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Western Sahara

Western Sahara is a disputed territory on the northwest coast and in the Maghreb region of North and West Africa controlled by the self-proclaimed Sahrawi Arab Democratic Republic and occupied by neighboring Morocco. Its surface area amounts to 266,000 square kilometres, it is one of the most sparsely populated territories in the world consisting of desert flatlands. The population is estimated at just over 500,000, of which nearly 40% live in Laayoune, the largest city in Western Sahara. Occupied by Spain until the late 20th century, Western Sahara has been on the United Nations list of non-self-governing territories since 1963 after a Moroccan demand, it is the most populous territory on that list, by far the largest in area. In 1965, the UN General Assembly adopted its first resolution on Western Sahara, asking Spain to decolonize the territory. One year a new resolution was passed by the General Assembly requesting that a referendum be held by Spain on self-determination. In 1975, Spain relinquished the administrative control of the territory to a joint administration by Morocco and Mauritania.

A war erupted between those countries and a Sahrawi nationalist movement, the Polisario Front, which proclaimed the Sahrawi Arab Democratic Republic with a government in exile in Tindouf, Algeria. Mauritania withdrew its claims in 1979, Morocco secured de facto control of most of the territory, including all the major cities and natural resources; the United Nations considers the Polisario Front to be the legitimate representative of the Sahrawi people, maintains that the Sahrawis have a right to self-determination. Since a United Nations-sponsored ceasefire agreement in 1991, two thirds of the territory has been administered by the Moroccan government, with tacit support from France and the United States, the remainder by the SADR, backed by Algeria. Internationally, countries such as Russia have taken a ambiguous and neutral position on each side's claims, have pressed both parties to agree on a peaceful resolution. Both Morocco and Polisario have sought to boost their claims by accumulating formal recognition from African and Latin American states in the developing world.

The Polisario Front has won formal recognition for SADR from 46 states, was extended membership in the African Union. Morocco has won support for its position from several African governments and from most of the Muslim world and Arab League. In both instances, recognitions have, over the past two decades, been extended and withdrawn according to changing international trends; as of 2017, no other member state of the United Nations has officially recognized Moroccan sovereignty over parts of Western Sahara. However, a number of countries have expressed their support for a future recognition of the Moroccan annexation of the territory as an autonomous part of the Kingdom; however the African Union recognized in 1984 the Sahrawi Arab Democratic Republic as one of its full members, with the same status as Morocco, Morocco protested by suspending its membership to the African Union. Morocco was readmitted in the African Union on 30 January 2017 by ensuring that the conflicting claims between Morocco and the SADR would be solved peacefully and stopping the extension of its exclusive military control by building additional walls.

The African Union however has not issued any formal statement about the border separating the sovereign territories of Morocco and the SADR in Western Sahara, until their conflict is resolved. Instead, the African Union participates with the United Nations mission, in order to maintain a ceasefire and reach a peace agreement between its two members; the African Union provides peacekeepers to the UN peacekeeping mission, in order to control a buffer zone near the de facto border of walls built by Morocco, this area still remains a no-man's-land only without permanent residents except temporary controls by UN military peacekeepers and some incursions of the Moroccan army. Western Sahara is located on the northwest coast in West Africa and on the cusp of North Africa, bordering the North Atlantic Ocean to the northwest, Morocco proper to the north-northeast, Algeria to the east-northeast, Mauritania to the east and south. Among the most arid and inhospitable on the planet, the land along the coast is low flat desert and rises in the north, to small mountains reaching up to 600 metres on the eastern side.

While the area can experience flash flooding in the spring, there are no permanent streams. At times, a cool off-shore current can produce heavy dew; the interior experiences extreme summer heat, with average highs reaching 43–45 °C in July and in August. The earliest known inhabitants of Western Sahara were the Gaetuli. Depending on the century, Roman-era sources describe the area as inhabited by Gaetulian Autololes or the Gaetulian Daradae tribes. Berber heritage is still evident from regional and place-name toponymy, as well as from tribal names. Other early inhabitants of Western Sahara may be the Bafour and the Serer; the Bafour were replaced or absorbed by Berber-speaking populations, which ev

Dive (Usher song)

"Dive" is a song recorded by American recording artist Usher for his seventh studio album Looking 4 Myself. It was produced by Rico Love, Jim Jonsin, Danny Morris and Frank Romano. "Dive" is a slow-paced R&B ballad with elements of pop music, with Usher making use of his falsetto range. Its lyrics use the metaphor of diving, interpreted by critics to discuss a commitment to a relationship; the song was announced by Usher via Twitter as the fifth single from Looking 4 Myself on August 21, 2012. It was released to urban radio on August 28, 2012. An accompanying music video directed by Chris Applebaum, portrays Victoria's Secret Angel model Chanel Iman as Usher's love interest, showing them being intimate and having sex in several scenes. Upon the release of Looking 4 Myself, the song debuted at number 50 on the South Korea Gaon International Chart, with sales of 6,546 digital copies. "Dive" peaked at number 34 on the US Hot R&B/Hip-Hop Songs, remaining on the chart for twelve weeks before dropping out.

The track is a slow-paced R&B ballad with elements of pop music, that runs for a length of three minutes and 47 seconds. Throughout the song, Usher makes use of his falsetto range, to which Billboard's Erika Ramirez described as "soulful". Chuck Arnold of People complimented Usher's falsetto on both "Dive" and lead single "Climax", adding that the songs show"that he's a "better singer than ever". Matt Cibula of PopMatters wrote that "Dive" contains a triple entendre in its lyrics: singing about diving or oral sex, "only to realize that what he's discussing" is commitment to a relationship. Trent Fitzgerald of PopCrush perceived that the song's lyrics "metaphorically compares love to the crashing waters of the ocean". Carrie Battan of Pitchfork interpreted the lyrics as "explicit" which might "make you cringe if they'd come from of anyone else" in the line: "It's raining inside your bed/ No parts are dry/ Lovin' made you so wet/ Your Legs/ Your thighs". DJ Booth noted the song as a potential hit for Usher.

Erika Ramirez of Billboard saw the song as a success, writing that it is "slower and more sensual" than Jim Jonsin and Rico Love's "Motivation" performed by Kelly Rowland. Ramirez praised Usher's vocals, more his falsetto, the reasoning to why "we fell in love with the singer to begin with". Complex's Brad Wete perceived the song as a "sexy slow-winding cut", "powered by Usher’s falsetto". Ryan Hadfield of Consequence of Sound praised Usher's vocals, with "Dive" and lead single "Climax" showing his "superior R&B vocal range". Pitchfork's Carry Battan wrote that Usher's "vocal mastery" allows him to turn the chorus of "Dive"—which she viewed as "cornball"—into something "more specific, as if he were addressing just one woman ". PopMatters' Matt Cibula saw. Cibula further lauded Usher's falsetto; the music video for "Dive" was filmed in July 2012, directed by Chris Applebaum, released to VEVO on August 25, 2012. In the video, Victoria's Secret Angel model Chanel Iman plays as Usher's love interest.

Set on a luxury Yacht in the open sea, the video begins with Usher talking, before showing him singing the first verse. The video intercuts to Iman, Usher inside a cabin with water gushing in. For the chorus and Iman are being intimate, with water further entering the singer's cabin. Usher and Iman are once again being intimate for the second verse, sat outside of the Yacht, with water now level with Usher's waist inside the cabin, entering the second chorus, where Usher and Iman make love. During the bridge, both are romancing within the cabin's bathroom, with the video intercutting to different romantic scenarios. Further scenarios are shown in the final chorus, with the water now submerging the cabin and Usher; the video closes with Usher swimming to safety, but before reaching the surface, he and Iman approach each other, embracing in the water. Opening the 2012 iTunes Festival, Usher performed "Dive" for the first time along with "Can't Stop Won't Stop", "Twisted" and "Numb" and other songs.

RecordingVocal recording – Parkland Playhouse, Parkland, FL. Upon the release of Looking 4 Myself, due to digital downloads, "Dive" entered the singles chart in South Korea, it debuted on the South Korea Gaon International Chart at number 50 on June 10, 2012, with sales of 6,546 digital copies. It debuted at number eight on the US Bubbling Under Hot R&B/Hip-Hop Singles chart for the chart issue dated September 8, 2012. On the US Hot R&B/Hip-Hop Songs chart, "Dive" peaked at number 34, remaining on the chart for twelve weeks before dropping out. Music video on YouTube Lyrics of this song at MetroLyrics

Walter Devereux (died c. 1383)

Sir Walter Devereux of Bodenham was a prominent knight in Herefordshire during the reign of Edward III. He was a member of Parliament and Justice of the Peace for Hereford. Sir Walter Devereux of Bodenham was born about 1339, the son of William Devereux of Bodenham and Anne, daughter of Sir John Barre, his great-grandfather was William Devereux, Baron Devereux of Lyonshall by his first wife, Alice de Grandison. He was a close ally of John Devereux, 1st Baron Devereux of Whitchurch Maund; the Baron was a friend of Edward, the Black Prince, a member of Richard II's council of regency, his influence promoted the career of Walter Devereux. His arms were: Argent a fesse gules, in chief three torteaux. An Oyer and terminer commission was called on 11 Sep 1357 for a complaint by Sir Richard de Acton that Walter Devereux was among a number of individuals that broke into his park at Aily, Somersetshire and carried away a great part of the deer therein, killed livestock worth 10 marks. Another commission was called in 1362 on a complaint by the abbot of Abbotsbury that Walter Devereux was among a number of individuals who tore up stones for metes and bounds in his lands in Tolpuddle, felled trees, broke a stank erected to store water for times of drought, carried away fish and timber, trod down and consumed with cattle his crops and grass, so molested his bondmen there that they cannot hold his bondage.

On coming of age, Walter Devereux, like his father, joined the retinue of Humphrey de Bohun, 7th Earl of Hereford. On 4 October 1363 Devereux was granted the wardship of the lands in Bodenham of Thomas Lucy, comprising annual rent of 8 marks and 2 carucates of land, for payment of 8 marks yearly to the exchequer. Following the death of Thomas Lucy on 26 November 1369, Devereux was granted the wardship of his brother and heir, William de Lucy, he testified on 20 November 1374 on William Lucy's coming of age to his holding in Bodenham, Herefordshire. Devereux was a knight by the time he was nominated on 13 February 1364 as attorney by Brother Thomas de Burley, prior of the Hospital of St. John of Jerusalem in Ireland, preceptor of Dynemor and Upledne, going to Ireland on the king's service. In 1364 the Earl of Hereford granted Bykenhull manor in Oxfordshire to Walter Devereux, he subsequently traded the manor with the earl for Southam manor in Gloucestershire; these transfers were done without license, following the earl's death in 1373, the king voided his claim to the manor.

On 15 May 1366 Devereux was assigned to inquire into the complaint of Gilbert and Elizabeth Giffard that the Prior of Saint Oswald's was not maintaining the chapel on Kingshome manor, held in the king's hand because Elizabeth was underage. He was appointed Justice of the Peace for Gloucestershire on 16 May 1366, again on 10 July 1368. On 8 Aug 1368 he was appointed to investigate a complaint by Sir John de Burley that Emery le Botiller and others broke into his park at Harsfeld, hunted deer, cut down trees, carried them away with other goods. Walter Devereux, as a retainer of the Humphrey de Bohun, 7th Earl of Hereford, served with him in France. In May 1369 he was appointed an attorney for 1 year while overseas in France. Devereux was with the forces John of Gaunt led to Calais, participated in his raids into northern France, he was at the siege of Harfleur in October 1369 that had to be abandoned due to an outbreak of plague and dysentery. He fought at the Battle of the Ford of Blanchetaque on the Somme River, returned with the army to Calais by mid-November.

Following the death of Humphrey de Bohun on 10 January 1373, Walter Devereux was shown holding 1 fee in Bodenham at his inquiry post-mortem. Devereux was granted the custody of all castles and keeping of all the forests and parks in Wales and the Marches, held by the said Earl, while they remained in the king's hands. On 16 July Walter Devereux, he was sometime sheriff of Dorset. On 4 October 1375 Walter Devereux was appointed sheriff of Herefordshire. Devereux transferred his affinity to Thomas of Woodstock at this time following his marriage to Humphrey de Bohun's eldest daughter, Eleanor, in 1376. Following the death of his father, William Devereux, in January 1377, Walter Devereux inherited the family lands. On 3 March 1377 he was granted the wardship of Sir Simon de Burley along with his cousin John Devereux, John Joyce while they were in the king's hands, was appointed to investigate, encroaching on this holding. On 8 March 1377 he was appointed Justice of the Peace, assigned on 29 April 1377 to raise troops in Herefordshire to repel an anticipated invasion.

On 12 May 1377 Walter Devereux was assigned to make inquisitions by oath of the men of the lordships of Brecombe, Haye and Caldecotes in Wales touching all seditions, champerties, ambidextries and deceptions, damages and excesses perpetrated there.