Western fiction

Western fiction is a genre of literature set in the American Old West frontier and set from the late eighteenth to the late nineteenth century. Well-known writers of Western fiction include Zane Grey from the early 20th century and Louis L'Amour from the mid-20th century; the genre peaked around the early 1960s due to the popularity of televised Westerns such as Bonanza. Readership has reached a new low in the 2000s. Most bookstores, outside a few west American states, only carry a small number of Western fiction books; the predecessor of the western in American literature emerged early with tales of the frontier. The most famous of the early 19th-century frontier novels were James Fenimore Cooper's five novels comprising the Leatherstocking Tales. Cooper's novels were set in what was at the time the American frontier: the Appalachian Mountains and areas west of there; as did his novel The Prairie, most westerns would take place west of the Mississippi River. The Western as a specialized genre got its start in the "penny dreadfuls" and the "dime novels".

Published in June 1860, Malaeska. These cheaply made books were hugely successful and capitalized on the many stories that were being told about the mountain men, outlaws and lawmen who were taming the western frontier. Many of these novels were fictionalized stories based on actual people, such as Billy the Kid, Buffalo Bill, Wyatt Earp, Wild Bill Hickok, Jesse James. By 1900, the new medium of pulp magazines helped to relate these adventures to easterners. Meanwhile, non-American authors, like the German Karl May, picked up the genre, went to full novel length, made it hugely popular and successful in continental Europe from about 1880 on, though they were dismissed as trivial by the literary critics of the day. Popularity grew with the publication of Owen Wister's novel The Virginian and Zane Grey's Riders of the Purple Sage; the first Hopalong Cassidy stories by Clarence Mulford appeared in 1904, both as dime novels and in pulp magazines. When pulp magazines exploded in popularity in the 1920s, Western fiction benefited.

Pulp magazines that specialised in Westerns include Cowboy Stories, Ranch Romances, Star Western and Western Story Magazine. The simultaneous popularity of Western movies in the 1920s helped the genre. In the 1940s several seminal Westerns were published, including The Ox-Bow Incident by Walter van Tilburg Clark, The Big Sky and The Way West by A. B. Guthrie, Jr. and Shane by Jack Schaefer. Many other Western authors gained readership in the 1950s, such as Ray Hogan, Louis L'Amour, Luke Short; the genre peaked around the early 1960s due to the tremendous number of Westerns on television. The burnout of the American public on television Westerns in the late 1960s seemed to have an effect on the literature as well, interest in Western literature began to wane. Western novels and pulps gave birth to Western comics, which were popular from the late 1940s until circa 1967, when the comics began to turn to reprints; this can be seen at Marvel Comics, where Westerns began circa 1948 and thrived until 1967, when one of their flagship titles, Kid Colt Outlaw, ceased to have new stories and entered the reprint phase.

Other notable long-running Marvel Western comics included Rawhide Kid Two-Gun Kid, Marvel Wild Western. DC Comics published the long-running series All-Star Western and Western Comics, Charlton Comics published Billy the Kid and Cheyenne Kid. Magazine Enterprises' Straight Arrow ran from 1950 to 1956, Prize Comics' Prize Comics Western ran from 1948 to 1956. Fawcett Comics published a number of Western titles, including Hopalong Cassidy from 1948 to 1953, they published comics starring actors known for their Western roles, including Tom Mix Western and Gabby Hayes Western. Dell Comics published Roy Rogers comics from 1948 to 1961, Magazine Enterprises published Charles Starrett as the Durango Kid from 1949 to 1955; the popular Western comic strip Red Ryder was syndicated in hundreds of American newspapers from 1938 to 1964. In the 1970s, the work of Louis L'Amour began to catch hold of most western readers and he has tended to dominate the western reader lists since. George G. Gilman maintained a cult following for several years in the 1970s and 1980s.

Larry McMurtry's and Cormac McCarthy's works remain notable. McMurtry's Lonesome Dove and McCarthy's Blood Meridian are recognized as major masterpieces both within and beyond the genre. Elmer Kelton noted for his novels The Good Old Boys and The Time it Never Rained, was voted by the Western Writers of America as the "Best Western Writer of All Time". Early in the 1970s Indiana novelist Marilyn Durham wrote two popular Western novels, The Man Who Loved Cat Dancing and Dutch Uncle. Western readership as a whole began to drop off in the mid- to late 1970s. A partial exception was an innovation, the so-called "adult western"; as one practitioner puts it, "What's an Adult Western? It's a western novel with sex in it. That's right, the cowboy has sex with women. A new idea? Not, but heretofore this had not been seen in western novels. What these books showed was that men and women did have sex in the old west. (Back wh

Antigone (1961 film)

Antigone is a 1961 Greek film adaptation of the Ancient Greek tragedy Antigone by Sophocles. It was directed by Yorgos Javellas; the film follows the story of the play but ends differently–instead of Creon retiring back to the palace as in the play, the film ends with Creon relinquishing his kingship and exiling himself out of Thebes. It was entered into the 11th Berlin International Film Festival. Irene Papas - Antigone Manos Katrakis - Creon Maro Kontou - Ismene Nikos Kazis - Haemon Ilia Livykou - Eurydice Giannis Argyris - A Sentry Byron Pallis - A Messenger Tzavalas Karousos - Tiresias Thodoros Moridis - First Elder of Thebes Giorgos Vlahopoulos - Elder of Thebes Yorgos Karetas - Elder of Thebes Thanasis Kefalopoulos - Elder of Thebes List of films based on military books Antigone on YouTube Antigone on IMDb

Agberos International

Agberos International is the 5th studio album by BANTU. The album was written by all 13 members of the band, it was recorded live in Nigeria over a period spanning 6 years. The title of the album ″Agberos International" was inspired by Lagos public bus conductors known as ″Agberos" who attract customers to board their vehicles through their wild gesticulations and loud voices; the album was released on 7.7.2017 by Soledad Productions and distributed internationally on all digital platforms by Okay Africa. The subject matter on ″Agberos International″ is centered around the Niger Delta crisis, oppressive western policies and the blind African ruling class. According to band leader Ade Bantu the album took six years to complete, it was produced and mixed by Aman Junaid This marked a significant shift from all previous BANTU album productions which where always handled by various producers and founding band members Abiodun & Adé Bantu. The writing & composing approach to ″ Agberos International ″ was unique.

Draft versions of songs where rehearsed and tried out live at the band's quarterly concert series Afropolitan Vibes before fine tuning and recording them. Agberos International was recorded in its entirety with live instruments; the sound of the album ranges from Afrobeat to Highlife and Hiphop. For their politically charged song ″Niger Delta Blues° BANTU recruited the services of Afrobeat co-creator Tony Allen on drums. Agberos International received positive reviews from contemporary critics. In his 4-star review for The Australian Tony Hillier said ″BANTU’s fifth album sashays between the satirical and political without missing a beat — from highlife to hip-hop, from R & B to rap, from afrobeat to American soul; the band’s music resounds with riveting rhythms of classic Brown and Kuti as brass players, guitarists and singers weave hypnotic patterns above pulsating beds and metronomic beats″ Agberos International was voted ″CD of the week″ by German Radio Station COSMO_. Referencing the bands concert series and music festival Dami Ajayi of Sabi News wrote ″BANTU has put out a compendium of their best nights at Afropolitan Vibes on CD″.

Joey Akah of summed up the essence of the album in his 4 1/2-star review as the complete African story saying ″this project is best experienced as a tribute to our motherland, with love, activism and various shades of dance° Afropunk 5:08 Lagos Barbie 4:26 Ká Máa Dúpẹ́ 4:52 Niger Delta Blues 7:32 Má Kó Bámi 4:10 Ṣe Jẹ́jẹ́ 5:05 Oní Tèmi 5:22 Stori Plenti 4:17 Anything For the Boys 4:30 Ilé 6:17 BANTU Ade Bantu Ayomiku Aigbokhan Abigail Ireoluwa Allen Damilola Williams Peter Sadibo Olufemi Sanni Babajide Okegbenro Dare Odede Akinkunmi Olagunju Abiodun “Wurasamba” Oke Opeyemi Oyewande Dotun Bankole Additional Personnel Olaolu Ajibade Tony Allen Segun Atoyebi Ibrahim Oyetunji Modupe Oke Yemisi Gbeje Ibukun Adetimehin Aman Junaid