Waitematā Harbour is the main access by sea to Auckland, New Zealand. For this reason it is referred to as Auckland Harbour, despite the fact that it is one of two harbours adjoining the city; the harbour forms the northern and eastern coasts of the Auckland isthmus and is crossed by the Auckland Harbour Bridge. It is matched on the southern side of the city by the shallower waters of the Manukau Harbour. With an area of 70 square miles, it connects the city's main port and the Auckland waterfront to the Hauraki Gulf and the Pacific Ocean, it is sheltered from Pacific storms by Auckland's North Shore, Rangitoto Island, Waiheke Island. The oldest Māori name of the harbour was Te Whanga-nui o Toi, named after Toi, an early Māori explorer; the name Waitematā means "Te Mata Waters", refers to Te Mata, which lies in mid-harbour off Kauri Point. A popular translation of Waitematā is "The Obsidian Waters", referring to obsidian rock. Another popular translation, derived from this, is "The Sparkling Waters", as the harbour waters were said to glint like the volcanic glass obsidian.
However, this is incorrect. The spelling Waitemata is common in English; the harbour is an arm of the Hauraki Gulf, extending west for eighteen kilometres from the end of the Rangitoto Channel. Its entrance is between Bastion Point in the south; the westernmost ends of the harbour extend past Whenuapai in the northwest, to Te Atatu in the west, as well as forming the estuarial arm known as the Whau River in the southwest. The northern shore of the harbour consists of North Shore. North Shore suburbs located closest to the shoreline include Birkenhead and Devonport. On the southern side of the harbour is Auckland CBD and the Auckland waterfront, coastal suburbs such as Mission Bay, Herne Bay and Point Chevalier, the latter of which lies on a short triangular peninsula jutting into the harbour; the harbour is crossed at its narrowest point by the Auckland Harbour Bridge. To the east of the bridge's southern end lie the marinas of Westhaven and the suburbs of Freemans Bay and the Viaduct Basin. Further east from these, close to the harbour's entrance, lies the Port of Auckland.
There are other wharves and ports within the harbour, notable among them the Devonport Naval Base, the accompanying Kauri Point Armament Depot at Birkenhead, the Chelsea Sugar Refinery wharf, all capable of taking ships over 500 gross register tons. Smaller wharves at Birkenhead, Beach Haven, Northcote and West Harbour offer commuter ferry services to the Auckland CBD; the harbour is a drowned valley system, carved through Miocene marine sediments of the Waitemata Group. Recent volcanism in the Auckland volcanic field has shaped the coast, most at Devonport and the Meola Reef, but in the explosion craters of Orakei Basin and in western Shoal Bay. In periods of low sea level, a tributary ran from Milford into the Shoal Bay stream; this valley provided the harbour with a second entrance when sea levels rose, until the Lake Pupuke volcano plugged this gap. The current shore is influenced by tidal rivers in the west and north of the harbour. Mudflats covered by mangroves flourish in these conditions, salt marshes are typical.
The harbour has long been the main anchorage and port area for the Auckland region before European colonial times. Well-sheltered not only by the Hauraki Gulf itself but by Rangitoto Island, the harbour offered good protection in all winds, lacked dangerous shoals or major sand bars that would have made entry difficult; the harbour proved a fertile area for encroaching development, with major land reclamation undertaken along the Auckland waterfront, within a few decades of the city's European founding. Taking the idea of the several Māori portage paths over the isthmus one step further, the creation of a canal that would link the Waitematā and Manukau harbours was considered in the early 1900s. Legislation was passed that would allow authorities to take owned land where it was deemed required for a canal. However, no serious work was undertaken; the act was repealed on 1 November 2010. While the harbour has numerous beaches popular for swimming, the older-style "combined sewers" in several surrounding western suburbs dump contaminated wastewater overflows into the harbour on 52 heavy-rain days a year, leading to regular health warnings at popular swimming beaches, until the outfalls have dispersed again.
A major new project, the Central Interceptor, starting 2019, is to reduce these outfalls by about 80% once completed around 2024. Photographs of Waitematā Harbour held in Auckland Libraries' heritage collections Photographs of Waitematā Harbour held at Auckland Museum
A suburb is a mixed-use or residential area, existing either as part of a city or urban area or as a separate residential community within commuting distance of a city. In most English-speaking countries, suburban areas are defined in contrast to central or inner-city areas, but in Australian English and South African English, suburb has become synonymous with what is called a "neighborhood" in other countries and the term extends to inner-city areas. In some areas, such as Australia, China, New Zealand, the United Kingdom, a few U. S. states, new suburbs are annexed by adjacent cities. In others, such as Saudi Arabia, Canada and much of the United States, many suburbs remain separate municipalities or are governed as part of a larger local government area such as a county. Suburbs first emerged on a large scale in the 19th and 20th centuries as a result of improved rail and road transport, which led to an increase in commuting. In general, they have lower population densities than inner city neighborhoods within a metropolitan area, most residents commute to central cities or other business districts.
Suburbs tend to proliferate around cities that have an abundance of adjacent flat land. The English word is derived from the Old French subburbe, in turn derived from the Latin suburbium, formed from sub and urbs; the first recorded usage of the term in English, was made by John Wycliffe in 1380, where the form subarbis was used, according to the Oxford English Dictionary. In Australia and New Zealand, suburbs have become formalised as geographic subdivisions of a city and are used by postal services in addressing. In rural areas in both countries, their equivalents are called localities; the terms inner suburb and outer suburb are used to differentiate between the higher-density areas in proximity to the city center, the lower-density suburbs on the outskirts of the urban area. The term'middle suburbs' is used. Inner suburbs, such as Te Aro in Wellington, Eden Terrace in Auckland, Prahran in Melbourne and Ultimo in Sydney, are characterised by higher density apartment housing and greater integration between commercial and residential areas.
In New Zealand, most suburbs are not defined which can lead to confusion as to where they may begin and end. Although there is a geospatial file defining suburbs for use by emergency services developed and maintained by Fire and Emergency New Zealand, in collaboration with other government agencies, to date this file has not been released publicly. New Zealand company Koordinates Limited requested access to the geospatial file under the Official Information Act 1982 but this request was rejected by the New Zealand Fire Service on the basis that it would prejudice the health & safety of, or cause material loss, to the public. In September 2014 a decision was made by the Ombudsman of New Zealand ruling that the New Zealand Fire Service refusal to release the geospatial file without agreeing to terms which included, among other restrictions, a prohibition on redistribution of the geospatial file, was reasonable. In the United Kingdom and in Ireland, suburb refers to a residential area outside the city centre, regardless of administrative boundaries.
Suburbs, in this sense, can range from areas that seem more like residential areas of a city proper to areas separated by open countryside from the city centre. In large cities such as London and Leeds, suburbs include separate towns and villages that have been absorbed during a city's growth and expansion, such as Ealing and Guiseley. In the United States and Canada, suburb can refer either to an outlying residential area of a city or town or to a separate municipality or unincorporated area outside a town or city; the earliest appearance of suburbs coincided with the spread of the first urban settlements. Large walled towns tended to be the focus around which smaller villages grew up in a symbiotic relationship with the market town; the word'suburbani' was first used by the Roman statesman Cicero in reference to the large villas and estates built by the wealthy patricians of Rome on the city's outskirts. Towards the end of the Eastern Han Dynasty, the capital, was occupied by the emperor and important officials.
As populations grew during the Early Modern Period in Europe, urban towns swelled with a steady influx of people from the countryside. In some places, nearby settlements were swallowed up as the main city expanded; the peripheral areas on the outskirts of the city were inhabited by the poorest. Due to the rapid migration of the rural poor to the industrialising cities of England in the late 18th century, a trend in the opposite direction began to develop; this trend accelerated through the 19th century in cities like London and Manchester that were growing and the first suburban districts sprung up around the city centres to accommodate those who wanted to escape the squalid conditions of the industrial towns. Toward the end of the century, with the development of public transit systems such as the underground railways and buses, it became possible for the majority of the city's population to reside outside the city and to commute into the
Herne Bay, New Zealand
Herne Bay is an affluent suburb of Auckland, New Zealand. It is located on the southwestern shore of the Waitematā Harbour to the west of the Auckland Harbour Bridge, it is known for marine villas and Edwardian age homes. Herne Bay has been a prosperous area since the 1850s due to its outlook over the Waitematā Harbour, it continues to be an exclusive suburb, as it ranked as the most expensive suburb in New Zealand in 2015. Herne Bay is under the local governance of Auckland Council. According to the 2006 census, Herne Bay had a population of 2,823, its postcode is 1011. The suburb is named after Herne Bay, a fashionable but respectable seaside resort in English county of Kent. From the 1850s onwards it became apparent that Auckland's Herne Bay was quite handy to the centre of town by a short boat trip. Herne Bay developed as an early commuter suburb and was the location of several large houses belonging to members of the professional classes. Most of these houses were accessible from the water, with their own jetties and boathouses - in some cases there was not any land route to them.
Some of these early houses still exist, surrounded by houses which were built as their large properties were subdivided around the turn of the 20th century. Located in this area on the shore of Ponsonby was Kemp's Gardens; this was a popular pleasure resort for Auckland's people during the 1860s. The gardens were "complete with pavilion and illuminations": "A free hand was given, drinks were sold, music was provided and the least said the better". Renamed "Cremorne Gardens" after the fashionable pleasure gardens in London, Kemp's gardens boasted a "Dancing Pavilion, ten acres of walks and sports grounds", it is remembered in the name "Cremorne Street". In late 2008, Herne Bay became New Zealand's first "$2 million suburb", where the median house price has surpassed the $2 million mark; the Sultan of Brunei purchased 11 properties in Herne Bay for his visit to the APEC Summit in Auckland in 1999, these were all extensively renovated, although the Sultan never lived in any of them. All 11 properties were sold to low profile businessman Gary Lane in 2005.
Local Primary schools are Ponsonby Primary. Local secondary schools include Auckland Girls Grammar School, Western Springs College, St Paul's College and Saint Mary's College. Baptist Church, 43 Jervois Road. A wooden building in the Classical style; this church contains an organ reputed to be the oldest in Australsia used by Queen Charlotte at Windsor Castle or Kew Palace it was given by Queen Victoria to the St Paul's Church in Emily Place, here in Auckland. After that building was demolished and rebuilt on Symonds Street with a new big up-to-date organ this chamber organ made its way into the possession of the Baptist Church here. St Stephen's Presbyterian Church. Corner of Jervois Road and Shelly Beach Road. Wooden Gothic Church with impressive interior. Stichbury Terrace. Corner of Jervois Road and Curran Street. Neo-Classical Apartment Block from around 1915. Ponsonby Primary School. 44 Curran Street. The main building is an intact example of the Arts & Crafts style employed for educational facilities just around the First World War.
Reinforced concrete construction with Brick and stucco detailing, Marseilles tile roof and metal windows. Prior to 1920 this property was occupied by a Chinese Market Garden. Shangri-la Apartments. 97-103 Jervois Road. Late 1980s High-rise apartment block. Turret House 4 Shelly Beach Road. Large Edwardian Mansion with a roof top turret. A Bed and Breakfast hotel. Westwater Apartments. 10 Shelly Beach Road. High rise apartment block from the 1980s. Dome House. 11 Shelly Beach Road. Unusual large Edwardian house in the American Queen Anne Style - a landmark due to its large domed corner turret. Stebbing Recording Studios. 108-114 Jervois Road. Art-Deco Flats. 175-183 Jervois Road. Four Apartment blocks built in the 1930s on land owned by the tram company; the Gables. 248 Jervois Road. Dating from the early 1970s this is the first pub to be built in this dry area; the building was designed to harmonise with the surrounding bay villas and so imitated their roof line, hence the name "The Gables". Up until this time pubs had a bad reputation not helped by the six o'clock closing culture, in existence between 1917 and 1969.
This pub was intended to be a new type of establishment with outdoor dining facilities where family groups could socialise along the lines of continental European cafes and beer gardens. Former Bayfield School. 272 Jervois Road. Wooden Edwardian school now used for preschool activities. Typical example of the building created by the Ministry of Works for schools of the period. Sea Breeze Motel. 213 Jervois Road. Interesting example of 1950s exotica architecture. 286 Jervois Road. Large two storied Edwardian Italianate house. Restored. 235 Jervois Road. Arts & Crafts Cottage by Basil Hooper. Single storied wooden house from around 1928 by a prominent Arts & Crafts architect. Done in conjunction with the Chapman Taylor house next door. Wood and Marseilles tile roof. Williamson House. 237 Jervois Road. Important 1928 Arts & Crafts house by Jame Walter Chapman Taylor for Francis H. Williamson.. Two storied masonry house with stucco facades, Marseilles tile roof and metal framed windows. Hawke Sea Scout Hall, 55 West End Road.
First built in 1928 on this site, rebuilt 1952 after a fire in a vernacular site by local volunteers with timber donated by US Marine Corps. Restored in traditional style. A Hundred Years in Herne Bay, Marjory
Mount Albert Grammar School
Mount Albert Grammar School is a semi co-educational state secondary school in Mount Albert in Auckland, New Zealand. It teaches students in year levels 9 to 13; as of March 2019, Mount Albert Grammar School is the second largest school in New Zealand, behind Rangitoto College. Mount Albert Grammar was founded in 1922 as a subsidiary of Auckland Grammar School, but now the two schools are governed separately. Mount Albert Grammar School was boys only, but opened its doors to girls in 2000. Junior classes are single-sex while senior classes are all co-educational. There have been a number of headmasters since the opening of the school, Frederick Gamble, William Caradus, Murray Nairn, Maurice Hall Gregory Taylor Dale Burden and the current headmaster, Patrick Drumm. After the opening of the school, a need for boarding accommodation for students became apparent. In 1927, the Mount Albert Grammar School Hostel opened for boarders at 807 New North Road; this hostel closed in 1970 and a new one was opened in 1971, built on one of the school's playing fields.
This is a boys' boarding hostel called School House. It has full-time accommodation for up to 105 students during school terms; the School's Latin motto is Per Angusta Ad Augusta, which means "Through Hardship to Glory". The school hymn, sung at all formal assemblies, was written by a student, J. A. W. Bennett, in 1928. In October 2015, an email containing a pornographic image was sent to all the school's 2,700 students after the school's email database was hacked by one of the school's students; the email database was shut down and an investigation was started into, responsible. The school laid a complaint with police and sought the assistance of the Department of Internal Affairs; the school purchased what was meant to be a girls' hostel, but due to the housing crisis in New Zealand turned into accommodation for teachers. The complex is located 6 minute walk away from MAGS on Lloyd Avenue. Mt Albert Grammar School pupils participate in various forms of academia, from year 9 to year 13. In 2015, 93.8 percent of students leaving Mount Albert Grammar held at least NCEA Level 1, 87.7 percent held at least NCEA Level 2, 67.8 percent held at least NCEA Level 3.
This is compared to 88.4%, 79.1%, 52.8% for all students nationally. In 2007 and 2009 MAGS won all the major Auckland titles in Rugby and Netball; the First XI girls football and the Premier Girls Basketball won their first Auckland Championships in 2009. In 2008, one sports staff member and a parent coach were suspended by the schools' sport body College Sport and nine students who had transferred to the school were prevented from playing by rules designed to prevent poaching of young players; as a result, the school implemented a sporting Code of Conduct for all students and coaches. This led to the dismissal of Director of Football, Kevin Fallon; the Mt Albert Aquatic Centre was developed as a joint project between Mount Albert Grammar School and the Auckland City Council. It was opened by the Prime Minister of New Zealand in 1998; the facility contains a 25-metre competition pool with depths measuring from 1.2 metres to 3 metres, a leisure pool that features wave motion and a water slide. The complex consists of other features visited by the public often.
However, in 2016 the pool was noted to be unsafe due to its vulnerability to earthquakes. The pool is set to be either demolished in the next ten years. Since 1933 Mount Albert Grammar School has had a 10.8 ha farm adjacent to its school site in the middle of Auckland city. It is a working model farm, home to sheep, rabbits and poultry, cared for by a farm manager who lives on site; the land is owned by the ASB Bank, which in 2013 extended the school's lease costing 1 dollar every year for 99 years, taking the ownership through to 2112. Students are able to study Agricultural Science from Year 10 onwards, travel to farms and agricultural training centres for day trips and camps, they attend Field Days at Mystery Creek each year and some students are selected to assist in the agricultural area of the Auckland Easter Show. As well as a classroom the farm has a one-stand wool shed with wool-handling facilities, pens to hold 150 sheep overnight, a two-stand walk-through milking shed with milking plant, an implement shed and a unit for small animals.
The school is one of a few schools in New Zealand with an active observatory and possesses a telescope open to students and the public occasionally. Completed in 2008, the observatory has a Meade Instruments LX200R 12-inch Schmidt-Cassegrain f/10 telescope; the observatory uses an SBIG ST7XME CCD camera for photometry. The observatory is used for amateur research; the school hymn is sung at all formal school assemblies accompanied by live piano. It was written by MAGS student Jack A. W. Bennett in 1928; the lyrics to the hymn were analysed in a report written by the School Archivist. In 2018 Education Review Office had carried a survey and found that the school uses National Certificate of Educational Achievement and it celebrates its achievements through Lion Awards, its achievement is above the national average which makes them one of the top seven schools in the country. The ethnic minorities of the school had shifted the balance since the 2015 review. By that, 91% of Māori and 85% of Pacific students gained NCEA Level 2 in 2017.
Despite such an improvement, the school still needs to excel in literacy for Year 9 students and more achievement in Level 3 for ethnic minorities. The school enrolls 2991 students out
The Auckland Council is the local government council for the Auckland Region in New Zealand. The governing body consists of 20 councillors, elected from 13 wards. There are 149 members of 21 local boards who make decisions on matters local to their communities, it is the largest council in Oceania, with a $3 billion annual budget, $29 billion of ratepayer equity, 9,870 full-time staff as of 30 June 2016. The council began operating on 1 November 2010, combining the functions of the previous regional council and the region's seven city and district councils into one "super council" or "super city"; the Council was established by a number of Acts of Parliament, an Auckland Transition Agency created by the central government. Both the means by which the Council was established and its structure came under repeated criticism from a broad spectrum during the establishment period; the initial Council elections in October 2010 returned a centre-left council with Len Brown as mayor. Brown was re-elected in October 2013, again with a supportive council.
The 2016 mayoral election was won by Labour MP Phil Goff, who had a landslide victory with his nearest rivals, Victoria Crone in second place, followed by Chlöe Swarbrick. The Auckland Council took over the functions of the Auckland Regional Council and the region's seven city and district councils: Auckland City Council, Manukau City Council, Waitakere City Council, North Shore City Council, Papakura District Council, Rodney District Council and most of Franklin District Council; the Auckland Regional Council was formed in 1989. One of the mainstays of its work was expanding the parks network, it brought into the Auckland Council 26 regional parks with more than 40,000 hectares, including many restored natural habitats and sanctuaries developed in co-operation with the Department of Conservation and volunteers. A variety of public transport-focused projects like the Northern Busway as well as significant rail and public transport investments were realised through the Auckland Regional Transport Authority, much of it supported by retaining Ports of Auckland in public hands to fund the improvements with the dividends.
Until 2010, the Auckland Region had seven "City/District" authorities, plus one "Regional" authority. In the late 2000s, New Zealand's central government and parts of Auckland's society felt that this large number of Councils, the lack of strong regional government were hindering Auckland's progress, that a form of stronger regional government, or an amalgamation under one local council, would be beneficial. Others pointed to the fact that a previous integration of the many much smaller Borough Councils did not bring the promised advantages either, reduced local participation in politics, with editorialists pointing out that the proponents of the'super city' have not made any promises of savings in light of past rises in rates and utilities bills. In 2007, the government set up a Royal Commission on Auckland Governance to report on what restructuring should be done; the report was released on 27 March 2009 and the government subsequently announced that a "super city" would be set up to include the full metropolitan area under an Auckland Council with a single mayor and 20–30 local boards, by the time of the local body elections in 2010, though it changed some key recommendations of the Royal Commission.
Some recommendations of the Royal Commission which have not been adopted or implemented: 6A The Auckland Council should include a vision for the region in its spatial plan. 6B The Mayor of Auckland's annual "State of the Region" address should describe progress towards the attainment of the vision. 19C: "Leadership support and development programmes for elected councillors should be strengthened." 21D: Auckland Council CCOs and their statements of intent should be subject to performance review by the proposed Auckland Services Performance Auditor. 21A 22A Two Māori members should be elected to the Auckland Council by voters who are on the parliamentary Māori Electoral Roll. 22B There should be a Mana Whenua Forum, the members of which will be appointed by mana whenua from the district of the Auckland Council. 22D The Auckland Council should ensure that each local council has adequate structures in place to enable proper engagement with Māori and consideration of their views in the local councils’ decision-making processes.
Where appropriate, current structures and/or memoranda of understanding should be transferred to local councils. 24F Auckland Council should consider creating an Urban Development Agency, to operate at the direction of the Auckland Council, with compulsory acquisition powers. The Auckland Council should determine the extent to which responsibilities for the delivery of stormwater services are shared between local councils and Watercare Services Limited. 26I Watercare Services Limited should be required by legislation to promote demand management. 26M Watercare Services Limited should be required to prepare a stormwater action plan. 27D The Auckland Council should prepare an e-government strategy as an intrinsic part of its proposed unified service delivery and information systems plan. 28A The Auckland Council should work with consumers, the industry, central government agencies to develop a climate change and energy strategy for the region, including monitoring and reviewing electricity security of supply performance, industry planning and regulation impacting the Auckland region.
30A The Auckland Council should develop a Regional Waste Management Strategy, including strategies for management of organic waste and integration o
Auckland Libraries is the public library system for the Auckland Region of New Zealand. It was created when the seven separate councils in the Auckland region merged in 2010, it is the largest public-library network in the Southern Hemisphere with 55 branches from Wellsford to Waiuku. In November 2010, Auckland's local councils merged to create the Auckland Council; as a result of this process, the seven public library systems within the region were combined to form Auckland Libraries. The following library networks were amalgamated, forming Auckland Libraries: Auckland City Libraries Bookinopolis Manukau Libraries North Shore Libraries Papakura Library Services – The Sir Edmund Hillary Library Rodney Libraries Waitakere Libraries In the years leading up to the merger of the library systems within Auckland, the separate library systems combined to form a consortium in order to align their processes; this organisation was called eLGAR. This consortium settled on Millenium as their Library Management System, the libraries within this system all moved to this software.
The result was that the library systems were able to offer their customers a seamless transition to membership of the larger network, with immediate access to all 55 libraries from November 1, 2010. Prior to amalgamation, Auckland City Libraries was a network of 17 public libraries and a mobile library operated by Auckland City Council. In September 1880, Auckland City Council took responsibility for the library of the Auckland Mechanics' Institute which had come under financial difficulties; the Mechanics’ Institute was formed in 1842 and the items remaining in its library, along with items from the Library of the old Auckland Provincial Council, were included in the collection of the Auckland Free Public Library. In 1887, George Grey donated around 8,000 books, doubling the existing collection, a new building was erected for the library on the corner of Wellesley and Coburg streets. At the time, this building housed the entire collection for the Auckland public library, in addition to the city's art collection.
Additionally, from its inception in 1916 until it was closed in 1957, The Old Colonists’ Museum was in this building. This building is now the Auckland Art Gallery; the building on Lorne Street that houses the Central City library was opened in 1971. Before amalgamation, three public libraries—Pukekohe and Tuakau—made up a network known as "Bookinopolis". A municipal library had first been established at Pukekohe in 1913 and at Waiuku in 1946, in each case taking over an existing subscription library. Tuakau Public Library was opened in 1977. After local-body amalgamation in 1989, these three libraries formed the Franklin District library system. In 2000, this was taken over by the Franklin District Library Trust; the Trust renamed its library system "Bookinopolis". In 2010, the Pukekohe and Waiuku libraries became branches of Auckland Libraries, due to boundary changes, Tuakau was taken over by Waikato Dictrict Council; when Manukau City Council was formed by the amalgamation of Manukau County and Manurewa Borough in 1965, it took over responsibility for a small subscription library at Māngere East and volunteer-run community libraries in Alfriston, Clevedon, Kawakawa Bay, Orere Point and Weymouth.
The newly formed city opened its first full-service public library at Manurewa in 1967. This was followed by children’s libraries at both Otara and Māngere East in 1969, branch libraries at Pakuranga in 1973 and Manukau City Centre in 1976, a combined school and public library at Ngā Tapuwae College in 1978. Came Māngere Bridge in 1979, Māngere Town Centre in 1980 and Highland Park in 1987. Local-body amalgamation in 1989 saw two more libraries added to the system: Papatoetoe and Howick, where the municipal library services dated from 1945 and 1947 respectively. In 1958 Papatoetoe Library had earned the distinction of setting up the first municipal mobile library in New Zealand. Manukau Libraries’ last three branches were Clendon, the innovative Tupu-Dawson Road Youth Library, the Botany Idealibrary. Clendon Library was renamed Te Matariki Clendon when it was relocated in 2006. Throughout its life, Manukau Libraries operated as a dispersed rather than a centralised library system. However, in 2001 it opened a reference and reading room near Manukau City Centre that expanded into the Manukau Research Library.
By 2010 Manukau Libraries operated 13 branch libraries, a research library, five volunteer-run'rural libraries', a mobile library. In 1989, the North Shore City Council was formed by combining the various boroughs that had existed on the North Shore, so that prior to the 2010 amalgamation of the council into the Auckland Council, North Shore Libraries was a network of six libraries and a mobile library. Membership of Auckland Libraries is free for residents and ratepayers of the Auckland Council region. Auckland Libraries has a small number of rental collections. Library members can request an item from any of the libraries in Auckland Libraries for free. Many of the libraries provide Internet access; the library system gives access to three specialised eBook suppliers: Overdrive, BorrowBox, Wheelers. There is a Digital Library which includes over 100 databases; the library system provides a number of free events: Wriggle and Rhyme: Active Movement for Early Learning for babies.
Point Chevalier is a suburb and peninsula in the city of Auckland in the north of New Zealand. It is located five kilometres to the west of the city centre on the southern shore of the Waitematā Harbour; the suburb stretches from the town centre / shopping area of the same name on its southern edge to the tip of the peninsula in the north. Its postcode is 1022; the suburb is situated to the north of State Highway 16 and the campus of Unitec New Zealand and to the west of the suburb of Western Springs. It is sited on the triangular peninsula, which extends north into the harbour for 1800 metres; the soil is clay without the overlay of volcanic material which covers much of the Auckland isthmus. Visible from Coyle Park is Meola Reef, situated to the east of the Point Chevalier peninsula and bordering the suburb of Westmere. Meola Reef is an outcrop of black basalt rock which extends some distance north into the Waitematā Harbour; this is the end of the lava flow emanating from Te Tatua-a-Riukiuta, a volcano several miles south of this area.
A landfill site, it has now been rehabilitated as a park and nature reserve. Other parks in the suburb include Eric Armshaw Reserve and Coyle Park; the latter is located at the northern tip of the peninsula. Before the European settlement of the Auckland isthmus in the 1840s, small Maori settlements existed in the area which became Point Chevalier, including one at Meola Reef and a fishing settlement at Rangi-mata-rau; the latter was a staging point for shark fishing off Kauri Point on the inner Waitematā Harbour. As the city of Auckland grew, Point Chevalier gained strategic importance as it lay on what was the main land route out of Auckland, the Great North Road; because of this, a military encampment was located here during the New Zealand Wars of the 1860s. The name'Point Chevalier' comes from Captain George Robert Chevalier, a musketry instructor serving in the 65th Regiment, stationed at this camp; the Point Chevalier area had a rural character up until the period between the two World Wars.
Coyle Park and Point Chevalier Beach were popular destinations for family outings during the interwar period in summer. Tramlines ran down Point Chevalier Road to Coyle Park, near the beach. Following the Second World War, the combination of increased car ownership and the Auckland Harbour Bridge resulted in a complete reversal of this activity; the once crowded beach was deserted, the various businesses that had prospered on the summer trade closed down or relocated. Whilst the tramlines were removed during the 1950s, the broadness of Point Chevalier Road - otherwise atypical for a small suburb - and the paved-over roundabout terminus near Coyle Park both remain as evidence of their presence. Due to sand loss and degradation over the 20th century, Point Chevalier Beach was resanded in 2008 with 16,000 cubic metres of sand from Pakiri Beach pumped onto the foreshore, creating a more usable beach area; the resanding has attracted larger numbers of summer visitors in the years since, making the northern part of Point Chevalier busy on fine weekends and holidays and at festival times.
Up until the 1980s Point Chevalier's population was blue-collar or elderly, the latter due to the Selwyn Village retirement community. Over the 1980s and 1990s the suburb has become home to increasing numbers of young families and middle-class professionals. However, census data suggests that Point Chevalier has experienced a strong decrease in its young adult population since 2001; the Liverpool Estate is a piece of land bordered at one end by Great North and Point Chevalier Roads. Besides housing, it now contains a supermarket, assorted shops and the Point Chevalier Community Library; the estate was created in 1913 by a group known as the Liverpool Estate Syndicate and was marketed as a "last opportunity" to acquire main road frontage close to the city. It was only a fifteen-minute walk to the Arch Hill terminus and a significant selling point was that a motorbus passed by; the Point Chevalier Motor Bus Company ran from 1915-1920 and was owned by prominent locals, including a member of the Dignan family.
Following the First World War with the rising price of oil, it went into voluntary liquidation. Estate land was connected to sewerage and drainage and water were available on the boundary and a school was nearby. Another factor was that it was not far from the "beautiful Point Chevalier beach."Several of the streets in the Liverpool Estate were named after New Zealand birds – Moa and Kiwi Roads and Tui Street - and according to the book Rangi-Mata-Rau: Pt Chevalier Centennial 1861-1961, it was a bird-loving member of the Dignan family who got the honour of naming them. The houses of the area are predominantly 1920s Californian bungalows and 1930s and 1940s Art Deco, which gives the suburb an interesting pre-war atmosphere. Rising real estate values have spurred gentrification and subdivision in recent years north of Meola Road and in locations near to the water. Towards the northern end of the peninsula there are many houses from the postwar period, a number of larger architect-designed homes have appeared close to Point Chevalier Beach.
There is a certain a