Western Wall

The Western Wall, Wailing Wall, or Kotel, known in Islam as the Buraq Wall, is an ancient limestone wall in the Old City of Jerusalem. It is a small segment of a far longer ancient retaining wall, known in its entirety as the "Western Wall"; the wall was erected as part of the expansion of the Second Jewish Temple begun by Herod the Great, which resulted in the encasement of the natural, steep hill known to Jews and Christians as the Temple Mount, in a large rectangular structure topped by a huge flat platform, thus creating more space for the Temple itself and its auxiliary buildings. For Muslims, it is traditionally the site where the Islamic Prophet Muhammad tied his winged steed, al-Buraq, on his Isra and Mi'raj to Jerusalem before ascending to paradise, constitutes the Western border of al-Haram al-Sharif; the Western Wall is considered holy due to its connection to the Temple Mount. Because of the Temple Mount entry restrictions, the Wall is the holiest place where Jews are permitted to pray, though the holiest site in the Jewish faith lies behind it.

The original and irregular-shaped Temple Mount was extended to allow for an ever-larger Temple compound to be built at its top. This process was finalised by Herod, who enclosed the Mount with an rectangular set of retaining walls, built to support extensive substructures and earth fills needed to give the natural hill a geometrically regular shape. On top of this box-like structure Herod built a vast paved esplanade. Of the four retaining walls, the western one is considered to be closest to the former Temple, which makes it the most sacred site recognised by Judaism outside the former Temple Mount esplanade. Just over half the wall's total height, including its 17 courses located below street level, dates from the end of the Second Temple period, is believed to have been built around 19 BCE by Herod the Great, although recent excavations indicate that the work was not finished by the time Herod died in 4 BCE; the large stone blocks of the lower courses are Herodian, the courses of medium-sized stones above them were added during the Umayyad era, while the small stones of the uppermost courses are of more recent date from the Ottoman period.

The term Western Wall and its variations are used in a narrow sense for the section traditionally used by Jews for prayer. During the period of Christian Roman rule over Jerusalem, Jews were barred from Jerusalem except to attend Tisha B'Av, the day of national mourning for the Temples, on this day the Jews would weep at their holy places; the term "Wailing Wall" was thus exclusively used by Christians, was revived in the period of non-Jewish control between the establishment of British Rule in 1920 and the Six-Day War in 1967. The term "Wailing Wall" is not used by Jews, not by many others who consider it derogatory. In a broader sense, "Western Wall" can refer to the entire 488-metre-long retaining wall on the western side of the Temple Mount; the classic portion now faces a large plaza in the Jewish Quarter, near the southwestern corner of the Temple Mount, while the rest of the wall is concealed behind structures in the Muslim Quarter, with the small exception of a 25 ft section, the so-called Little Western Wall.

The segment of the Western retaining wall traditionally used for Jewish liturgy, known as the "Western Wall", derives its particular importance to it having never been obscured by medieval buildings, displaying much more of the original Herodian stonework than the "Little Western Wall". In religious terms, the "Little Western Wall" is presumed to be closer to the Holy of Holies and thus to the "presence of God", the underground Warren's Gate, out of reach since the 12th century more so. Whilst the wall was considered Muslim property as an integral part of the Haram esh-Sharif and waqf property of the Moroccan Quarter, a right of Jewish prayer and pilgrimage existed as part of the Status Quo; this position was confirmed in a 1930 international commission during the British Mandate period. The earliest source mentioning this specific site as a place of worship is from the 16th century; the previous sites used by Jews for mourning the destruction of the Temple, during periods when access to the city was prohibited to them, lay to the east, on the Mount of Olives and in the Kidron Valley below it.

From the mid-19th century onwards, attempts to purchase rights to the wall and its immediate area were made by various Jews, but none was successful. With the rise of the Zionist movement in the early 20th century, the wall became a source of friction between the Jewish and Muslim communities, the latter being worried that the wall could be used to further Jewish claims to the Temple Mount and thus Jerusalem. During this period outbreaks of violence at the foot of the wall became commonplace, with a deadly riot in 1929 in which 133 Jews were killed and 339 injured. After the 1948 Arab–Israeli War the Eastern portion of Jerusalem was occupied by Jordan. Under Jordanian control Jews were expelled from the Old City including the Jewish quarter, Jews were barred from entering the Old City for 19 years banning Jewish prayer at the site of the Western Wall; this period ended on June 10, 1967, when Israel gained control of the site following the Six-Day War. Three days after establishing control over the Western Wall site the Moroccan Quarter was bulldozed by Israeli au


Aboyne is a village on the edge of the Highlands in Aberdeenshire, Scotland, on the River Dee 26 miles west of Aberdeen. It has a swimming pool at Aboyne Academy, all-weather tennis courts, a bowling green and is home to the oldest 18 hole Golf course on Royal Deeside. Aboyne Castle and the Loch of Aboyne are nearby. Aboyne has many businesses, including a supermarket, one bank, several hairdressers, a butcher, a newsagent, an Indian restaurant and a post office. There was a railway station in the village, but it was closed on 18 June 1966; the station now contains some shops and the tunnel running under the village is now home to a firearms club. The market-day in Aboyne was known as Fèill Mhìcheil; the name “Aboyne” is derived from “Oboyne”, first recorded in 1260, in turn derived from the Gaelic words “abh”, “bo”, “fionn”, meaning “ white cow river”. The locale was inhabited since early times with the west wing of Aboyne Castle dated to 1671 AD; the siting of the castle itself is related to the limited number of the crossings of the Mounth of the Grampian Mountains to the south.

In 1715 Aboyne was the scene of a tinchal, or great hunt, organised by John Erskine, sixth Earl of Mar, on 3 September, as a cover for the gathering of Jacobite nobles and lairds to discuss a planned Jacobite rising. The uprising began three days in Braemar. Aboyne has a Temperate climate similar to all of the United Kingdom. Due to its high inland position in Scotland, Aboyne can record some low temperatures and some high snowfall. Conversely, temperatures can reach exceptional values for the latitude during the winter months due to the foehn effect; the former is the UK's highest January temperature on record, which it shares with Inchmarlo and Aber, Gwynedd. The February record for Scotland was broken on 21 February 2019 at 18.3. C. In summer, when tourists visit, the number of people and vehicles increases dramatically; the Highland Games on the Village Green features in August. Aboyne is unusual in having The Green on which events are held, as the village was modelled by one of the first Marquesses of Huntly on a traditional English village with a green at the centre.

The green includes facilities for rugby and football and a play park as well as Aboyne Canoe Clubs storage facility'The Canoe Cathedral'. The British Royal Family are residents in nearby Balmoral Castle during the Summer. Outdoor pursuits include golf, cycling, mountain biking trails, kayaking and gliding from the airfield just outside the village. Aboyne has become popular with gliding enthusiasts from Britain and Europe due to its suitable air currents; the airfield has two parallel tarmac runways running east–west, a webcam and small weather-monitoring centre on its premises. Aboyne contains a mountain biking facility at Aboyne Bike Park located in the Bellwood; the old Aboyne Curling Club had its own private railway station, Aboyne Curling Pond railway station, at the Loch of Aboyne. The close-by pass of Ballater is a rock-climbing area; the village of Dinnet is a few miles west and is the first being located inside the Cairngorms National Park. Walkers and cyclists can ascend Mount Keen by cycling as far as they can from Glen Tanar forest before walking to the summit.

There are Aboyne Academy and a primary school. The academy has around 650 pupils, about a third from Aboyne itself, with the remaining two thirds from surrounding villages; the school has access to a full-size swimming pool and gym run by the adjacent Deeside Community Centre. Aboyne Academy Website Aboyne Rugby Football Club Aboyne-Dinnet Church Deeside Gliding Club grid reference NO525985 The Aboyne and Deeside festival

Frederick IV, Elector Palatine

Frederick IV, Elector Palatine of the Rhine, only surviving son of Louis VI, Elector Palatine and Elisabeth of Hesse, called "Frederick the Righteous". Born in Amberg, his father died in October 1583 and Frederick came under the guardianship of his uncle, John Casimir, an ardent Calvinist; the Calvinist mathematician and astronomer Bartholemaeus Pitiscus served as Frederick's tutor and became court preacher. In January 1592, Frederick assumed control of the government of the Electorate of the Palatinate upon the death of John Casimir. Frederick continued John Casimir's anti-Catholic measures and in 1608 became the head of the Protestant military alliance known as the Protestant Union, he soon fell prey to alcoholism, leaving state matters to his chief minister Christian of Anhalt. Frederick IV died in 1610 in Heidelberg. In 1593 he married Louise Juliana of Nassau, the daughter of William I of Orange and Charlotte de Bourbon-Monpensier, they had eight children: Luise Juliane of the Palatinate.

Katharina Sofie of the Palatinate. Frederick V, Elector Palatine. Elisabeth Charlotte of the Palatinate. Anna Eleonore of the Palatinate. Louis William of the Palatinate. Maurice Christian of the Palatinate. Louis Philip, Count Palatine of Simmern-Kaiserslautern. Parker, Geoffrey: The Thirty Years' War: Second Edition. Routledge