Wood Lane tube station (Central line)
Wood Lane is a disused station on the London Underground located in Shepherds Bush, west London. It was latterly served by the Central line and from 1908 to 1920 was the terminus of the Central lines precursor. Wood Lane station was built to serve the 1908 Franco-British Exhibition and its location was very confined and its configuration awkward, requiring alterations on a number of occasions to meet operational requirements. It closed in 1947 following the opening of the nearby White City station, in 2008, a new Wood Lane station was opened on the Circle and Hammersmith & City lines. Prior to the 1908 Franco-British Exhibition, the terminus of the Central London Railway was at Shepherds Bush. North of Shepherds Bush was the CLRs power station and Wood Lane depot, trains originally accessed the depot via a single, sharply-curved tunnel from the stations westbound platform, heading northwards under Caxton Street. Trains exited the tunnel to the north of the depot, trains running from the depot reversed the process and entered the eastbound platform of Shepherds Bush station via a junction to the west of the station.
When the exhibition opened, a station was constructed within the northern perimeter of the depot on the site of the reversing siding. A new tunnel was bored to connect directly to the end of the tunnel at Shepherds Bush station. As constructed for the exhibition, Wood Lane station had just a track with platforms on each side, one for loading. Trains entered the station anti-clockwise in a direction from the tunnel under the depot. Following the success of the exhibition a number of entertainment venues, notably White City Stadium, grew up in the area. Wood Lane became the terminus of the CLR. Until the late 1920s, the railway used carriages that were accessed by gated entrances at the carriage ends, a pivoting section of platform was constructed that could be moved to allow access to the depot to be made when required. A new sub-surface tunnel was constructed to the north of the loop platforms on which was located a new westbound platform for trains heading to Ealing Broadway. Another new sub-surface tunnel was constructed to the west the loop platforms, trains terminating or starting at Wood Lane continued to use the loop platforms.
The station thus had a triangular shape, due to its awkward configuration and unsatisfactory operation, Wood Lane was closed in 1947 when a replacement station called White City was opened on the Central line a short distance to the north. The Wood Lane platforms were abandoned and the became known as White City depot
KidZania is a privately held Mexican chain of family entertainment centers currently operating in 24 locations worldwide, allowing children to work in adult jobs and earn currency. KidZania has received more than 31 million visitors since its opening, making it one of the fastest growing global edutainment brands in the world. Every KidZania is themed as a replica of a real city, including buildings and theaters, as well as vehicles. The children earn kidZos while performing the tasks, and the money is kept in the KidZania bank for children to spend at the gift shop, inside every KidZania facility around the world, children wear electronic bracelets that allow parents to keep track of their kids remotely. Children make up the governance of KidZania, with a 14-member group, bollywood actor Shah Rukh Khan owns a 26% share in KidZania India and helps promote the brand in India. KidZania was created and developed by the Mexican entrepreneur Xavier López Ancona, the first KidZania opened in September 1999 in Santa Fe Shopping Mall in Mexico City, and was named La Ciudad de los Niños.
Corporate sponsors funded 55% of the initial investment, in 2007, KidZania hired entertainment strategist Andrew Darrow as executive vice president to expand the operation. Cammie Dunaway joined in late 2010 as the chief marketing officer, KidZania at Westfield London, cost £20 million to build. In partnership with British Airways, it is operated by Joel Cadbury, the mascots of KidZania are called the Rightz Keepers. They represent the rights that all KidZania patrons have, and together, they share an extra sixth right and this is the second KidZania in South Korea. From 2011 to 2015, KidZania has been recognized as one of The Best Mexican Companies, official website An article about KidZania in the Japanese Metropolis magazine New Kidzania theme park to be developed – The Brunei Times Las Mejores Empresas Mexicanas
White City tube station
White City is a London Underground station on Wood Lane in White City, west London, England, on the Central line between Shepherds Bush and East Acton stations in Travelcard Zone 2. The station was opened on 23 November 1947, replacing the earlier Wood Lane station and its construction started after 1938 and had been scheduled for completion by 1940, but the Second World War delayed its opening for another seven years. The architectural design of the station won an award at the Festival of Britain, an interesting feature of the station is that the line adopts right-hand running through the station rather than the conventional left-hand running. The two tracks return to their normal left-hand orientation by a surface fly-over roughly halfway between White City and East Acton stations, the stations running layout has three tracks, with the centre track having platforms on each side meaning that it can handle trains running in either direction. A siding between the lines to the north of the station allows trains from Central London to be reversed.
Trains going out of service can return to the below ground White City depot to the south of the station via sidings between the running lines, the nearby Wood Lane station on the Circle and Hammersmith & City lines provides an interchange between the lines. This station is directly opposite the now closed BBC Television Centre and is within walking distance of Loftus Road. It is walking distance of Westfield London. The station received a certificate of merit in the 2009 National Railway Heritage Awards, London Regional category, for the modernisation that took care to retain heritage and architectural features. An earlier Wood Lane station on the Hammersmith & City line was located a distance to the south and was known as White City from 23 November 1947 until its closure in 1959. London Buses routes 31,49,72,95,148,207,220,228,237,260,272,283,316 and 607 serve the station, London Transport Museum Photographic Archive White City Station in 1951. Shepherds Bush and White City development
Marks & Spencer
Marks and Spencer plc is a major British multinational retailer headquartered in the City of Westminster, London. It is listed on the London Stock Exchange and is a constituent of the FTSE100 Index and it specialises in the selling of clothing, home products and luxury food products. M&S was founded in 1884 by Michael Marks and Thomas Spencer in Leeds, the company began to sell branded goods like Kelloggs Corn Flakes in November 2008. In recent years its clothing sales have fallen whilst food sales have increased after the axing of St. Michaels naming for their own brand. The company was founded by a partnership between Michael Marks, a Polish Jew from Słonim, and Thomas Spencer, a cashier from the English market town of Skipton in North Yorkshire. On his arrival in England, Marks worked for a company in Leeds, called Barran, in 1884 he met Isaac Jowitt Dewhirst while looking for work. Dewhirst lent Marks £5 which he used to establish his Penny Bazaar on Kirkgate Market, Dewhirst taught him a little English.
Dewhirsts cashier was Tom Spencer, a bookkeeper, whose wife, Agnes. In 1894, when Marks acquired a permanent stall in Leeds covered market, in 1901 Marks moved to the Birkenhead open market where he amalgamated with Spencer. The pair were allocated stall numbers 11 &12 in the aisle in 1903. The company left Birkenhead Market on 24 February 1923 and it accepted the return of unwanted items, giving a full cash refund if the receipt was shown, no matter how long ago the product was purchased, which was unusual for the time. M&S staff raised £5,000 to pay for a Supermarine Spitfire fighter aircraft called The Marksman in 1941, by 1950, virtually all goods were sold under the St Michael label. M&S lingerie, womens clothes and girls uniform were branded under the St Margaret label until the whole range of general merchandise became St Michael. Simon Marks, son of Michael Marks, died in 1964, Israel Sieff, the son-in-law of Michael Marks, took over as chairman and in 1968, John Salisse became the company Director.
A cautious international expansion began with the introduction of Asian food in 1974, M&S opened stores in continental Europe in 1975 and in Ireland four years later. The company put its emphasis on quality, including a 1957 stocking size measuring system. For most of its history, it had a reputation for offering fair value for money, when this reputation began to waver, it encountered serious difficulties. Arguably, M&S has historically been an iconic retailer of British Quality Goods, the uncompromising attitude towards customer relations was summarised by the 1953 slogan, The customer is always and completely right
Franco-British Exhibition (1908)
The Franco-British Exhibition was a large public fair held in London between May 14th and October 31st 1908. The exhibition attracted 8 million visitors and celebrated the Entente Cordiale signed in 1904 by the United Kingdom, the chief architect of the buildings was John Belcher. The Exhibition was held in an area of west London near Shepherds Bush which is now called White City, the 1908 Summer Olympics fencing events were held in the district alongside the festivities. The fair was the largest exhibition of its kind in Britain, and it covered an area of some 140 acres, including an artificial lake, surrounded by an immense network of white buildings in elaborate styles. The most popular attractions at the exhibition were the two so-called colonial villages—an Irish village and a Senegalese village, which were designed to communicate the success of imperialism. The Irish village was inhabited by 150 colleens who demonstrated various forms of industry, as well as displays of manufacturing.
The Senegalese village was a native village displaying day-to-day life. Press reports commented on the cleanliness of the Irish, while readers were reminded that the Senegalese were cleaner than they looked. In an Anglo-French section one night, A Youth met a Maiden and bright, But her idea of pleasure, Was of such boundless measure, in 1937, a large portion of the White City site was cleared to make way for a housing estate. On 14 August, a balloon owned by American balloonist Capt. Lovelace exploded at the exhibition, killing his 18-year-old secretary, six others were injured, including a 47-year-old employee who died days after the accident. Newspaper reports indicated that the explosion occurred when a match was thrown to the ground during preparations for a flight. After being used for four more exhibitions up to 1914, the fell into disrepair and was unused for over twenty years. It was demolished bit by bit to make way for various developments over the last century, only the internal structure of the TA building on South Africa Road remains from the numerous halls and ornate buildings of the original exhibition.
Hammersmith Park, at the north of Frithville Gardens, was part of the Japanese Garden. A small area of tiling preserved from the Garden could be seen inside the main Television Centre site adjacent to the Studio 1 Audience Entrance. The White City Stadium site, in Wood Lane adjacent to the Westway overpass, history of Shepherds Bush List of worlds fairs Geppert, Alexander C. T. Imperial Expositions in Fin-de-Siècle Europe, Basingstoke/New York, Palgrave Macmillan,2010
By September 1940—two months into the battle—faulty German intelligence suggested that the Royal Air Force was close to defeat at the hands of the Luftwaffe. The German air fleets were ordered to attack London, thereby drawing up the last remnants of RAF Fighter Command into a battle of annihilation, Adolf Hitler and commander-in-chief of the Luftwaffe Reichsmarschall Hermann Göring, sanctioned the change in emphasis on 6 September 1940. From 7 September 1940, one year into the war, London was systematically bombed by the Luftwaffe for 56 out of the following 57 days, on 15 September 1940, a large daylight attack against London was repulsed with significant German losses. Thereafter, the Luftwaffe gradually decreased daylight operations in favour of nocturnal attacks and industrial centres outside London were attacked. The main Atlantic sea port of Liverpool was bombed, the North Sea port of Hull, a convenient and easily found target or secondary target for bombers unable to locate their primary targets, was subjected to raids in the Hull Blitz during the war.
More than one million London houses were destroyed or damaged and more than 40,000 civilians were killed, by May 1941, the threat of an invasion of Britain had ended, and Hitlers attention turned to Operation Barbarossa, the invasion of the Soviet Union. The bombing failed to demoralise the British into surrender or significantly damage the war economy, the eight months of bombing never seriously hampered British production and the war industries continued to operate and expand. The German offensives greatest effect was forcing the dispersal of aircraft production, British wartime studies concluded that cities generally took 10 to 15 days to recover when hit severely but exceptions like Birmingham took three months. The German air offensive failed for several reasons, discussions in OKL revolved around tactics rather than strategy. Poor intelligence on British industry and economic efficiency was a factor, in the 1920s and 1930s, air power theorists Giulio Douhet and Billy Mitchell espoused the idea that air forces could win wars, without a need for land and sea fighting.
It was thought there was no defence against air attack, particularly at night, enemy industry, seats of government and communications could be destroyed, taking away their means to resist. It was thought the bombing of residential centres would cause a collapse of civilian will, where the populace was allowed to show overt disapproval of the state, were thought particularly vulnerable. This thinking was prevalent in both the RAF and the United States Army Air Corps, the policy of RAF Bomber Command became an attempt to achieve victory through the destruction of civilian will and industry. In the Luftwaffe, there was a view of strategic bombing. OKL did not believe that air power alone could be decisive, contrary to popular belief, evidence suggests that the Luftwaffe did not adopt an official bombing policy in which civilians became the primary target until 1942. The vital industries and transport centres that would be targeted for shutdown were valid military targets and it could be claimed civilians were not to be targeted directly, but the breakdown of production would affect their morale and will to fight.
German legal scholars of the 1930s carefully worked out guidelines for what type of bombing was permissible under international law. Wever outlined five points of air strategy, To destroy the air force by bombing its bases and aircraft factories
The London Overground is a suburban rail network in the United Kingdom. Established in 2007, it serves a large part of Greater London and parts of Hertfordshire, the network forms part of the National Rail network, but under the franchise control and branding of Transport for London. Operation has been franchised to Arriva Rail London since 13 November 2016, the Overground has been assigned the colour orange as a mode specific colour by Transport for London. This colour is used in the Overground version of the TfL roundel, for the representation of Overground routes on the map, in train interiors. Rail services in Great Britain are mostly run under franchises operated by train operating companies. The concept of developing a network of services around London goes back to the independently produced Ringrail proposals in the early 1970s. The proposal from Barren was for several overlapping services mainly using the North London Line and this was given the marketing name Cross Town Link-Line, and operated with basic 2-car diesel units.
The next initiative came from the GLC in 1984, when the government supported the Broadgate development that would entail the demolition of Broad Street Station. The closure process was convoluted because of problems in making arrangements for the North London Line. These would eventually run to and from Liverpool Street via a new section of track and this used a name once associated with a semicircular service that operated from Broad Street to Mansion House, but ceased during World War 1. The pamphlets and briefings, first issued in 1997, initially suggested a route from Clapham Junction to the Greenwich Peninsula, intended to improve access from south London to the Millennium Dome. However, this was thwarted by architect Richard Rogers who considered a railway route on an elevated viaduct could cause community severance, nothing further happened to develop this network until after the new GLA was set up in 2000. But the lobbying discreetly continued with a series of short briefings published by one RDS member based in North London, mayoral and GLA candidates were approached to discuss the viability of the Outer Circle concept.
The principle was widely supported and was adopted into the first Mayors Transport Plan, meanwhile, a pilot scheme was launched in 2003 to bring several National Rail local services, mainly in South London and operated by multiple companies, under the ON – Overground Network brand. TfL introduced consistent information displays, station signage and maps on the routes in South London. The pilot scheme was dropped, in January 2004 the Department for Transport announced a review of the rail industry in Great Britain. As part of review, proposals were put forward by TfL for a London Regional Rail Authority to give TfL regulatory powers over rail services in. A result of consultation was agreement by the Secretary of State for Transport, Alistair Darling
South Croydon railway station
South Croydon railway station is in the London Borough of Croydon in south London, in Travelcard Zone 5. It is on the Brighton Line at its junction with the Oxted Line, the station and all trains serving it are operated by Southern. The aim was to more space for reversing local trains than could be afforded at busy New Croydon. The rapid growth of the town in this area may have been a factor, in 1894 the railway obtained authority to extend the local lines to Coulsdon, where they connected with the new Quarry line. The station was rebuilt as a station with platform faces on all lines prior to the opening of the line in November 1899. In 1947 a train crash about 550 yards south of the station killed 32 people, on 1 August 2011, a landslide caused by a burst water main occurred approximately 200 yards north of the station, blocking the railway for 24 hours. South Croydon has five platforms connected by a narrow subway, the tracks through platforms 1 and 2 are used by services that do not call, for example fast Southern services from London Victoria to Brighton, Thameslink services and Gatwick Express.
Platform 3 is used by up trains to London Bridge and London Victoria, platform 4 is used by services that do not call, heading southbound, except some peak time services in both directions. Platform 5 is used by trains to Caterham and other destinations. Ticket gates became operational in April 2009, London Buses route 64,403,412,433 and 455 serve the station. Train times and station information for South Croydon railway station from National Rail
Wembley Stadium is a football stadium in Wembley, England, which opened in 2007, on the site of the original Wembley Stadium, which was demolished from 2002–2003. The stadium hosts football matches including home matches of the England national football team. The stadium will be the home of Premier League football club Tottenham Hotspur while White Hart Lane is being demolished. Wembley Stadium is owned by the body of English football. The FA headquarters are based in the stadium, with 90,000 seats, it is the largest football stadium in England, the largest stadium in the UK and the second-largest stadium in Europe. Designed by Populous and Foster and Partners, it includes a retractable roof. The stadium was built by Australian firm Multiplex at a cost of £798 million, a UEFA category four stadium, Wembley hosted the 2011 and 2013 UEFA Champions League Finals, and will host both the semi-finals and final of UEFA Euro 2020. The stadium hosted the Gold medal matches at the 2012 Olympic Games football tournament, the stadium hosts rugby leagues Challenge Cup final, the NFL International Series and music concerts.
The design of the services was carried out by Mott MacDonald. It is one of the most expensive ever built at a cost of £798 million. The all-seater stadium is a design with a capacity of 90,000. It can be adapted as a stadium by erecting a temporary platform over the lowest tier of seating. The stadiums signature feature is a circular section lattice arch of 7 m internal diameter with a 315 m span, erected some 22° off true and it supports all the weight of the north roof and 60% of the weight of the retractable roof on the southern side. The archway is the worlds longest unsupported roof structure, a platform system has been designed to convert the stadium for athletics use, but its use would decrease the stadiums capacity to approximately 60,000. No athletics events have taken place at the stadium, and none are scheduled, the conversion for athletics use was a condition of part of the lottery funding the stadium received, but to convert it would take weeks of work and cost millions of pounds.
Demolition officially began on 30 September 2002, with the Twin Towers being dismantled in December 2002, delays to the construction project started as far back as 2003. In December 2003, the constructors of the arch, subcontractors Cleveland Bridge & Engineering Company of Darlington, Cleveland Bridge withdrew from the project and replaced by Dutch firm Hollandia with all the attendant problems of starting over. In October 2005, Sports Minister Richard Caborn announced, They say the Cup Final will be there, by November 2005, WNSL were still hopeful of a handover date of 31 March, in time for the cup final on 13 May
Newcastle upon Tyne
Newcastle is the most populous city in the North East and forms the core of the Tyneside conurbation, the eighth most populous urban area in the United Kingdom. Newcastle is a member of the English Core Cities Group and is a member of the Eurocities network of European cities. Newcastle was part of the county of Northumberland until 1400, when it became a county of itself, the regional nickname and dialect for people from Newcastle and the surrounding area is Geordie. Newcastle houses Newcastle University, a member of the Russell Group, the city developed around the Roman settlement Pons Aelius and was named after the castle built in 1080 by Robert Curthose, William the Conquerors eldest son. The city grew as an important centre for the trade in the 14th century. The port developed in the 16th century and, along with the lower down the River Tyne, was amongst the worlds largest shipbuilding and ship-repairing centres. Newcastles economy includes corporate headquarters, digital technology, retail and cultural centres, among its icons are Newcastle United football club and the Tyne Bridge.
Since 1981 the city has hosted the Great North Run, a marathon which attracts over 57,000 runners each year. The first recorded settlement in what is now Newcastle was Pons Aelius and it was given the family name of the Roman Emperor Hadrian, who founded it in the 2nd century AD. This rare honour suggests Hadrian may have visited the site and instituted the bridge on his tour of Britain, Pons Aelius population at this period was estimated at 2,000. Fragments of Hadrians Wall are visible in parts of Newcastle, particularly along the West Road, the course of the Roman Wall can be traced eastwards to the Segedunum Roman fort in Wallsend—the walls end—and to the supply fort Arbeia in South Shields. After the Roman departure from Britain, completed in 410, Newcastle became part of the powerful Anglo-Saxon kingdom of Northumbria, conflicts with the Danes in 876 left the river Tyne and its settlements in ruin. After the conflicts with the Danes, and following the 1088 rebellion against the Normans, Monkchester was all, because of its strategic position, Robert Curthose, son of William the Conqueror, erected a wooden castle there in the year 1080.
The town was known as Novum Castellum or New Castle. The wooden structure was replaced by a castle in 1087. The castle was again in 1172 during the reign of Henry II. Much of the keep which can be seen in the city dates from this period. Throughout the Middle Ages, Newcastle was Englands northern fortress, incorporated first by Henry II, the city had a new charter granted by Elizabeth in 1589
Royal Borough of Kensington and Chelsea
The Royal Borough of Kensington and Chelsea is an inner London borough of Royal borough status, to the west of the centre. As the smallest borough in London and the second smallest district in England, the borough is immediately to the west of the City of Westminster and to the east of London Borough of Hammersmith and Fulham. It contains major museums and universities in Albertopolis, department stores such as Harrods, Peter Jones and Harvey Nichols and it is home to the Notting Hill Carnival, Europes largest. It contains many of the most expensive places in the world. The local authority is Kensington and Chelsea London Borough Council, the boroughs motto is Quam Bonum in Unum Habitare, which can be roughly translated as How good to dwell in unity. The borough was created in 1965 from the boroughs of Kensington. Kensingtons Royal Borough status was inherited by the new borough, the new borough was originally to be called just Kensington – the inclusion of Chelsea was locally supported. Due to its high French population it has held the unofficial title of the 21st arrondissement of Paris.
In 2005, the borough had more of its covered by domestic buildings than anywhere else in England at 19%. It had the fifth highest proportion of land covered by buildings at 12%. As of 2010, statistics released by the Office for National Statistics showed that life expectancy at birth for females was 89.8 years in 2008–2010, male life expectancy at birth for the same period was 85.1 years. The figures in 1991–1993 were significantly lower,73.0 years for males and 80.0 for females, the borough has a higher proportion of high earners than any other local government district in the country. It has the highest proportion of workers in the financial sector, in December 2006, Sport England published a survey which showed that the boroughs residents were the fourth most active in England in sports and other fitness activities. 27. 9% of the population participate at least three times a week for 30 minutes, the top quarter earn at least £41 per hour, three and a half times the level of the lowest quarter at £12 per hour or less.
Two of its more notable leaders were Nicholas Freeman, from 1977 until 1989. The Council has 42 Conservative,9 Labour and 3 Liberal Democrat councillors, the borough has combined a number of services and departments with its neighbours, Hammersmith & Fulham and Westminster City Council. Chelsea has less Underground access than Kensington, the station within Chelsea being Sloane Square. There are long-term plans for the Chelsea-Hackney line, with a station in the Kings Road near Chelsea Old Town Hall, buses Many London bus routes pass through the borough, most of them along Kings Road, Fulham Road, Kensington High Street and Ladbroke Grove
Shepherd's Bush tube station
Shepherds Bush is a London Underground station in the district of Shepherds Bush, which is located in west London, United Kingdom. The station is on the Central line, between White City and Holland Park stations, and it lies in Travelcard Zone 2. The station originally opened in 1900, but was closed for eight months in 2008 while the station building was replaced with a completely new structure. An entirely separate London Underground station, Shepherds Bush Market on the Circle, until 2008, it too was called Shepherds Bush until it was renamed to avoid confusion. The station opened on 30 July 1900 and was the western terminus of the Central London Railway. The original surface-level station building was a ticket hall with its entrance on the Uxbridge Road facing Shepherds Bush Green. Like all CLR stations, the building was designed by Harry Bell Measures. To the north of the station was located the CLRs power station, the eastbound tunnel ended to the west of the station in a dead-end reversing siding with a cross-over junction connecting it to the westbound tunnel.
When the now disused Wood Lane station was opened on 14 May 1908 to the north, an extension to Richmond planned in 1920 would have started here with the next stop at the closed London and South Western Railway station at Hammersmith, the work was never carried out. For a short period before 2008, the station was renamed Shepherds Bush Green until the rename of the station to Shepherds Bush Market. A large-scale redevelopment began in 2005 to redevelop the White City area to the north of Shepherds Bush Green, as part of this project, Shepherds Bush Central line station was reconstructed in 2008 by Westfield as part of a Section 106 contribution. The Westfield redevelopment included the construction of a bus interchange. The new Overground station opened on 28 September 2008 and is close to the site of the former Uxbridge Road station which closed in 1940, Shepherds Bush station re-opened to passengers on 5 October 2008. The London Borough of Hammersmith and Fulham and disability pressure groups have been critical of the fact that the station remains inaccessible for those unable to use stairs