Tooradin is a town in Victoria, Australia, 57 km south east from the central business district of Melbourne. Its local government area is the City of Casey. At the 2016 census, Tooradin had a population of 1,568. Tooradin was settled by the Western Port indigenous people called the Bunurong, they had their traditional lands for many thousands of years. The explorer William Hovell visited the area in 1827, he saw evidence of Van Diemens Land sealers had left at their temporary camps on the foreshore of Western Port Bay; the sealers had been operating since the early 1800s. In 1839 saw settlers with their cattle establish runs and settle in the area. Work commenced at improving drainage for pasture; the township was first surveyed in 1854. Tooradin has always been a fishing village; the Post Office opened on 21 May 1877. The railway past by north of the town by 2 1/2 miles in 1885. A station was created and the fishing industry relied on the railway to transport freshly caught fish to Melbourne; the railways transported local produce, Cattle and crops were raised on the land and sent to market.
The town has some attractions such as Sawtell's Inlet, an old historic weatherboard Fishermans Cottage. It is a popular stopping place for people travelling to Phillip Island; the town in conjunction with neighbouring township Dalmore has an Australian Rules football team competing in the South East Football Netball League. Tooradin railway station was situated on the South Gippsland railway corridor that operated to its terminus at Yarram in the early 1980s and Leongatha in the mid 1990s. A V/Line road coach service replaced the rail service to Leongatha on July 24, 1993, running between Melbourne and Yarram. However, since the closure of the South Gippsland rail line—with the exception of the locally run tourist railway between Nyora and Leongatha by the Kennett Victorian government on December 14, 1994, the South and West Gippsland Transport Group represented by the local council are campaigning for the rail services to be reinstated beyond the current terminus at Cranbourne by the 2020s, promised by Bracks government in 1999.
The town has a supermarket, a pharmacy, a medical centre, a bank, a real estate agent, a bakery, a newsagent, a variety of take away stores and gift shops. Tooradin has a number of restaurants, including Wings and Fins, Tides, as well as bistro style dining at the Tooradin & District Sports Club. Tooradin Airfield is a owned field located 4 km East of Tooradin town centre, on the South Gippsland Highway, it is home to Commando Skydivers, Tooradin Flying School and Fins Restaurant. The airfield is situated on 27 hectares of land and has one bitumen runway of 950m with lighting, one grass strip of 360m and a 310m gravel strip. There's a derelict freighter ship behind the runway, can be seen on the Gippsland highway, the ship is the Edwina May. Tooradin railway station www.tooradinvillage.com.au
Melbourne is the capital and most populous city of the Australian state of Victoria, the second most populous city in Australia and Oceania. Its name refers to an urban agglomeration of 9,992.5 km2, comprising a metropolitan area with 31 municipalities, is the common name for its city centre. The city occupies much of the coastline of Port Phillip bay and spreads into the hinterlands towards the Dandenong and Macedon ranges, Mornington Peninsula and Yarra Valley, it has a population of 4.9 million, its inhabitants are referred to as "Melburnians". The city was founded on 30 August 1835, in the then-British colony of New South Wales, by free settlers from the colony of Van Diemen’s Land, it was incorporated as a Crown settlement in 1837 and named in honour of the British Prime Minister, William Lamb, 2nd Viscount Melbourne. In 1851, four years after Queen Victoria declared it a city, Melbourne became the capital of the new colony of Victoria. In the wake of the 1850s Victorian gold rush, the city entered a lengthy boom period that, by the late 1880s, had transformed it into one of the world's largest and wealthiest metropolises.
After the federation of Australia in 1901, it served as interim seat of government of the new nation until Canberra became the permanent capital in 1927. Today, it is a leading financial centre in the Asia-Pacific region and ranks 15th in the Global Financial Centres Index; the city is home to many of the best-known cultural institutions in the nation, such as the Melbourne Cricket Ground, the National Gallery of Victoria and the World Heritage-listed Royal Exhibition Building. It is the birthplace of Australian impressionism, Australian rules football, the Australian film and television industries and Australian contemporary dance. More it has been recognised as a UNESCO City of Literature and a global centre for street art, live music and theatre, it is the host city of annual international events such as the Australian Grand Prix, the Australian Open and the Melbourne Cup, has hosted the 1956 Summer Olympics and the 2006 Commonwealth Games. Due to it rating in entertainment and sport, as well as education, health care and development, the EIU ranks it the second most liveable city in the world.
The main airport serving the city is Melbourne Airport, the second busiest in Australia, Australia's busiest seaport the Port of Melbourne. Its main metropolitan rail terminus is Flinders Street station and its main regional rail and road coach terminus is Southern Cross station, it has the most extensive freeway network in Australia and the largest urban tram network in the world. Indigenous Australians have lived in the Melbourne area for an estimated 31,000 to 40,000 years; when European settlers arrived in the 19th-century, under 2,000 hunter-gatherers from three regional tribes—the Wurundjeri and Wathaurong—inhabited the area. It was an important meeting place for the clans of the Kulin nation alliance and a vital source of food and water; the first British settlement in Victoria part of the penal colony of New South Wales, was established by Colonel David Collins in October 1803, at Sullivan Bay, near present-day Sorrento. The following year, due to a perceived lack of resources, these settlers relocated to Van Diemen's Land and founded the city of Hobart.
It would be 30 years. In May and June 1835, John Batman, a leading member of the Port Phillip Association in Van Diemen's Land, explored the Melbourne area, claimed to have negotiated a purchase of 600,000 acres with eight Wurundjeri elders. Batman selected a site on the northern bank of the Yarra River, declaring that "this will be the place for a village" before returning to Van Diemen's Land. In August 1835, another group of Vandemonian settlers arrived in the area and established a settlement at the site of the current Melbourne Immigration Museum. Batman and his group arrived the following month and the two groups agreed to share the settlement known by the native name of Dootigala. Batman's Treaty with the Aborigines was annulled by Richard Bourke, the Governor of New South Wales, with compensation paid to members of the association. In 1836, Bourke declared the city the administrative capital of the Port Phillip District of New South Wales, commissioned the first plan for its urban layout, the Hoddle Grid, in 1837.
Known as Batmania, the settlement was named Melbourne in 1837 after the British Prime Minister, William Lamb, 2nd Viscount Melbourne, whose seat was Melbourne Hall in the market town of Melbourne, Derbyshire. That year, the settlement's general post office opened with that name. Between 1836 and 1842, Victorian Aboriginal groups were dispossessed of their land by European settlers. By January 1844, there were said to be 675 Aborigines resident in squalid camps in Melbourne; the British Colonial Office appointed five Aboriginal Protectors for the Aborigines of Victoria, in 1839, however their work was nullified by a land policy that favoured squatters who took possession of Aboriginal lands. By 1845, fewer than 240 wealthy Europeans held all the pastoral licences issued in Victoria and became a powerful political and economic force in Victoria for generations to come. Letters patent of Queen Victoria, issued on 25 June 1847, declared Melbourne a city. On 1 July 1851, the Port Phillip District separated from New South Wales to become the Colony of Victoria, with Melbourne as its capital.
The discovery of gold in Victoria in mid-1851 sparked a
USS Wyandotte (1853)
USS Wyandotte USS Western Port, was a steamer acquired by the Navy as a gunboat for the Paraguay Expedition in 1858. When the crisis of the American Civil War occurred, she operated in support of the Union Navy blockade of Confederate waterways. Western Port – a former merchant steamer built at Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, in 1853 – was chartered by the United States Department of the Navy in the autumn of 1858 to participate in an American naval expedition up the Paraná River to Asunción, Paraguay. After the vessel had been fitted out as a gunboat, she was commissioned as USS Western Port on 27 October 1858, Commander Thomas T. Hunter in command. Western Port soon sailed for South American waters and – at Montevideo, Uruguay, – joined the task force commanded by Flag Officer William Branford Shubrick, assembled to support the negotiations of United States Commissioner to Paraguay, James Butler Bowlin. President of the United States James Buchanan had appointed Bowlin to seek redress for the shelling of the U.
S. Navy sidewheel gunboat USS Water Witch in 1855, which had resulted in the death of the American ship's helmsman; the Paraguay expedition got underway from Montevideo on 30 December 1858 and ascended the Rio de la Plata, the Paraná River, the Paraguay River. She arrived off Asunción on 25 January 1859, Bowlin went ashore to conduct negotiations which succeeded in winning an apology to the United States and a large indemnity for survivors of the dead helmsman. Bowling signed a new commercial treaty between the United States and Paraguay. After the conclusion of the negotiations, Western Port returned to the United States and was decommissioned on 28 May 1859, she was renamed Wyandotte. After repairs, Wyandotte was assigned to the Home Squadron, she spent much of the next year cruising – for the most part in the Caribbean – in an effort to suppress the slave trade. On 9 May 1860, Wyandotte captured the barque William – a slave ship carrying 570 Africans at the time of her capture – off the Isle of Pines near the south coast of Cuba.
She took her prize to Florida and arrived at Key West, Florida, on 12 May 1860. The ship landed the slaves on 16 May, turned the prize over to a United States Marshall on 22 May, soon resumed her cruising; as the threat of secession of the Southern United States grew in the mid-and late autumn of 1860, Wyandotte guarded and reprovisioned United States Government military installations along the United States Gulf Coast. On 16 November 1860, she was ordered to protect Fort Taylor at Key West, while the steamer USS Mohawk watched Fort Jefferson; these actions saved Key West for the Union, permitting its wartime use as the home port of the U. S. Navy's Gulf Blockading Squadron. In mid-December 1860, Wyandotte steamed to Pensacola and entered the drydock at Pensacola Navy Yard to have her fouled bottom scraped and to receive minor repairs, she was refloated on 9 January 1861 and refused to surrender when Confederate forces took over the navy yard three days later. Instead, she towed. Wyandotte remained in performing valuable observation and communication duty.
She transported troops from Fort Barrancas, Florida, to Fort Pickens on 10 February 1861 and patrolled the inner shore of Santa Rosa Island, Florida, to prevent Confederate soldiers from attacking Fort Pickens by land. Wyandotte took part in the nighttime reinforcement of Fort Pickens on 12 April 1861, the day the American Civil War began with the Confederate shelling of Fort Sumter in South Carolina. With the outbreak of hostilities, Wyandotte joined the Gulf Blockading Squadron on 17 May 1861. After carrying out patrol and transport assignments, she proceeded to the New York Navy Yard in Brooklyn, New York, for major repairs, arriving there on 23 August 1861. On 5 December 1861, Wyandotte departed New York City bound for Port Royal, South Carolina, duty with the South Atlantic Blockading Squadron. From there, she was dispatched to Tybee Island, for reconnaissance work on 19 December 1861 and was transferred to the blockade off Wassaw Sound, Georgia, on 23 February 1862. Wyandotte returned to Port Royal in late April 1862 and proceeded to the blockade off Mosquito Inlet, Florida, on 12 May 1862.
She returned to Port Royal in July 1862, arrived in New York City a second time on 25 July 1862 for extensive repairs at the New York Navy Yard. Wyandotte left the navy yard on 1 September 1862 for duty in the Potomac River with the Potomac Flotilla, she was reassigned to the North Atlantic Blockading Squadron at Hampton Roads, Virginia, on 7 October 1862, deploying off Fort Monroe, Virginia, as a guard ship. On detail, Wyandotte salvaged valuable supplies from the schooner Marie Banks, wrecked off Cape Henry Light, Virginia, on 10 February 1863, she was repaired at the Norfolk Navy Yard in Portsmouth and got underway again on 11 April 1863 to resume blockade duty. However, badly strained, Wyandotte could no longer withstand rolling seas and was condemned as fit for guard duty only on 3 October 1863, she spent the remainder of the war off Virginia. Wyandotte was decommissioned at the New York Navy Yard on 3 June 1865 and was sold at auction there on 12 July 1865, she was redocumented for merchant service on 23 September 1865, but was stranded when she ran aground off Duxbury, Massachusetts, on 26 January 1866 and was damaged beyond economical repair.
United States Navy List of United States Navy ships This article incorporates text from the public domain Dictionary of American Naval Fighting Ships. The entries can be found here; as USS Western Port as USS Wyandotte, respectively
Victoria is a state in south-eastern Australia. Victoria is Australia's smallest mainland state and its second-most populous state overall, thus making it the most densely populated state overall. Most of its population lives concentrated in the area surrounding Port Phillip Bay, which includes the metropolitan area of its state capital and largest city, Australia's second-largest city. Victoria is bordered by Bass Strait and Tasmania to the south,New South Wales to the north, the Tasman Sea to the east, South Australia to the west; the area, now known as Victoria is the home of many Aboriginal people groups, including the Boon wurrung, the Bratauolung, the Djadjawurrung, the Gunai/Kurnai, the Gunditjmara, the Taungurong, the Wathaurong, the Wurundjeri, the Yorta Yorta. There were more than 30 Aboriginal languages spoken in the area prior to the European settlement of Australia; the Kulin nation is an alliance of five Aboriginal nations which makes up much of the central part of the state. With Great Britain having claimed the half of the Australian continent, east of the 135th meridian east in 1788, Victoria formed part of the wider colony of New South Wales.
The first European settlement in the area occurred in 1803 at Sullivan Bay, much of what is now Victoria was included in 1836 in the Port Phillip District, an administrative division of New South Wales. Named in honour of Queen Victoria, who signed the division's separation from New South Wales, the colony was established in 1851 and achieved self government in 1855; the Victorian gold rush in the 1850s and 1860s increased both the population and wealth of the colony, by the time of the Federation of Australia in 1901, Melbourne had become the largest city and leading financial centre in Australasia. Melbourne served as federal capital of Australia until the construction of Canberra in 1927, with the Federal Parliament meeting in Melbourne's Parliament House and all principal offices of the federal government being based in Melbourne. Politically, Victoria has 37 seats in the Australian House of Representatives and 12 seats in the Australian Senate. At state level, the Parliament of Victoria consists of the Legislative Assembly and the Legislative Council.
The Labor Party led Daniel Andrews as premier has governed Victoria since 2014. The personal representative of the Queen of Australia in the state is the Governor of Victoria Linda Dessau. Victoria is divided into 79 municipal districts, including 33 cities, although a number of unincorporated areas still exist, which the state administers directly; the economy of Victoria is diversified, with service sectors including financial and property services, education, retail and manufacturing constitute the majority of employment. Victoria's total gross state product ranks second in Australia, although Victoria ranks fourth in terms of GSP per capita because of its limited mining activity. Culturally, Melbourne hosts a number of museums, art galleries, theatres, is described as the world's sporting capital; the Melbourne Cricket Ground, the largest stadium in Australia and the Southern Hemisphere, hosted the 1956 Summer Olympics and the 2006 Commonwealth Games. The ground is considered the "spiritual home" of Australian cricket and Australian rules football, hosts the grand final of the Australian Football League each year, drawing crowds of 100,000.
Nearby Melbourne Park has hosted the Australian Open, one of tennis' four Grand Slam events, annually since 1988. Victoria has eight public universities, with the oldest, the University of Melbourne, dating from 1853. Victoria, like Queensland, was named after Queen Victoria, on the British throne for 14 years when the colony was established in 1851. After the founding of the colony of New South Wales in 1788, Australia was divided into an eastern half named New South Wales and a western half named New Holland, under the administration of the colonial government in Sydney; the first British settlement in the area known as Victoria was established in October 1803 under Lieutenant-Governor David Collins at Sullivan Bay on Port Phillip. It consisted of 402 people, they had been sent from England in HMS Calcutta under the command of Captain Daniel Woodriff, principally out of fear that the French, exploring the area, might establish their own settlement and thereby challenge British rights to the continent.
In 1826, Colonel Stewart, Captain Samuel Wright, Lieutenant Burchell were sent in HMS Fly and the brigs Dragon and Amity, took a number of convicts and a small force composed of detachments of the 3rd and 93rd regiments. The expedition landed at Settlement Point, on the eastern side of Western Port Bay, the headquarters until the abandonment of Western Port at the insistence of Governor Darling about 12 months afterwards. Victoria's next settlement was on the south west coast of what is now Victoria. Edward Henty settled Portland Bay in 1834. Melbourne was founded in 1835 by John Batman, who set up a base in Indented Head, John Pascoe Fawkner. From settlement, the region around Melbourne was known as the Port Phillip District, a separately administered part of New South Wales. Shortly after, the site now known as Geelong was surveyed by Assistant Surveyor W. H. Smythe, three weeks after Melbourne, and in 1838, Geelong was declared a town, despite earlier European settlements dating back to 1826
Port Phillip, is a port in southern Victoria, Australia. It is nearly surrounded by the city of its suburbs. Geographically, the port covers 1,930 square kilometres and the shore stretches 264 km. Although it is shallow for its size, most of the port is navigable; the deepest portion is only 24 metres, half the region is shallower than 8 m. The volume of the water in the port is around 25 cubic kilometres. Before European settlement the area around Port Phillip was divided between the territories of the Wathaurong and Boonwurrung Nations, its waters and coast are home to seals, dolphins and many kinds of seabirds and migratory waders. The first Europeans to enter the port were the crews of HMS Lady Nelson, commanded by John Murray and, ten weeks HMS Investigator commanded by Matthew Flinders, in 1802. Subsequent expeditions into the bay took place in 1803 to establish the first settlement in Victoria, near Sorrento, but was abandoned in 1804. Thirty years settlers from Tasmania returned to establish Melbourne, now the state's capital city, at the mouth of the Yarra River in 1835 and Geelong at Corio Bay in 1838.
Today Port Phillip is the most densely populated catchment in Australia with an estimated 4.5 million people living around the bay. Port Phillip formed between the end of the last Ice Age around 8000 BCE and around 6000 BCE, when the sea-level rose to drown what was the lower reaches of the Yarra River, vast river plains and lakes; the Yarra and other tributaries flowed down what is now the middle of the bay, formed a lake in the southern reaches of the bay, dammed by The Heads, subsequently pouring out into Bass Strait. The Aboriginal people were in occupation of the area long before the bay was formed, having arrived at least 20,000 years ago and 40,000 years ago. Large piles of semi-fossilised sea-shells known as middens, can still be seen in places around the shoreline, marking the spots where Aboriginal people held feasts, they made a good living from the abundant sea-life, which included seals. In the cold season, they wore intricate feathered head-dresses. A dry period combined with sand bar formation, may have dried the bay out as as between 800 BCE and 1000 CE.
In 1800, Lieutenant James Grant was the first known European to pass through Bass Strait from west to east in HMS Lady Nelson. He was the first to see, crudely chart, the south coast from Cape Banks in South Australia to Wilsons Promontory in Victoria. Grant gave the name "Governor King's Bay" to the body of water between Cape Otway and Wilsons Promontory, but did not venture in and discover Port Phillip; the first Europeans to discover and enter Port Phillip, were the crew of the Lady Nelson, commanded by John Murray, which entered the bay on 15 February 1802. Murray called the bay Port King after the Governor of Philip Gidley King. On 4 September 1805, King formally renamed it Port Phillip, in honour of his predecessor Arthur Phillip. About ten weeks after Murray, Matthew Flinders in HMS Investigator found and entered the port, unaware Murray had been there; the official history of Nicholas Baudin's explorations in Le Géographe claimed they too had sighted the entrance at that time but this is certainly a embellishment or error, being absent from the ship's logs and Baudin's own accounts.
As a result of Murray's and Flinders' reports, King sent Lieutenant Charles Robbins in HMS Cumberland to explore Port Phillip fully. One of his party, Charles Grimes, became the first European to walk right round the bay, thus to discover the mouth of the Yarra, on 2 February 1803. King decided to place a convict settlement at Port Phillip to stake a claim to southern Australia ahead of the French. On 10 October 1803 a convoy of two ships HMS Calcutta and Ocean led by Captain David Collins carrying 402 people entered Port Philip Bay. After some investigation it was decided to establish the settlement at a spot known as Sullivan Bay close to where Sorrento now exists; the expedition landed at Sullivan Bay on 17 October 1803, the first of the "orders" issued by Collins bears that date. On 25 October, the King's birthday, the British flag was hoisted over the tiny settlement and a little salvo of musketry celebrated the royal occasion. On 25 November the first white child was born in Victoria and was baptised on Christmas Day, receiving the name of William James Hobart Thorne.
The first marriage took place on 28 November, when a free woman, Hannah Harvey was wedded to convict Richard Garrett. Lack of fresh water and good timber, led this, the first attempt at European settlement in Victoria, to be abandoned on 27 January 1804; when Collins left Port Phillip, the'Calcutta' proceeded to Sydney, the'Ocean' to Risdon Cove Tasmania, where they arrived on 15 February 1804. Prior to abandonment, a group of convicts including William Buckley, escaped from the settlement. Buckley took up residence in a cave near Point Lonsdale on the western side of the bay's entrance, The Rip. Port Phillip was left undisturbed until 1835, when settlers from Tasmania led by John Batman and John Pascoe Fawkner established Melbourne on the lower reaches of the Yarra. John Batman encountered Willia
Bass Strait is a sea strait separating Tasmania from the Australian mainland the state of Victoria. The International Hydrographic Organization defines the limits of Bass Strait as follows: On the west; the eastern limit of the Great Australian Bight. On the east; the western limit of the Tasman Sea between Gabo Island and Eddystone Point [being a line from Gabo Island to the northeast point of East Sister Island thence along the 148th meridian to Flinders Island. Some authorities consider the strait to be part of the Pacific Ocean as in the never-approved 2002 IHO Limits of Oceans and Seas draft. In the in-force IHO 1953 draft, it is instead listed as part of the Indian Ocean; the Australian Hydrographic Service does not consider it to be part of the Southern Ocean, using the expanded Australian definition, states that it lies with the Tasman Sea. The strait between the Furneaux Islands and Tasmania is a subdivision of Bass Strait. Aboriginal Tasmanians came to Tasmania 40,000 years, ago across a land bridge called the Bassian Plain during the last glacial period.
Sea levels rose to form Bass Strait 8,000 years ago leaving them isolated from the rest of Australia. Based on the recorded language groups, there were at least three successive waves of aboriginal colonisation; the strait was detected by Captain Abel Tasman when he charted Tasmania's coast in 1642. On 5 December, Tasman was following the east coast northward to see; when the land veered to the north-west at Eddystone Point, he tried to keep in with it but his ships were hit by the Roaring Forties howling through Bass Strait. Tasman was on a mission to find the Southern Continent, not more islands, so he abruptly turned away to the east and continued his continent hunting; the next European to enter the strait was Captain James Cook in the Endeavour in April 1770. A talented and diligent hydrographer, Cook identified the strait, but knew he had to conceal it, he was working during the period of intense Anglo-French rivalry that filled the twelve years between Britain's success in the Seven Years' War and France's revanche in the American Revolutionary War.
The Admiralty had issued its usual verbal instructions to hide strategically important discoveries that could become security risks, such as off-shore islands from which operations could be mounted by a hostile power. In his journal Cook disguised his discovery with a riddle. Cook's ploy worked and Tasmania's insularity was suppressed for three more decades; when news of the 1798 discovery of Bass Strait reached Europe, the French government despatched a reconnaissance expedition commanded by Nicolas Baudin. This prompted Governor King to send two vessels from Sydney to the island to establish a garrison at Hobart; the strait was named after George Bass, after he and Matthew Flinders passed through it while circumnavigating Van Diemen's Land in the Norfolk in 1798–99. At Flinders' recommendation, the Governor of New South Wales, John Hunter, in 1800 named the stretch of water between the mainland and Van Diemen's Land "Bass's Straits", it became known as Bass Strait. The existence of the strait had been suggested in 1797 by the master of Sydney Cove when he reached Sydney after deliberately grounding his foundering ship and being stranded on Preservation Island.
He reported that the strong south westerly swell and the tides and currents suggested that the island was in a channel linking the Pacific and southern Indian Ocean. Governor Hunter thus wrote to Joseph Banks in August 1797. Strong currents between the Antarctic-driven southeast portions of the Indian Ocean and the Tasman Sea's Pacific Ocean waters provide a strait of powerful, wild storm waves; the shipwrecks on the Tasmanian and Victorian coastlines number in the hundreds, although stronger metal ships and modern marine navigation have reduced the danger. Many vessels, some quite large, have disappeared without a trace, or left scant evidence of their passing. Despite myths and legends of piracy and alleged supernatural phenomena akin to those of the Bermuda Triangle, such disappearances can be invariably ascribed to treacherous combinations of wind and sea conditions, the numerous semi-submerged rocks and reefs within the Straits. Despite the strait's difficult waters, it provided a safer and less boisterous passage for ships on the route from Europe or India to Sydney in the early 19th century.
The strait saved 1,300 km on the voyage. Bass Strait is 250 km wide and 500 km long, with an average depth of 60 m; the widest opening is about 350 km between Cape Portland on the North-Eastern tip of Tasmania and Point Hicks on the Australian mainland. Jennings’ study of the submarine topography of Bass Strait described the bathymetric Bass Basin, a shallow depression 120 km wide and 400 km long in the centre of Bass Strait, a maximum depth is the channel between Inner Sister and Flinders, which navigation charts indicate reaches 155 m. Two plateaus, the Bassian Rise and King Island Rise located on the eastern and western margins of Bass Strait are composed of
Sydney is the state capital of New South Wales and the most populous city in Australia and Oceania. Located on Australia's east coast, the metropolis surrounds Port Jackson and extends about 70 km on its periphery towards the Blue Mountains to the west, Hawkesbury to the north, the Royal National Park to the south and Macarthur to the south-west. Sydney is made up of 40 local government areas and 15 contiguous regions. Residents of the city are known as "Sydneysiders"; as of June 2017, Sydney's estimated metropolitan population was 5,230,330 and is home to 65% of the state's population. Indigenous Australians have inhabited the Sydney area for at least 30,000 years, thousands of engravings remain throughout the region, making it one of the richest in Australia in terms of Aboriginal archaeological sites. During his first Pacific voyage in 1770, Lieutenant James Cook and his crew became the first Europeans to chart the eastern coast of Australia, making landfall at Botany Bay and inspiring British interest in the area.
In 1788, the First Fleet of convicts, led by Arthur Phillip, founded Sydney as a British penal colony, the first European settlement in Australia. Phillip named the city Sydney in recognition of 1st Viscount Sydney. Penal transportation to New South Wales ended soon after Sydney was incorporated as a city in 1842. A gold rush occurred in the colony in 1851, over the next century, Sydney transformed from a colonial outpost into a major global cultural and economic centre. After World War II, it experienced mass migration and became one of the most multicultural cities in the world. At the time of the 2011 census, more than 250 different languages were spoken in Sydney. In the 2016 Census, about 35.8% of residents spoke a language other than English at home. Furthermore, 45.4% of the population reported having been born overseas, making Sydney the 3rd largest foreign born population of any city in the world after London and New York City, respectively. Despite being one of the most expensive cities in the world, the 2018 Mercer Quality of Living Survey ranks Sydney tenth in the world in terms of quality of living, making it one of the most livable cities.
It is classified as an Alpha+ World City by Globalization and World Cities Research Network, indicating its influence in the region and throughout the world. Ranked eleventh in the world for economic opportunity, Sydney has an advanced market economy with strengths in finance and tourism. There is a significant concentration of foreign banks and multinational corporations in Sydney and the city is promoted as Australia's financial capital and one of Asia Pacific's leading financial hubs. Established in 1850, the University of Sydney is Australia's first university and is regarded as one of the world's leading universities. Sydney is home to the oldest library in Australia, State Library of New South Wales, opened in 1826. Sydney has hosted major international sporting events such as the 2000 Summer Olympics; the city is among the top fifteen most-visited cities in the world, with millions of tourists coming each year to see the city's landmarks. Boasting over 1,000,000 ha of nature reserves and parks, its notable natural features include Sydney Harbour, the Royal National Park, Royal Botanic Garden and Hyde Park, the oldest parkland in the country.
Built attractions such as the Sydney Harbour Bridge and the World Heritage-listed Sydney Opera House are well known to international visitors. The main passenger airport serving the metropolitan area is Kingsford-Smith Airport, one of the world's oldest continually operating airports. Established in 1906, Central station, the largest and busiest railway station in the state, is the main hub of the city's rail network; the first people to inhabit the area now known as Sydney were indigenous Australians having migrated from northern Australia and before that from southeast Asia. Radiocarbon dating suggests human activity first started to occur in the Sydney area from around 30,735 years ago. However, numerous Aboriginal stone tools were found in Western Sydney's gravel sediments that were dated from 45,000 to 50,000 years BP, which would indicate that there was human settlement in Sydney earlier than thought; the first meeting between the native people and the British occurred on 29 April 1770 when Lieutenant James Cook landed at Botany Bay on the Kurnell Peninsula and encountered the Gweagal clan.
He noted in his journal that they were somewhat hostile towards the foreign visitors. Cook was not commissioned to start a settlement, he spent a short time collecting food and conducting scientific observations before continuing further north along the east coast of Australia and claiming the new land he had discovered for Britain. Prior to the arrival of the British there were 4,000 to 8,000 native people in Sydney from as many as 29 different clans; the earliest British settlers called the natives Eora people. "Eora" is the term the indigenous population used to explain their origins upon first contact with the British. Its literal meaning is "from this place". Sydney Cove from Port Jackson to Petersham was inhabited by the Cadigal clan; the principal language groups were Darug and Dharawal. The earliest Europeans to visit the area noted that the indigenous people were conducting activities such as camping and fishing, using trees for bark and food, collecting shells, cooking fish. Britain—before that, England—and Ireland had for a long time been sending their convicts across the Atlantic to the American colonies.
That trade was ended with the Declaration of Independence by the United States in 1776. Britain decided in 1786 to found a new penal outpost in the territory discovered by Cook some 16 years ear