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SUMMARY / RELATED TOPICS

Westernization

Westernization or Westernisation Europeanization/Europeanisation or occidentalization/occidentalisation, is a process whereby societies come under or adopt Western culture in areas such as industry, politics, lifestyle, norms, customs, values, perceptions, clothing, alphabet and philosophy. During colonialism it involved spread of Christianity. Westernization has been a growing influence across the world in the last few centuries, with some thinkers assuming Westernization to be the equivalent of modernization, a way of thought, debated; the overall process of Westernization is two-sided in that Western influences and interests themselves are joined with parts of the affected society, at minimum, to change towards a more Westernized society, with the putative goal of attaining a Western life or some aspects of it, while Western societies are themselves affected by this process and interaction with non-Western groups. Westernization traces its roots back to Ancient Greece; the Roman Empire would take on the first process of Westernization as it was influenced by Greece and created a new culture based on the principles and values of the Ancient Greek society.

The Romans emerged with a culture that would lay the new foundations of Europe and grow into a new Western identity based on the Greco-Roman society. Westernization can be compared to acculturation and enculturation. Acculturation is "the process of cultural and psychological change that takes place as a result of contact between cultural groups and their individual members." After contact, changes in cultural patterns are evident within both cultures. Specific to Westernization and the non-Western culture, foreign societies tend to adopt changes in their own social systems relative to Western ideology and physical appearance, along with numerous other aspects, shifts in culture patterns can be seen to take root as a community becomes acculturated to Western customs and characteristics – in other words, Westernized. Westernization can include Christianization and Europeanization, with historical versions including Romanization, Hellenization and Germanization; the phenomenon of Westernization does not follow any one specific pattern across societies as the degree of adaption and fusion with Western customs will occur at varying magnitudes within different communities.

The extent to which domination, resistance, adaptation or modification affect a native culture may differ following inter-ethnic contact. The "West" was defined as the Western world. Ancient Romans distinguished between Oriental cultures that inhabited present-day Egypt and Occidental cultures that lived in the West. A thousand years the East-West Schism separated the Catholic Church and Eastern Orthodox Church from each other; the definition of Western changed as the West was spread to other nations. Islamic and Byzantine scholars added to the Western canon when their stores of Greek and Roman literature jump-started the Renaissance. Although Russia converted to Christianity in the 10th century, the West expanded to include it when Peter the Great reformed the country's government, the church and modernized the society thanks to the ideas brought from the Netherlands. Today, most modern uses of the term refer to the societies in the West and their close genealogical and philosophical descendants included are those countries whose ethnic identity and dominant culture are derived from European culture.

However, though sharing in a similar historical background, it would be incorrect to regard the Western world as a monolithic bloc, as many cultural, religious and economical differences exist between Western countries and populations. Western civilization is said to include the United Kingdom, United States, Australia, New Zealand, European Union; the definition is widened, can include these countries, or a combination of these countries: European countries outside of the EU and EFTA – Due to sharing of the general European culture and Christian faith, these countries are included in the definition of the West. Latin America. Most countries in Latin America are considered Western countries because most of its peoples are descended from Europeans, their society operates in a Westernized way. Indeed, most countries in Latin America use their official language, either in Spanish or Portuguese. According to the CIA World Factbook, there has been considerable immigration to Latin America from European nations other than Spain and Portugal.

The process of Westernization comes when non-Western societies come under Western influence or adopt Western culture in different areas such as industry, law, economics, diet, language, religion and values. The following countries or regions experienced a significant influence by the process of Westernization: Azerbaijan. Geographically located in the Caucasus mountain range, it is the most westernized and modernized Turkish country. In addition to being the first Muslim-majority country to have operas and plays, it is one of the Muslim countries with greater support for secularism and religious to

Bull Allen (soldier)

Leslie Charles Allen, nicknamed "Bull" Allen, was an Australian soldier and a recipient of the United States' Silver Star. A stretcher-bearer, Allen enlisted in the Second Australian Imperial Force in mid-1940, volunteering for overseas service, he was posted to the 2/5th Battalion, an infantry unit, deployed to the Middle East where he saw action in the Western Desert and Syria–Lebanon Campaigns, before his unit returned to Australia in 1942. He subsequently served in New Guinea. In July 1943, Allen took part in the Battle of Mount Tambu where he rescued twelve United States soldiers, wounded in the fighting. For this action he was awarded the Silver Star, he returned to Australia in the year and was medically discharged in 1944 after his mental health deteriorated. After the war, he worked as a medical orderly, he died in May 1982 at the age of 65. Allen was born in Ballarat East, the second son of Clarance Walter Allen, a labourer, his wife Ruby Ethel née Robertson. After an early childhood involving domestic violence and his sister were abandoned raised in an orphanage.

From around 12 years of age, Allen started work as a labourer on farms. Allen enlisted in the Second Australian Imperial Force on 19 April 1940; as a stretcher-bearer destined for the 2/5th Battalion, Allen left for the Middle East in September 1940. He was nicknamed "Bull" for the way he charged through the opposition when playing with the battalion in Australian Rules football. Allen saw action in the Western Desert Campaign early in 1941 and was shown to be reliable, but in early April was admitted with "anxiety neurosis" to hospital, he rejoined his battalion in time for the Syria–Lebanon Campaign where he attended to casualties all night under fire on 10–11 July 1941 near Khalde and walked for 10 km the next morning to get transport. After serving in Ceylon Allen's battalion returned to Australia in August 1942 in October sailing for Papua. Allen rescued wounded soldiers under fire around Crystal Creek on the 7 and 8 February 1943 for which he was awarded the Military Medal. On 30 July 1943, at Mount Tambu, Allen safely rescued twelve United States soldiers and was awarded the Silver Star—the citation stating: "Private Allen’s bearing and his untiring efforts in tending the wounded and helping with rations and stores were an inspiration".

Allen returned to Australia in his behaviour becoming unstable. He was medically discharged on 10 September 1944. Temporarily losing the power of speech, Allen lived with an uncle, he worked as a labourer and at the Ballarat Base Hospital as a medical orderly. Allen worked at Sovereign Hill demonstrating a horse-drawn Chilean quartz-crushing mill for tourists. Allen died on 11 May 1982 at Sovereign Hill of myocardial infarction. List of Australian Silver Star recipients Bull Allen – Culture Victoria Bull Allen MM USS Kokoda Historical – Kokoda Track

Eli Blakstad

Eli Blakstad is a Norwegian politician for the Centre Party. She finished her secondary education in 1981, graduated from Jønsberg Agricultural School in 1982 and Telemark University College in 1985, she was hired as an accountant in Sør-Fron in 1985, since 1990 she has been a farmer. From 2001 to 2011 she was the chief executive officer of Peer Gynt AS, she was a board member of Norges Bygdeungdomslag from 1983 to 1984, the first female leader of the organization from 1986 to 1988. During her leadership she was a board member of the Norwegian Agrarian Association, she was a board member of the Royal Norwegian Society for Development from 2002 to 2006, of Lillehammer University College from 2002 to 2011, Mjøsenergi Invest from 2006 to 2007, Innovation Norway from 2007 to 2010, Eidsiva Marked from 2008 to 2011 and Nortura in 2009. She has been involved in tourism, among others as a member of the strategic council for tourism development in the Confederation of Norwegian Enterprise from 2008 to 2010.

She was a member of Oppland county council from 1995 to 2007, chaired Oppland Centre Party from 2001 to 2006. In 1997 and 2005 she was a member of the party platform committee. In 2011 she was appointed State Secretary in the Ministry of Petroleum and Energy as a part of Stoltenberg's Second Cabinet, she was replaced in 2012. Soon after she was elected new deputy leader of No to the EU. In early 2013 she was redrafted into Stoltenberg's Second Cabinet as State Secretary in the Ministry of Local Government and Regional Development; the cabinet fell in October 2013

Incremental backup

An incremental backup is one in which successive copies of the data contain only the portion that has changed since the preceding backup copy was made. When a full recovery is needed, the restoration process would need the last full backup plus all the incremental backups until the point of restoration. Incremental backups are desirable as they reduce storage space usage, are quicker to perform than differential backups; the most basic form of incremental backup consists of identifying and thus, preserving only those files that have changed since the last backup. Since changes are low, incremental backups are much smaller and quicker than full backups. For instance, following a full backup on Friday, a Monday backup will contain only those files that changed since Friday. A Tuesday backup contains only those files that changed since Monday, so on. A full restoration of data will be slower, since all increments must be restored. Should any one of the copies created fail, including the first, restoration will be incomplete.

A Unix example would be: The use of rsync's --link-dest option is what makes this command an example of incremental backup. A more sophisticated incremental backup scheme involves. A full backup is level 0. A level n backup will back up everything. Suppose for instance that a level 0 backup was taken on a Sunday. A level 1 backup taken on Monday would include only changes made since Sunday. A level 2 backup taken on Tuesday would include only changes made since Monday. A level 3 backup taken on Wednesday would include only changes made since Tuesday. If a level 2 backup was taken on Thursday, it would include all changes made since Monday because Monday was the most recent level n-1 backup. An incremental backup of the changes made between two instances of a mirror is called a reverse incremental. By applying a reverse incremental to a mirror, the result will be a previous version of the mirror. In other words, after the initial full backup, each successive incremental backup applies the changes to the previous full, creating a new synthetic full backup every time, while maintaining the ability to revert to previous versions.

The main advantage of this type of backup is a more efficient recovery process, since the most recent version of the data is a full backup, no incrementals need to be applied to it during its restoration. Reverse incremental backup works for both tapes and disks, but in practice tends to work better with disks. Companies using the reverse incremental backup method include Zetta.net. This style is similar to the synthetic backup concept. After an initial full backup, only the incremental backups are sent to a centralized backup system; this server keeps track of all the increments and sends the proper data back to the client during restores. This can be implemented by sending each incremental directly to tape as it is taken and refactoring the tapes as necessary. If enough disk space is available, an online mirror can be maintained along with previous incremental changes so that the current or older versions of the systems being backed up can be restored; this is a suitable method in the case of banking systems.

In modern cloud architectures, or disk to disk backup scenarios, this is much simpler. Data is placed on a cloud storage system. Metadata about the chunks is stored in a persistent system, which allows the system to assemble a point in time backup from these chunks at restore time. There is no need to refactor tape; this method backs up only the blocks within the file. This requires a higher level of integration between the receiver; these backup technologies are similar to the "block-level incremental" backup method. Another important difference is. At the moment, these are the technologies that achieve the highest relative compression of the data, turning into a great advantage for the security copies carried out through the Internet. A synthetic backup is an alternative method of creating full backups. Instead of reading and backing up data directly from the disk, it will synthesize the data from the previous full backup and the periodic incremental backups; as only the incremental backups read data from the disk, these are the only files that need to be transferred during offsite replication.

This reduces the bandwidth needed for offsite replication. Synthetic backup does not always work with the same efficiency; the rate of data uploaded from the target machine to data, synchronized on the storage, varies depending on the disk fragmentation. A differential backup is a cumulative backup of all changes made since the last full or normal backup, i.e. the differences since the last full backup. The advantage to this is the quicker recovery time, requiring only a full backup and the last differential backup to restore the system; the disadvantage is that for each day elapsed since the last full backup, more data needs to be backed up if a significant proportion of the data has changed. A forward incremental-forever backup allows the synthetic operation to create a new full backup, limited to the size of the incremental file, instead of the complete size of a full backup fil

Anderson impurity model

The Anderson impurity model, named after Philip Warren Anderson, is a Hamiltonian, used to describe magnetic impurities embedded in metals. It is applied to the description of Kondo effect-type problems, such as heavy fermion systems and Kondo insulators. In its simplest form, the model contains a term describing the kinetic energy of the conduction electrons, a two-level term with an on-site Coulomb repulsion that models the impurity energy levels, a hybridization term that couples conduction and impurity orbitals. For a single impurity, the Hamiltonian takes the form H = ∑ σ ϵ f f σ † f σ + ∑ ⟨ j, j ′ ⟩ σ t j j ′ c j σ † c j ′ σ + ∑ j, σ + U f ↑ † f ↑ f ↓ † f ↓, where the f operator corresponds to the annihilation operator of an impurity, c corresponds to a conduction electron annihilation operator, σ labels the spin; the on–site Coulomb repulsion is U, the dominant energy scale, t j j ′ is the hopping strength from site j to site j ′. A significant feature of this model is the hybridization term V, which allows the f electrons in heavy fermion systems to become mobile, although they are separated by a distance greater than the Hill limit.

For heavy-fermion systems, a lattice of impurities is described by the periodic Anderson model: H = ∑ j σ ϵ f f j σ † f j σ + ∑ ⟨ j, j ′ ⟩ σ t j j ′ c j σ † c j ′ σ + ∑ j, σ + U ∑ j f j ↑ † f j ↑ f j ↓ † f j ↓ There are other variants of the Anderson model, for instance the SU Anderson model, used to describe impurities which have an orbital, as well as a spin, degree of freedom. This is relevant in carbon nanotube quantum dot systems; the SU Anderson model Hamiltonian is H = ∑ i σ ϵ f f i σ † f i σ + ∑ < j, j ′ > σ t i j j ′ c i j σ † c i j ′ σ + ∑ i j, σ + ∑ i σ, i ′ σ ′ U 2 n i σ n i ′ σ ′ {\displaystyle H=\sum _\epsilon _f_^f_+\sum _t_c_^c_+\sum _+\sum

Housing and Urban Development Corporation

The Housing and Urban Development Corporation Limited is a government-owned corporation in India. One of the public sector undertakings, it is listed Company on NSE and BSE with major shareholding of Government of India holding and is under the administrative control of the Ministry of Housing and Urban Affairs; this institution was came into existence on 25, April, 1970 as a private limited company under the complete ownership of Indian Government with an equity base of Rs. 2 crore under the Companies Act, 1956. It was created against the backdrop of housing deficit in India in 1960s and 70s, with the objective of addressing issue of housing finance and playing role in urban infrastructure development; the organisation provides finance for setting up of new towns and works as consultancy services for the projects of designing and planning relating to Housing and Urban Development programs in India as well as abroad. HUDCO won UN-Habitat Scroll of Honour Award for the contributions to the development of housing in 1991.

The institution was conferred with miniratna status in 2004. To provide long term finance for construction of houses for residential purposes or finance or undertake housing and urban development programmes in the country. To finance or undertake, wholly or the setting up of new or satellite town. Help State Housing Boards, Improvement Trusts, Development Authorities etc. for the purpose of financing housing and urban development programmes. To finance or undertake the setting up of industrial enterprises of building material. To promote, assist and provide consultancy services for the projects of designing and planning of works relating to Housing and Urban Development programmes in India and abroad; the Building Centre Movement was launched by the Government of India, Ministry of Housing Urban & Poverty Alleviation through HUDCO in 1988. • Building Centres are playing a significant role not only in the construction of cost effective livable, aesthetic, in short say as affordable and acceptable houses by using cost effective, appropriate and sustainable technologies.

• Generating substantial employment opportunities by training not only in the conventional technologies but in the cost effective building material trades. HUDCO started financing for development of infrastructures in 1989; the priority was giving for infrastructure facilities including projects in the sectors of drainage, water supply, solid waste management and roads in the urban areas. The social infrastructure components like primary schools and play grounds, hostels for working women, healthcare centres, police stations and jails, etc. received benefit of funding for low cost. HUDCO has provided term loans for construction of roads and other transportation sectors which includes construction of Airport, Ports, Metro Rails and Flyover, Railway Over-bridges, Bypasses, Bus Terminal, Parking complexes, Purchase of public transport vehicles, Bus Stops/stations, Intelligent Traffic Management system etc. Airports projects of Cochin International Airport and Calicut International Airport in Kerala are supported by HUDCO.

The infrastructure for Kerala State Road Transport Corporation and UPSRTC are funded by them. HUDCO sanctioned 100 crore rupees for KSRTC in 2002 for purchasing 550 buses and 350 mini-buses and 260 crores in 2014 for purchasing 1500 buses. In 1994 HUDCO set up a Waste Management Cell for promotion of municipal waste management. HUDCO has sanctioned 58 schemes with a project cost of Rs 675 crore to provide new systems and to augment the existing systems. 295 water supply schemes, with a project cost of Rs 5,285 crore was funded by HUDCO. In 2016 HUDCO has given finance to Nellore's underground drainage project proposed by Nellore Municipal Corporation. Hudco Official Website