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Westinghouse Electric Corporation

The first incarnation of Westinghouse Electric Corporation, an American manufacturing company, was founded on January 8, 1886, by George Westinghouse. It was named Westinghouse Electric Company, was renamed Westinghouse Electric Corporation in 1945; the company acquired the CBS television network in 1995, was renamed CBS Corporation before being acquired by Viacom in 1999. As of August 2019, the Westinghouse brand is managed by the Westinghouse Licensing Corporation, a subsidiary of ViacomCBS that became the legal successor to Viacom; the nuclear power business, Westinghouse Electric Company, was spun off from the Westinghouse Electric Corporation in 1999. Westinghouse Electric was founded by George Westinghouse in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania in 1886; the firm became active in developing electric infrastructure throughout the United States. The company's largest factories were located in East Pittsburgh Pennsylvania, Lester, Pennsylvania and in Hamilton, where they made turbines, generators and switch gear for generation and use of electricity.

In addition to George Westinghouse, early engineers working for the company included Frank Conrad, Benjamin Garver Lamme, Bertha Lamme, Oliver B. Shallenberger, William Stanley, Nikola Tesla, Stephen Timoshenko and Vladimir Zworykin. Early on, Westinghouse was a rival to Thomas Edison's electric company. In 1892, Edison was merged with Westinghouse's chief AC rival, the Thomson-Houston Electric Company, making an bigger competitor, General Electric. Westinghouse Electric & Manufacturing Company changed its name to Westinghouse Electric Corporation in 1945. Westinghouse purchased CBS Inc. in 1995. Westinghouse Electric Corporation changed its name to and became CBS Corporation in 1997. In 1998, the Power Generation Business Unit, headquartered in Orlando, was sold to Siemens AG, of Germany. A year CBS sold all of its commercial nuclear power businesses to British Nuclear Fuels Limited. In connection with that sale, certain rights to use the Westinghouse trademarks were granted to the newly formed BNFL subsidiary, Westinghouse Electric Company.

That company was sold to Toshiba in 2006. In 1990, Westinghouse experienced a financial catastrophe when the Corporation lost over one billion dollars due to bad high-risk, high-fee, high-interest loans made by its Westinghouse Credit Corporation lending arm. In an attempt to revitalize the corporation, the Board of Directors appointed outside management in the form of CEO Michael Jordan, who brought in numerous consultants to help re-engineer the company in order to realize the potential that they saw in the broadcasting industry. Westinghouse reduced the workforce in many of its traditional industrial operations and made further acquisitions in broadcasting to add to its substantial Group W network, purchasing CBS in 1995. Shortly after, Westinghouse purchased Infinity Broadcasting, TNN, CMT, American Radio Systems, rights to NFL broadcasting; these investments cost the company over fifteen billion dollars. To recoup its costs, Westinghouse sold many other operations. Siemens purchased non-nuclear power generation, while other firms bought the defense electronics, office furniture company Knoll, Thermo King, residential security.

With little remaining of the company aside from its broadcasting, Westinghouse renamed itself CBS Corporation in 1997. During the 20th century, Westinghouse engineers and scientists were granted more than 28,000 U. S. government patents, the third most of any company. The company pioneered the power generation industry and in the fields of long-distance power transmission and high-voltage alternating-current transmission, unveiling the technology for lighting in Great Barrington, Massachusetts; the first commercial Westinghouse steam turbine driven generator, a 1,500 kW unit, began operation at Hartford Electric Light Co. in 1901. The machine, nicknamed Mary-Ann, was the first steam turbine generator to be installed by an electric utility to generate electricity in the US. George Westinghouse had based his original steam turbine design on designs licensed from the English inventor Charles Parsons. Today a large proportion of steam turbine generators operating around the world, ranging to units as large as 1,500 MW were supplied by Westinghouse from its factories in Lester, Pennsylvania.

Major Westinghouse licensees or joint venture partners included Mitsubishi Heavy Industries of Japan and Harbin Turbine Co. and Shanghai Electric Co. of China. Westinghouse boasted 50,000 employees by 1900, established a formal research and development department in 1906. While the company was expanding, it would experience internal financial difficulties. During the Panic of 1907, the Board of Directors forced George Westinghouse to take a six-month leave of absence. Westinghouse retired in 1909 and died several years in 1914. Under new leadership, Westinghouse Electric diversified its business activities in electrical technology, it acquired the Copeman Electric Stove Company in 1914 and Pittsburgh High Voltage Insulator Company in 1921. Westinghouse moved into radio broadcasting by establishing Pittsburgh's KDKA, the first commercial radio station, WBZ in Springfield, Massachusetts in 1921. Westinghouse expanded into the elevator business, establishing the Westinghouse Elevator Company in 1928.

Throughout the decade, diversification engendered considerable growth. Westinghouse produced the first operational American turbojet for the US Navy program in 1943. After many successes, the ill-fated J40 project, started soon after WWII, was aba

Iodine monofluoride

Iodine monofluoride is an interhalogen compound of iodine and fluorine with formula IF. It is a chocolate-brown solid that decomposes at 0 °C, disproportionating to elemental iodine and iodine pentafluoride: 5 IF → 2 I2 + IF5However, its molecular properties can still be determined by spectroscopy: the iodine-fluorine distance is 190.9 pm and the I−F bond dissociation energy is around 277 kJ mol−1. At 298 K, its standard enthalpy change of formation is ΔHf° = −95.4 kJ mol−1, its Gibbs free energy is ΔGf° = −117.6 kJ mol−1. It can be generated, albeit only fleetingly, by the reaction of the elements at −45 °C in CCl3F: I2 + F2 → 2 IFIt can be generated by the reaction of iodine with iodine trifluoride at −78 °C in CCl3F: I2 + IF3 → 3 IFThe reaction of iodine with silver fluoride at 0 °C yields iodine monofluoride: I2 + AgF → IF + AgI Iodine monofluoride is used to produce pure nitrogen triiodide: BN + 3 IF → NI3 + BF3 Iodine trifluoride Iodine pentafluoride Iodine heptafluoride

São Gonçalo do Pará

São Gonçalo do Pará is a municipality located in the center-west of Minas Gerais state, Brazil. The estimated population in 2006 was 8,285 inhabitants; the total area of the municipality is 265 km² and the elevation is 750 meters. It is located at 129 km from state capital Belo Horizonte. São Gonçalo do; the creation of the town of São Gonçalo of Pará had narrow linking with the revolutionary surtos of the mineradores of the Captainship of Minas Gerais, in 1717. Felipe de Freitas Mourão-, gold Portuguese, worked in the mines of at the time colonial Pitangui. For being involved in revolutionary movements against the collection of taxes on gold, he ran away together with its wife, Estefânia de Mourão Bravo, they had gone up in direction to the spring of the River Pará and had found with fugitive Portuguese of Rich Village. Felipe de Freitas was invited by the Portuguese to be foreman of slaves, he gave orders in plantation. It and some slaves enveredaram for the next bushes to the river Pará exploring the land, had arrived at a brook whose lands where they were its edges were good for the culture of plantations.

They had given to the place the name of brook of the Moral. They had constructed farms of wood-the-puncture with I tow and re-covered of sapé. Finished the constructions in the brook, to they had moved there in 18 of December 1723, they had placed in the throne in a just-constructed chapel the image of São Gonçalo of the Amarante, that brought in its luggage. It was the saint. Felipe drew out its trip, leading I obtain slaves, arrived at a place with a great wooden reserve of law. In this place, it would initiate the formation of the arraial primitive, that future would take the name of São Gonçalo of Pará. In 1735, the constructions had given for locked up all of a chapel with the image of São Gonçalo of the Amarante, it had the suggestion of if Above calling this place Pará. Felipe de Freitas affirmed to have done a stop in that place, close to the edges it River Pará, when he comes of Pitangui. From 1751 to 1755, a new church was constructed in the same place of the old chapel, with baroque style.

In 1750 the town passed if to call They São Gonçalo of Pará, making reference to the River Pará, the same that it brought the founders and today is dividing line of the current city. In 1870, the arraial of São Gonçalo of Pará was made district of Pitangui and annexed the Village of Ours Lady of the Mercy; the emancipation politics came to be carried through in 1º of January 1949