42% of the 49 respondents stated that they thought consolidation would save money without closing any schools. Property taxes in Pennsylvania are high on a national scale. According to the Tax Foundation, Pennsylvania ranked 11th in the U.
S. in 2008 in terms of property taxes paid as a percentage of home value and 12th in the country in terms of property taxes as a percentage of income. Public school districts and private schools in the county are served by Riverview Intermediate Unit IU6 which provides special education and professional development services. Clarion County Career Center, located along State Route 66 in Marianne. Alexander Amish School - Venus Bear Run School - Knox Christs Dominion Academy - Summerville Clarion Center School - Clarion County Corner - Knox Deer View School - Mayport Immaculate Conception School - Clarion Little Bird Preschool - New Bethlehem Meadow View Amish School - Knox New Bethlehem Mennonite School - New Bethlehem Shady Nook Amish School - Sligo St Josephs School - Lucinda Zacheral Amish School -
Supreme Court of Pennsylvania
The Supreme Court of Pennsylvania is the highest court in the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania's Unified Judicial System. It claims to be the oldest appellate court in the United States, a claim, disputed by the Massachusetts Supreme Judicial Court; the Supreme Court of Pennsylvania began in 1684 as the Provincial Court, casual references to it as the "Supreme Court" of Pennsylvania were made official in 1722 upon its reorganization as an entity separate from the control of the royal governor. Today, the Supreme Court of Pennsylvania maintains a discretionary docket, meaning that the Court may choose which cases it accepts, with the exception of mandatory death penalty appeals, certain appeals from the original jurisdiction of the Commonwealth Court; this discretion allows the Court to wield powerful influence on the formation and interpretation of Pennsylvania law. The original Pennsylvania constitutions, drafted by William Penn, established a Provincial Court under the control of his British governors.
The General Assembly, espoused the principle of separation of powers and formally called for a third branch of government starting with the 1701 Judiciary Bill. In 1722, the appointed British governor needed the House to raise revenues. House leaders agreed to raise taxes in return for an independent Supreme Court; the Supreme Court of Pennsylvania predates the United States Supreme Court by more than 100 years. Interpreting the Pennsylvania Constitution, it was the first independent Supreme Court in the United States to claim the power to declare laws made by an elected legislative body unconstitutional; the court meets in Philadelphia and Harrisburg, Pennsylvania. The Pennsylvania Supreme Court consists of each elected to ten year terms. Supreme Court judicial candidates may run on party tickets; the justice with the longest continuous service on the court automatically becomes Chief Justice. Justices must step down from the Supreme Court when they reach the age of 75, but they may continue to serve part-time as "senior justices" on panels of the Commonwealth's lower appellate courts until they reach 78, the age of mandatory retirement.
Prior to 2002, judicial candidates in Pennsylvania were prohibited from expressing their views on disputed legal or political issues. However, after a similar law in Minnesota was struck down as unconstitutional, the Pennsylvania rules were amended, judicial candidates may now express political viewpoints as long as they do not "commit or appear to commit the candidate with respect to cases, controversies or issues that are to come before the court." After the ten-year term expires, a statewide yes or no vote for retention is conducted. If the judge is retained, he/she serves another ten-year term. If the judge is not retained, the governor, subject to the approval of the State Senate, appoints a temporary replacement until a special election can be held; as of 2005, only one judge has failed to win retention. Justice Russell M. Nigro received a majority of no votes in the election of 2005 and was replaced by Justice Cynthia Baldwin, appointed by Governor Rendell in 2005. Only one Supreme Court Justice, Rolf Larsen, has been removed from office by impeachment.
In 1994, the State House of Representatives handed down articles of impeachment consisting of seven counts of misconduct. A majority of the State Senate voted against Larsen in five of the seven counts but only one charge garnered the two-thirds majority needed to convict. Under the 1874 Constitution and until the Pennsylvania state constitution of 1968, Supreme Court justices were elected to 21 year terms. At the time, it was the longest term of any elected office in the United States. Superior Court of Pennsylvania Commonwealth Court of Pennsylvania Pennsylvania Unified Court System page on the Supreme Court