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Western canon

The Western canon is the body of high culture literature, music and works of art, valued in the West: works that have achieved the status of classics. However, not all these works originate in the Western world, such works are valued throughout the world, it is "a certain Western intellectual tradition that goes from, Socrates to Wittgenstein in philosophy, from Homer to James Joyce in literature". The word canon is derived from kanṓn, meaning a measuring rod, or standard; the Bible, a product of ancient Jewish culture, from the Levant, in Western Asia, has been a major force in shaping Western culture, "has inspired some of the great monuments of human thought and art". The canon of books has been stable, although it has recently expanded to include more women and racial minorities, while the canons of music and the visual arts have expanded to cover the Middle Ages, subsequent centuries once overlooked, but some examples of newer media such as cinema have attained a precarious position in the canon.

During the twentieth century there has been a growing interest in the West, as well as globally, in major artistic works of the cultures of Asia, the Middle East, South America, including the former colonies of European nations. A classic is a book, or any other work of art, accepted as being exemplary or noteworthy, for example through an imprimatur such as being listed in a list of great books, or through a reader's personal opinion. Although the term is associated with the Western canon, it can be applied to works of literature and art, etc. from all traditions, such as the Chinese classics or the Vedas. A related word is masterpiece or chef d'œuvre, which in modern use refers to a creation, given much critical praise one, considered the greatest work of a person's career or to a work of outstanding creativity, skill, or workmanship; the word refers to a work of a high standard produced in order to obtain membership of a Guild or Academy. The first writer to use the term "classic" was Aulus Gellius, a 2nd-century Roman writer who, in the miscellany Noctes Atticae, refers to a writer as a classicus scriptor, non proletarius.

Such classification began with the word canon. Moreover, early Christian Church Fathers used canon to rank the authoritative texts of the New Testament, preserving them, given the expense of vellum and papyrus and mechanical book reproduction, being comprehended in a canon ensured a book's preservation as the best way to retain information about a civilization. Contemporarily, the Western canon defines the best of Western culture. In the ancient world, at the Alexandrian Library, scholars coined the Greek term Hoi enkrithentes to identify the writers in the canon. With regard to books, what makes a book "classic" has concerned various authors, from Mark Twain to Italo Calvino, questions such as "Why Read the Classics?", "What Is a Classic?" have been considered by others, including Calvino, T. S. Eliot, Charles Augustin Sainte-Beuve, Michael Dirda, Ezra Pound; the terms "classic book" and Western canon are related concepts, but are not synonymous. A "canon" is a list of books considered to be "essential", it can be published as a collection, presented as a list with an academic's imprimatur or be the official reading list of a university.

Some of the writers who are considered the most important in Western literature are Homer, Sophocles, Aristophanes, Horace, Dante Alighieri, Giovanni Boccaccio, Geoffrey Chaucer, François Rabelais, Michel de Montaigne, Miguel de Cervantes, Lope de Vega, William Shakespeare, John Milton, Molière, Jean Racine, Carlo Goldoni, Samuel Johnson, Johann Wolfgang von Goethe, William Wordsworth, Jane Austen, Honoré de Balzac, Alexander Pushkin, Victor Hugo, Nikolai Gogol, Charles Dickens, Ivan Turgenev, Walt Whitman, Herman Melville, George Eliot, Charles Baudelaire, Gustave Flaubert, Fyodor Dostoyevsky, Leo Tolstoy, Henrik Ibsen, Emily Dickinson, Arthur Rimbaud, Sigmund Freud, Anton Chekhov, Marcel Proust, Thomas Mann, James Joyce, Virginia Woolf, Franz Kafka, T. S. Eliot, William Faulkner, Mikhail Bulgakov, Jorge Luis Borges, Pablo Neruda, Vladimir Nabokov, Fernando Pessoa, Albert Camus and Samuel Beckett. In addition the following are some of the important works from other cultures that have influenced the West: Gilgamesh, The Bible, One Thousand and One Nights, The Tale of Genji by Murasaki Shikibu, Dream of the Red Chamber by Cao Xueqin.

The American literary critic Harold Bloom has divided the body of Western Literature into four ages:, with five main traditions that influenced the West: The Ancient Near East.


Xulihu Chanyu was a ruler of the Xiongnu Empire. Xulihu Chanyu was the younger brother of Wuwei Chanyu, he succeeded his nephew Er Chanyu in 102 BC. In 101 BC, the Xiongnu raided Dingxiang, Yunzhong and Jiuquan. Xulihu was succeeded by his younger brother Chedihou Chanyu. Bichurin N. Ya. "Collection of information on peoples in Central Asia in ancient times", vol. 1, Sankt Petersburg, 1851, reprint Moscow-Leningrad, 1950 Chang, Chun-shu, The Rise of the Chinese Empire 1, The University of Michigan Press Cosmo, Nicola Di, Ancient China and Its Enemies, Cambridge University Press Cosmo, Nicola di, Military Culture in Imperial China, Harvard University Press Loewe, Michael, A Biographical Dictionary of the Qin, Former Han, Xin Periods, Brill Whiting, Marvin C. Imperial Chinese Military History, Writers Club Press

Helenium puberulum

Helenium puberulum is a North American species of flowering plants in the daisy family known by the common name rosilla. It is native to California and Baja California, where it can be found in moist habitats such as riverbanks and meadows, it has been found in Oregon, although these might be naturalized populations. Helenium puberulum is an annual or perennial herb sometimes as much as 160 cm tall though other times much smaller. Most of the leaves are on the lower part of the plant. Stems are winged. One plant can produce as many as 30 flower heads in a branched array; the head is unusual in that the part covered by the disc florets is completely spherical rather than conical as in most other species of the genus. There can sometimes be over 1000 small disc florets in the head, each yellow at the bottom but brown or purple toward the tip; the 13-17 yellow ray florets are inconspicuous, pointing backwards down the flower stalk. Sometimes the ray florets are absent; the fruit is a hairy achene one to two millimeters long.

Jepson Manual Treatment: Helenium puberulum United States department of Agriculture Plants Profile Helenium puberulum Calphotos Photo gallery, University of California Wildflowers in Santa Barbara

James Styles

James Styles was an English-born Australian politician. Born in Croydon, Styles migrated to Australia in 1849 with his family, where he was educated at private schools in Melbourne, he became a civil engineer and railway contractor, sat on Williamstown Council. Styles applied unsuccessfully for the position of chairman of the Melbourne and Metropolitan Board of Works in 1891. Styles clashed with the Board's chairman, Edmond Gerald FitzGibbon. In 1894, Styles was elected to the Victorian Legislative Assembly as the member for Williamstown, a position he held until 1900. In 1901, he was elected to the Australian Senate as a Protectionist Senator from Victoria, he held the seat until his defeat in 1906. Styles died in 1913

Easton, Missouri

Easton is a city in Buchanan County, United States. The population was 234 at the 2010 census, it is part of the St. MO -- KS Metropolitan Statistical Area. Easton was platted in 1854; the name Easton may be directional. A post office called Easton has been in operation since 1855. Easton is located at 39°43′22″N 94°38′23″W. According to the United States Census Bureau, the city has a total area of 0.58 square miles, all of it land. State Highway 31 runs North/South through the center of town and is used as a link between US Hwy 36 to the North and US Hwy 169 to the South; the speed limit is enforced aggressively on Hwy 31 in the same fashion as Macks Creek and Randolph, Missouri for a major source of the small community's income. As of the census of 2010, there were 234 people, 103 households, 67 families residing in the city; the population density was 403.4 inhabitants per square mile. There were 110 housing units at an average density of 189.7 per square mile. The racial makeup of the city was 95.3% White, 1.3% Native American, 0.4% Asian, 3.0% from two or more races.

Hispanic or Latino of any race were 4.7% of the population. There were 103 households of which 25.2% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 49.5% were married couples living together, 10.7% had a female householder with no husband present, 4.9% had a male householder with no wife present, 35.0% were non-families. 34.0% of all households were made up of individuals and 13.6% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.27 and the average family size was 2.90. The median age in the city was 45.7 years. 16.7% of residents were under the age of 18. The gender makeup of the city was 49.6% male and 50.4% female. As of the census of 2000, there were 258 people, 104 households, 66 families residing in the city; the population density was 426.3 people per square mile. There were 107 housing units at an average density of 176.8 per square mile. The racial makeup of the city was 93.80% White, 0.39% Native American, 0.39% Asian, 5.43% from two or more races.

Hispanic or Latino of any race were 3.88% of the population. There were 104 households out of which 37.5% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 51.9% were married couples living together, 7.7% had a female householder with no husband present, 36.5% were non-families. 34.6% of all households were made up of individuals and 14.4% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.48 and the average family size was 3.26. In the city the population was spread out with 29.5% under the age of 18, 5.0% from 18 to 24, 30.6% from 25 to 44, 24.0% from 45 to 64, 10.9% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 36 years. For every 100 females, there were 95.5 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 97.8 males. The median income for a household in the city was $45,750, the median income for a family was $50,000. Males had a median income of $33,125 versus $21,250 for females; the per capita income for the city was $14,865. About 4.8% of families and 4.8% of the population were below the poverty line, including 5.5% of those under the age of eighteen and none of those sixty five or over.

Easton is the birthplace of legendary college basketball coach Henry Iba, who coached Oklahoma State to consecutive NCAA titles in 1945 and 1946, becoming the first two-time winning coach in the NCAA tournament

Steve Tully

Stephen Richard Tully is an English footballer, last player-manager at Truro City. He was born in Devon, he began his career as a fullback with his local side Torquay United, turning professional in August 1997 and making his league debut in a 0–0 draw away to Barnet on 18 November that year. He went on to make over 160 appearances for the Gulls before being released at the end of the 2001–02 season, he joined non-league side Weymouth in August 2002 establishing himself in the side and winning the awards for Player of the Year and Away Player of the Season in 2003–2004. He lost his place in the side after the appointment of Steve Johnson as manager and asked for a transfer in January 2005. Although he withdrew this request, he was allowed to join Exeter City in February 2005. However, he returned to Weymouth in May that year as new manager Garry Hill's first summer signing on a two-year deal, he returned to Exeter in January 2007 and was a regular in the side that made the play-off final at the end of that season, scoring the winning penalty in the semi-final against Oxford United.

On 2 July 2013 Tully was released by Exeter City. After leaving Exeter, Tully joined Tiverton Town before joining Truro City on 19 October 2013, he scored his first goal for Truro from the penalty spot in the 3–2 win at Hitchin Town on 2 November. He was appointed player-manager on 13 March 2014, at least until the end of the 2013–14 season, after the sacking of Steve Massey. Steve Tully at Soccerbase