Western Thrace

Western Thrace or West Thrace is a geographic and historical region of Greece, between the Nestos and Evros rivers in the northeast of the country. Inhabited since paleolithic times, it has been under the political and linguistic influence of the Greek world since the classical era. Under the Byzantine Empire, Western Thrace benefited from its position close to the imperial heartland and became a center of medieval Greek commerce and culture. Topographically, Thrace alternates between mountain-enclosed basins of varying size and cut river valleys, it is divided into the three regional units: Xanthi and Evros, which together with the Macedonian regional units of Drama and Thasos form the Region of East Macedonia and Thrace. The Fourth Army Corps of the Hellenic Army has its headquarters in Xanthi; the approximate area of Western Thrace is 8,578 km² with a population of 371,208 according to the 2011 census. It's estimated that two-thirds of the population are Orthodox Christian Greeks, while the remainder are Muslims who are an recognised minority of Greece.

Of these, about half are of Turkish origin, while another third are Pomaks who inhabit the mountainous parts of the region. The Romani of Thrace are mainly Muslim, unlike their ethnic kin in other parts of the country who profess the Orthodox faith of the Greek majority. Thrace is bordered by Bulgaria to the north, Turkey to the east, the Aegean Sea to the south and the Greek region of Macedonia to the west. Alexandroupoli is the largest city, with a municipal population of 72,959 according to the 2011 census. Below is a table of the five largest Thracian cities: After the Roman conquest, Western Thrace further belonged to the Roman province of Thrace founded in 46 AD. At the beginning of the 2nd AD century Roman emperor Trajan founded here, as a part of the provincial policy, two cities of Greek type and Plotinopolis. From this region passed the famous via Egnatia, which ensured the communication between East and West, while its ramifications were connecting the Aegean world with Thracian hinterland.

From the coast passed the sea route Troad–Macedonia, which the Apostle Paul had used in his journeys in Greece. During the great crisis of the Roman Empire in the 3rd century AD, Western Thrace suffered from the frequent incursions of the barbarians until the reign of Diocletian, when it managed to prosper again thanks to its administrative reforms; the region had been under the rule of the Byzantine Empire from the time of the division of the Roman Empire into Eastern and Western empires in the early fourth century AD. The Ottoman Empire conquered most of the region in the 14th century and ruled it till the Balkan Wars of 1912–1913. During Ottoman rule, Thrace had a mixed population of Turks and Bulgarians, with a strong Greek element in the cities and the Aegean Sea littoral. A smaller number of Pomaks, Jews and Romani lived in the region. At 1821, several parts of Western Thrace, such as Lavara and Samothraki rebelled and participated in the Greek War of Independence. During the First Balkan War, the Balkan League fought against the Ottoman Empire and annexed most of its European territory, including Thrace.

Western Thrace was occupied by Bulgarian troops. On November 15, 1912 on the right bank of the river Maritza Macedonian-Adrianopolitan Volunteer Corps captured the Turkish corps of Yaver Paha, which defends the Eastern Rhodopes and Western Thrace from invading Bulgarians; the victors fell into dispute on how to divide the newly conquered lands, resulting in the Second Balkan War. In August 1913 Bulgaria was defeated, but gained Western Thrace under the terms of the Treaty of Bucharest. In the following years, the Central Powers, with which Bulgaria had sided, lost World War I and as a result Western Thrace was withdrawn from Bulgaria under the terms of the 1919 Treaty of Neuilly. Western Thrace was under temporary management of the Entente led by French General Charles Antoine Charpy. In the second half of April 1920 in San Remo conference of the prime ministers of the main allies of the Entente powers Western Thrace was given to Greece. Throughout the Balkan Wars and World War I, Bulgaria and Turkey each forced respective minority populations in the Thrace region out of areas they controlled.

A large population of Greeks in Eastern Thrace, Black Sea coastal and southern Bulgaria, was expelled south and west into Greek-controlled Thrace. Concurrently, a large population of Bulgarians was forced from the region into Bulgaria by Greek and Tur


The X-43 was an experimental uncrewed hypersonic aircraft with multiple planned scale variations meant to test various aspects of hypersonic flight. It was part of the X-plane series and of NASA's Hyper-X program, it set several airspeed records for jet aircraft. The X-43 is the fastest aircraft on record at Mach 9.6. A winged booster rocket with the X-43 placed on top, called a "stack", was drop launched from a Boeing B-52 Stratofortress. After the booster rocket brought the stack to the target speed and altitude, it was discarded, the X-43 flew free using its own engine, a scramjet; the first plane in the series, the X-43A, was a single-use vehicle. The first X-43A was destroyed after malfunctioning in flight in 2001; each of the other two flew in 2004, setting speed records, with the scramjets operating for 10 seconds followed by 10-minute glides and intentional crashes into the ocean. Plans for more planes in the X-43 series have been cancelled; the X-43 was a part of NASA's Hyper-X program, involving the American space agency and contractors such as Boeing, Micro Craft Inc, Orbital Sciences Corporation and General Applied Science Laboratory.

Micro Craft Inc. built the GASL built its engine. One of the primary goals of NASA's Aeronautics Enterprise was the development and demonstration of technologies for air-breathing hypersonic flight. Following the cancellation of the National Aerospace Plane program in November 1994, the United States lacked a cohesive hypersonic technology development program; as one of the "better, cheaper" programs developed by NASA in the late 1990s, Hyper-X used National Aerospace Plane technology, which moved it toward the demonstration of hypersonic air breathing propulsion. The Hyper-X Phase I was a NASA Aeronautics and Space Technology Enterprise program conducted jointly by the Langley Research Center, Hampton and the Dryden Flight Research Center, California. Langley was the lead center and responsible for hypersonic technology development. Dryden was responsible for flight research. Phase I was a seven-year $230 million, program to flight-validate scramjet propulsion, hypersonic aerodynamics and design methods.

Subsequent phases were not continued as the X-43 series of aircraft was replaced by the X-51. The X-43A aircraft was a small unpiloted test vehicle measuring just over 12 ft in length; the vehicle was a lifting body design, where the body of the aircraft provides a significant amount of lift for flight, rather than relying on wings. The aircraft weighed 3,000 lb; the X-43A was designed to be controllable in high-speed flight when gliding without propulsion. However, the aircraft was not designed to be recovered. Test vehicles crashed into the Pacific Ocean. Traveling at Mach speeds produces a lot of heat due to the compression shock waves involved in supersonic aerodynamic drag. At high Mach speeds, heat can become so intense; the X-43A compensated for this by cycling water behind the engine cowl and sidewall leading edges, cooling those surfaces. In tests, the water circulation was activated at about Mach 3; the craft was created to develop and test a supersonic-combustion ramjet, or "scramjet" engine, an engine variation where external combustion takes place within air, flowing at supersonic speeds.

The X-43A's developers designed the aircraft's airframe to be part of the propulsion system: the forebody is a part of the intake airflow, while the aft section functions as an exhaust nozzle. The engine of the X-43A was fueled with hydrogen fuel. In the successful test, about two pounds of the fuel was used. Unlike rockets, scramjet-powered vehicles do not carry oxygen on board for fueling the engine. Removing the need to carry oxygen reduces the vehicle's size and weight. In the future, such lighter vehicles could take heavier payloads into space or carry payloads of the same weight much more efficiently. Scramjets only operate at speeds in the range of Mach 4.5 or higher, so rockets or other jet engines are required to boost scramjet-powered aircraft to this base velocity. In the case of the X-43A, the aircraft was accelerated to high speed with a Pegasus rocket launched from a converted Boeing B-52 Stratofortress bomber; the combined X-43A and Pegasus vehicle was referred to as the "stack" by the program's team members.

The engines in the X-43A test vehicles were designed for a certain speed range, only able to compress and ignite the fuel-air mixture when the incoming airflow is moving as expected. The first two X-43A aircraft were intended for flight at Mach 7, while the third was designed to operate at speeds greater than Mach 9.8 at altitudes of 98,000 ft or more. NASA's first X-43A test on June 2, 2001 failed because the Pegasus booster lost control about 13 seconds after it was released from the B-52 carrier; the rocket experienced a control oscillation as it went transonic leading to the failure of the rocket's starboard elevon. This caused the rocket to deviate from the planned course, it was destroyed as a safety precaution. An investigation into the incident stated that imprecise information about the capabilities of the rocket as well as its flight environment contributed to the accident. Several inaccuracies in data modeling for this test led to an inadequate control system for the particular Pegasus rocket used, though no single factor could be blamed for the failure.

In the second test in March 2004, the Pegasus fired and released the test vehicle

Kentucky Route 146

Kentucky Route 146 is a 33.505-mile-long state highway in Kentucky that runs from U. S. Route 60 in the St. Matthews suburb of Louisville to U. S. Route 421, Kentucky Route 55, Kentucky Route 573 in New Castle via Lyndon, Pewee Valley, Buckner, La Grange. There are no low clearances along the entirety of this route and is two lane; this route is rather smartly designed as it carries traffic from Henry County to the east end of Louisville, KY. If travelling Northbound on I-71, exit 28 will route you to KY 146. New Castle is the eastern terminus for KY 146, its speed limit is 35 mph in the city limits. Roads in Louisville, Kentucky