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Western Schism

The Western Schism called Papal Schism, Great Occidental Schism and Schism of 1378, was a split within the Catholic Church lasting from 1378 to 1417 in which two men claimed to be the true pope, each excommunicated one another. Driven by authoritative politics rather than any theological disagreement, the schism was ended by the Council of Constance. For a time these rival claims to the papal throne damaged the reputation of the office; the affair is sometimes referred to as the Great Schism, although this term is reserved for the more enduring East–West Schism of 1054 between the Western Churches answering to the See of Rome and the Greek Orthodox Churches of the East. The schism in the Western Roman Church resulted from the return of the papacy to Rome by Gregory XI on January 17, 1377; the Avignon Papacy had developed a reputation for corruption that estranged major parts of Western Christendom. This reputation can be attributed to perceptions of predominant French influence, to the papal curia's efforts to extend its powers of patronage and increase its revenues.

Pope Gregory announced his intention to return to Avignon, just after the Easter celebrations of 1378. This was at the entreaty of his relatives, his friends, nearly everyone in his retinue. After Pope Gregory XI died in the Vatican palace on 27 March 1378, the Romans put into operation a plan to ensure the election of a Roman pope; the pope and his Curia were back in Rome after seventy years in Avignon, the Romans were prepared to do everything in their power to keep them there. They intended to use violence as their weapons. On April 8, 1378 the cardinals elected a Neapolitan when no viable Roman candidate presented himself. Urban VI, born Bartolomeo Prignano, the Archbishop of Bari, was elected. Urban had been a respected administrator in the papal chancery at Avignon, but as pope he proved suspicious and prone to violent outbursts of temper. Many of the cardinals who had elected him soon regretted their decision: the majority removed themselves from Rome to Anagni, where though Urban was still reigning, they elected Robert of Geneva as a rival pope on September 20 of the same year, claiming that the election of Urban was invalid because it had been done for fear of the rioting crowds.

Elected pope at Fondi on 20 September 1378 by the French cardinals, unable to maintain himself in Italy, Robert took the name Clement VII and reestablished a papal court in Avignon, where he became dependent on the French court. Clement had the immediate support of Queen Joanna of several of the Italian barons. Charles V of France, who seems to have been sounded beforehand on the choice of the Roman pontiff, soon became his warmest protector. Clement succeeded in winning to his cause Castile, Navarre, a great part of the Latin East, Flanders. Scotland supported Clement; the pair of elections threw the Church into turmoil. There had been rival antipope claimants to the papacy before, but most of them had been appointed by various rival factions; the conflicts escalated from a church problem to a diplomatic crisis that divided Europe. Secular leaders had to choose which claimant they would recognize: Avignon: France, Castile and León, Burgundy, Naples and Owain Glyndŵr's rebellion in Wales recognized the Avignon claimant.

In the Iberian Peninsula there were the Fernandine Wars and the 1383–1385 Crisis in Portugal, during which dynastic opponents supported rival claimants to the papal office. Sustained by such national and factional rivalries throughout Catholic Christianity, the schism continued after the deaths of both Urban VI in 1389 and Clement VII in 1394. Boniface IX, crowned at Rome in 1389, Benedict XIII, who reigned in Avignon from 1394, maintained their rival courts; when Pope Boniface died in 1404, the eight cardinals of the Roman conclave offered to refrain from electing a new pope if Benedict would resign. In the intense partisanship, characteristic of the Middle Ages, the schism engendered a fanatical hatred noted by Johan Huizinga: when the town of Bruges went over to the "obedience" of Avignon, a great number of people left to follow their trade in a city of Urbanist allegiance. Efforts were made to end the Schism through diplomacy; the French crown tried to coerce Benedict XIII, whom it supported, into resigning.

None of these remedies worked. The suggestion that a church council should resolve the Schism, first made in 1378, was not adopted at first, because canon law required that a pope call a council. Theologians like Pierre d'Ailly and Jean Gerson, as well as canon lawyers like Francesco Zabarella, adopted arguments that equity permitted the Church to act for its own welfare in defiance of the letter of the law; the cardinals of both factions secured an agreement that Benedict and Pope Gregory XII would meet at Savona. They balked at the last moment, both groups of cardinals aban

List of Bucky O'Hare characters

This article is about characters who appear in Bucky O'Hare comic book series. Commander Dogstar is a friend of Bucky O'Hare, the captain of the S. P. A. C. E. Frigate Indefatigable. A bloodhound with a voice similar to Jim Backus, Dogstar has the uncanny ability to remember the scent of any criminal he has encountered, he is somewhat absentminded, tending to prattle on about heroic rhetoric, requires his more down-to-earth companion Wolf to bring his mind back to the present. Dogstar and Wolf were simple police officers, entrusted by the United Mammal Security Council with arresting notorious criminals, but after the Toad Empire conquered Warren, the U. A. F. Commissioned the launching of a second frigate to complement the Righteous Indignation, the Indefatigable, Dogstar was named her captain. Since Dogstar has joined Bucky and the Righteous Indignation's crew in their continuing battle against the toads. Dogstar's voice was done by Gary Chalk. Appearances: A Fistful of Simoleans The Good, the Bad and the Warty The Komplex Caper Corsair Canards The Taking of Pilot Jenny Mimi LaFloo is the vixen captain of the S.

P. A. C. E. Frigate Screaming Mimi, the third and final ship which makes up the United Animal Federation's space fleet along with the Righteous Indignation and the Indefatigable. In the episode Home, Home, Mimi was a slave of the evil Toad Empire, she was held captive on Kinnear, along with half the population from Warren, where they were being forced to build a second climate converter to replace the one destroyed by Bucky O'Hare and Willy DuWitt on Genus. Mimi was the only fox enslaved there, she was the leader of the resistance and sabotaged the toads' efforts to build the converter. Mimi harbored an intense dislike of Bucky, because her efforts to lead the enslaved hares to freedom were unintentionally undermined by their oft-expressed hoping-against-hope that the great Captain Bucky O'Hare would come to save them. However, when Bucky infiltrated the factory and shut down its defenses and liberated the slaves, Mimi soon came to respect him and became smitten with him. Following the liberation of Kinnear, Mimi was, at Bucky's suggestion, named captain of a newly commissioned frigate by the Secretary General of the U.

A. F. which she named the Screaming Mimi. She thanked Bucky "in her own way" by kissing him. Mimi appeared in the series a second and final time in the episode The Artificers of Aldeberan, wherein she ran into Bucky on board Orwell Station, her crush on the hare captain remained, she made her feelings toward him quite obvious. She volunteered the use of the Screaming Mimi after Jenny stole the Righteous Indignation to go rescue Princess Felicia. Due to lack of availability of credible reference material, some confusion has arisen in the past over what Mimi's surname is and how it is supposed to be spelled. Although the episode scripts, the most reliable source, give her surname as "LaFloo," these only became available to fans, many of whom spelled her last name "LaFleur." Mimi appeared near the end of the UK comic series before its cancelation. Her introduction saw her established as captain of the "Screaming Mimi" and an associate of Dead-eye. Members of Dogstar's crew such as Digger and Pitstop Pete would instead be members of her crew.

Appearances: Home, Home The Artificers of Aldebaran Wolf is Commander Dogstar's second-in-command, a wolf with a mohawk who served as first mate of the Indefagitable. In stark contrast to Dogstar's sense of dramatic timing and his penchant for melodrama, Wolf is much more laid back and calm seeming monotonous, on at least one occasion he expresses frustration with his commander, he first appeared in the episode A Fistful of Simoleans, in The Taking of Pilot Jenny he, Digger McSquint and Rumble Bee assisted Bucky in battling Komplex-2-Go. Wolf's rather generic-sounding name in comparison to the other members of Dogstar's crew is a product of the script for the second episode of the series, A Fistful of Simoleans. Although in the final version only he, a third unnamed canine raid Tinker's spy shop, in the script Digger, Rumble Bee, Pitstop Pete appeared, but were named "Mole," "Robot," and "Pit Bull." Wolf, being a wolf, was named accordingly. But because the other three were cut from the episode, they were given different names on in The Komplex Caper and The Taking of Pilot Jenny, with the exception Wolf, although he was supposed to gain the name "Calvin Lupus Smythe" in a planned-but-abandoned sequel series, "Bucky O'Hare: Counterattack."

Wolf's voice was done by Gary Chalk. He was intended to be part of the toy lines third wave action figure release and was given the name "Calvin Lupus-Smythe" instead. Appearances: A Fistful of Simoleans The Good, the Bad and the Warty The Komplex Caper The Taking of Pilot Jenny Digger McSquint, a mole, was a member of Commander Dogstar's crew aboard the Indefagitable, he played a vital role in assisting Bucky O'Hare in fighting Komplex itself in order to steal the climate converter from Warren. To make up for his small size and lack of physical strength, Digger was known to wield a large shoulder-mounted laser gun that required two hands to hold, similar in appearance to a bazooka, he was meant to first appear in A Fistful of Simoleans where he accompanies Dogstar and Wolf on their raid of Tinker's spy shop. In the script he is called "Mole." By getting cut out of the episode, the writers were able to give Digger a less generic name o

Just a Little Bit (Mutya Buena song)

"Just a Little Bit" is a song by English singer and former Sugababes member Mutya Buena. The song was written by Eg White and Pam Sheyne, produced by White, it is the opening track from her debut studio album Real Girl, was released in the United Kingdom on 22 October 2007 as the album's third single. "Just a Little Bit" is an R&B song with elements of soul. It received positive reviews from music critics, who commended Buena's vocal performance; the single peaked at number 65 on the UK Singles Chart. Buena performed it at The Borderline, London in April 2007. "Just a Little Bit" was written and produced by the British musician Eg White, who wrote the song in collaboration with Pam Sheyne. The song was recorded by English singer Mutya Buena for her debut studio album Real Girl, serves as the album's opening track. "Just a Little Bit" was released in the United Kingdom on 22 October 2007 as the third single from Real Girl. Buena spoke about her nervousness about the song's release. Coming out of a successful group like the Subjugates, you want to do better.

You see so many artists who’ve come out of bands nose-dive and I think,'I don’t want that to be me'." The CD single contains a radio edit of the song, three remixes, its accompanying music video. "Just a Little Bit" is an R&B song with a Motown-inspired opening. Buena's vocals in the song are upbeat, it differs from her previous single "Song 4 Mutya" which prominently featured synthesizers and rave elements. "Just a Little Bit" is reminiscent of the Sugababes' earlier material and has a "delicate and tender approach", according to Alex Fletcher from Digital Spy. Fletcher described the song's composition, writing: "'Just a Little Bit' takes a laid-back jazz beat, some funked-up guitar twangs, the sort of easy listening rhythm that TLC and En Vogue used to toss about willy-nilly 15 years ago. While it's splendid to hear Buena deliver her delicious dulcet tones without Groove Armada sticking their oars in, there is more than a faint whiff of'90s nostalgia about the tune. So much so that you half expect Easther and Vernie from Eternal to join in with the harmonies at one point."

The song received positive reviews from music critics. Harry Guerin of RTÉ.ie wrote that "Just a Little Bit" was one of the tracks from Real Girl that shows Buena at her best, elaborated that it "establishes her soul credentials". The New Zealand Herald critic Rebecca Barry Hill praised Buena's vocal performance on the song, which she characterised as "bluesy". Claire Allfree from Metro regarded "Just a Little Bit" as one of the album's better tracks and described it as an "itchy opener". Alex Fletcher from Digital Spy gave the song a three out of five star rating and wrote, "It lacks that killer pop hook to make it anything more than a decent album track"; the Irish Times writer Kevin Courtney rated the song three out of five stars and compared it to the success of her former bands' success: "It may not steal Subjugates' thunder, but it should grab a flash of the limelight". Mickey McMonagle from the Sunday Mail commended Buena's vocal delivery, but admitted that the song is "slightly lacklustre at times" despite being a decent track.

The Independent's Andy Gill placed the song in his "Download this" category. Upon release, the single failed to become a commercial success in the UK, where reached number 65 on the UK Singles Chart and charted for two weeks. Buena performed "Just a Little Bit" in April 2007 at London's music venue The Borderline; the Observer critic Kitty Empire wrote that during the performance, the track "plays its old soul cards nicely", that Buena's sound was evocative of English singer Gabrielle's. Lyrics of this song at MetroLyrics