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Polyeucte (opera)

Polyeucte is an opéra by Charles Gounod based on the play about Saint Polyeuctus by Pierre Corneille. The libretto by Jules Barbier and Michel Carré is more faithful to its source than Les martyrs, Scribe's adaptation for Donizetti, Gounod hoped to express "the unknown and irresistible powers that Christianity has spread among humanity"; the subject had occupied Gounod for some ten years. An initial delay was caused by a fire which destroyed the theatre of the Paris Opéra, the Salle Le Peletier, in October 1873. Further delay came about because the first draft remained in the hands of the jealous Georgina Weldon when Gounod left England in 1874 to return to Paris, he had to resort to a lawsuit before resigning himself to recomposing the work from memory, although towards the end of that endeavor, Weldon did return it. The opera premiered at the Opéra's new house, the Palais Garnier on 7 October 1878, in stage sets designed by Jean Émile Daran, Louis Chéret, Auguste Alfred Rubé and Philippe Chaperon, Eugène Louis Carpezat and Antoine Lavastre, Jean-Baptiste Lavastre.

Despite the splendid staging, the premiere was a failure – "the sorrow of my life", noted Gounod – and closed after 29 performances. Polyeucte's aria "Source délicieuse" is sometimes heard in concert. A 2004 co-production by Jean-Louis Pichon was seen that year in Martina Franca in 2006 in Saint-Etienne conducted by Laurent Campellone and Jean-Pierre Furlan in the title role. Place: Melitene, the capital of ancient Armenia Time: 3rd century ADThe subject is taken from Corneille's tragedy; the story, has here been somewhat differently treated. Félix, Proconsul of Armenia, has a daughter Pauline, at one time sought in marriage by the Roman general Sévère. Circumstances divided them, Pauline gave her heart to Polyeucte, an Armenian Prince. At the opening the Christian faith is being propagated in Melitene, Polyeucte has listened with a willing ear to the teachings of the new creed; the converts are subject to persecution, a butchering is anticipated, when Sévère, approaching Melitene, after a successful campaign, enters in triumph.

Pauline's chamber, with its private altar and its "household gods" Pauline and her servants, Stratonice at their head, are in the room, while the mistress meditates before the altar. In answer to Stratonice, Pauline explains her melancholy by reference to a dream presaging evil. However, he comes back, looking sad and oppressed, his wife, demanding the reason, learns that certain Christians are doomed to death on the morrow. Pauline attempts to justify the sacrifice, but Polyeucte in return so manifests his sympathy with the victims, that her worst anticipations are realised, she makes a passionate appeal, when Polyeucte reassures her, speaks of the coming of Sévère, in whose honour the Christians are to perish. Pauline thought Sévère to be dead, explains to her husband the relation in which they stood, but Polyeucte has no fear of the meeting. A public place in Melitene An enthusiastic crowd awaits the victorious general, welcomed by Félix. Sévère assures the governor that he has brought with him fond remembrances, but Pauline at once defines the actual situation by introducing Polyeucte as her husband.

The blow strikes home, all present notice the agitation it causes. A garden and a temple of Vesta Sévère appears, despising his glory, since he cannot lay it at Pauline's feet, he observes the approach of Pauline, stands aside, the heroine enters, kneels down, prays, in the course of her prayer reveals that she had wedded Polyeucte in obedience to the wishes of her father. When therefore she rises, he confronts her, reproaches her with having accepted a "detested spouse." Pauline denies it. Once more the love-lorn warrior falls into despair, she demands why he had come to trouble her. Sévère invokes the goddess to witness their past love, calls upon his companion to carry her prayers to the feet of Vesta. Pauline accepts the challenge, beseeching that the broken heart of Sévère might be healed, that he himself might become the saviour of her husband. To the astonished exclamation of the soldier she replies that Polyeucte is in danger, that she confides in him to preserve his life. Another appeal follows, this time with instant success.

The interview over, Pauline retires to the temple, but Sévère remains, presently again concealing himself as Polyeucte enters, accompanied by the Christian Néarque. The Prince, seeing Pauline in the temple, is inclined to linger, but Néarque urges him away, Sévère hears all. A private spot in the midst of rocks and trees Polyeucte becomes a Christian. In a hall of the palace Polyeucte, Félix, Sévère, Albin, High Priest of Jupiter, are present, they begin to talk upon whom Félix calls for vengeance. On this Félix bids all to repair to the temple of Jupiter, but Sévère warns him that noble heads may have to fall; the Governor demands the convert's name, not obtaining it, declares that he will condemn the whole family to death, should they turn from the orthodox creed. Sévère urges Polyeucte to guard his own life for the sake of those he loved, but the convert professes himself willing to die. Polyeucte is seen in prison. Polyeucte and Pauline appear in the arena; the opera ends. Notes Sources Alexander, Louis.

The Opera-Glass: or, A Clear

CoffeeScript

CoffeeScript is a programming language that compiles to JavaScript. It adds syntactic sugar inspired by Ruby and Haskell in an effort to enhance JavaScript's brevity and readability. Specific additional features include destructuring assignment. CoffeeScript support is included in Ruby on Play Framework. In 2011, Brendan Eich referenced CoffeeScript as an influence on his thoughts about the future of JavaScript. On December 13, 2009, Jeremy Ashkenas made the first Git commit of CoffeeScript with the comment: "initial commit of the mystery language." The compiler was written in Ruby. On December 24, he made the first tagged and documented release, 0.1.0. On February 21, 2010, he committed version 0.5, which replaced the Ruby compiler with a self-hosting version in pure CoffeeScript. By that time the project had attracted several other contributors on GitHub, was receiving over 300 page hits per day. On December 24, 2010, Ashkenas announced the release of stable 1.0.0 to Hacker News, the site where the project was announced for the first time.

On September 18, 2017, version 2.0.0 was introduced, which "aims to bring CoffeeScript into the modern JavaScript era, closing gaps in compatibility with JavaScript while preserving the clean syntax, CoffeeScript’s hallmark." Everything is an expression in CoffeeScript, for example if, switch and for expressions return a value. As in Perl, these control statements have postfix versions. Many unnecessary parentheses and braces can be omitted. To compute the body mass index, one may do: With CoffeeScript the interval is directly described: To compute the greatest common divisor of two integers with the euclidean algorithm, in JavaScript one needs a while loop: Whereas in CoffeeScript one can use until and destructuring assignment instead: Any for loop can be replaced by a list comprehension. The? keyword checks if a variable is null or undefined: This would alert "No person" if the variable is null or undefined and "Have person" if there is something there. A common JavaScript snippet using the jQuery library is: Or just: In CoffeeScript, the function keyword is replaced by the -> symbol, indentation is used instead of curly braces, as in other off-side rule languages such as Python and Haskell.

Parentheses can be omitted, using indentation level instead to denote a function or block. Thus, the CoffeeScript equivalent of the snippet above is: Or just: Ruby-style string interpolation is included in CoffeeScript. Double-quoted strings allow for interpolated values, using #, single-quoted strings are literal. CoffeeScript has been criticized for its unusual scoping rules. In particular, it disallows variable shadowing which makes reasoning about code more difficult and error-prone in some basic programming patterns established by and taken for granted since procedural programming principles were defined. For example, with the following code snippet in JavaScript one does not have to look outside the -block to know for sure that no possible foo variable in the outer scope can be incidentally overridden: In CoffeeScript there is no way to tell if the scope of a variable is limited to a block or not without looking outside the block; the CoffeeScript compiler has been self-hosting since version 0.5 and is available as a Node.js utility.

One alternative to the Node.js utility is the Coffee Maven Plugin, a plugin for the Apache Maven build system. The plugin uses the Rhino JavaScript engine written in Java; the official site at CoffeeScript.org has a "Try CoffeeScript" button in the menu bar. The js2coffee site provides bi-directional translation. Source maps allow users to de-bug their CoffeeScript code directly, supporting CoffeeScript tracebacks on run time errors. CoffeeScript supports a form of Literate Programming, using the.coffee.md or.litcoffee file extension. This allows CoffeeScript source code to be written in Markdown; the compiler will treat any indented blocks as code, ignore the rest as comments. Iced CoffeeScript is a superset of CoffeeScript which adds two new keywords: defer; these additions simplify asynchronous control flow, making the code to look more like a procedural programming language, eliminating the call-back chain. It can be used in the browser. On September 13, 2012, Dropbox announced that their browser-side code base has been rewritten from JavaScript to CoffeeScript.

GitHub's internal style guide once said "write new JS in CoffeeScript", while it no longer does, all the advice in the style guide references how to write good CoffeeScript, their Atom text editor is written in the language. Haxe Nim Amber Smalltalk Clojure Dart Kotlin LiveScript Opa Elm TypeScript PureScript Lee, Patrick. "CoffeeScript in Action" (First