SUMMARY / RELATED TOPICS

Westminster Bridge

Westminster Bridge is a road-and-foot-traffic bridge over the River Thames in London, linking Westminster on the west side and Lambeth on the east side. The bridge is painted predominantly green, the same colour as the leather seats in the House of Commons, on the side of the Palace of Westminster nearest to the bridge, but a natural shade similar to verdigris; this is in contrast to Lambeth Bridge, red, the same colour as the seats in the House of Lords and is on the opposite side of the Houses of Parliament. In 2005–2007, it underwent a complete refurbishment, including replacing the iron fascias and repainting the whole bridge, it links the Palace of Westminster on the west side of the river with County Hall and the London Eye on the east and was the finishing point during the early years of the London Marathon. The next bridge downstream is the Hungerford footbridge and upstream is Lambeth Bridge. Westminster Bridge was designated a Grade II* listed structure in 1981. For over 600 years, the nearest Thames bridge to London Bridge was at Kingston.

From late Tudor times congestion in trading hours at London Bridge amounted to more than an hour. A bridge at Westminster was proposed in 1664, but opposed by the Corporation of London and the watermen. Further opposition held sway in 1722; however an intervening bridge was built at Putney in 1729 and the scheme received parliamentary approval in 1736. Financed by private capital and grants, Westminster Bridge was built between 1739–1750, under the supervision of the Swiss engineer Charles Labelye; the bridge opened on 18 November 1750. The City of London responded to Westminster Bridge and the population growth by removing the buildings on London Bridge and widening it in 1760–63. With Putney Bridge, the bridge paved the way for four others within three decades: Blackfriars Bridge, Kew Bridge, Battersea Bridge, Richmond Bridge by which date roads and vehicles were improved and fewer regular goods transported by water; the bridge assisted the expanding West End to the developing South London as well as goods and carriages from the more estuarine counties and the East Sussex and Kentish ports.

Without the bridge, traffic to and from the greater West End would have to negotiate streets as congested as London Bridge, principally the Strand/Fleet Street and New Oxford Street/Holborn. Roads on both sides of the river were built and improved, including Charing Cross Road and around the Elephant & Castle in Southwark. By the mid-19th century the bridge was subsiding badly and expensive to maintain; the current bridge was designed by Thomas Page and opened on 24 May 1862. With a length of 820 feet and a width of 85 feet, it is a seven-arch, cast-iron bridge with Gothic detailing by Charles Barry. Since the removal of Rennie's New London Bridge in 1967 it is the oldest road structure which crosses the Thames in central London. On 22 March 2017, a terrorist attack started on the bridge and continued into Bridge Street and Old Palace Yard. Five people – three pedestrians, one police officer, the attacker – died as a result of the incident. A colleague of the officer was shot the attacker. More than 50 people were injured.

An investigation is ongoing by the Metropolitan Police. In the 1964 Doctor Who serial The Dalek Invasion of Earth, the Daleks are seen moving across it in the 22nd Century. In the 2002 British horror film 28 Days Later, the protagonist awakes from a coma to find London deserted and walks over an eerily empty Westminster Bridge whilst looking for signs of life. Westminster Bridge is the start and finish point for the Bridges Handicap Race, a traditional London running race. William Wordsworth wrote the sonnet Composed upon Westminster Bridge, September 3, 1802. In the finale of the 24th James Bond film Spectre, Blofeld's helicopter crashes into Westminster Bridge. List of crossings of the River Thames List of bridges in London Westminster Bridge at Structurae Westminster Bridge at Structurae Interactive Panorama: Westminster Bridge

Örebro Synod

The Örebro Synod took place at Candlemas in Örebro in Sweden in 1529. It was the first Synod in Sweden since the introduction of the Protestant Swedish Reformation in 1527, regarded as the theological completion of the Reformation, following the economic policy of the Reformation introduced at the Reduction of Gustav I of Sweden in 1527, it did not abolish the Catholic rituals, but adopted a policy aimed to make them cease to be performed. The theological reforms were at this point not radically changed. There were three important reforms taken at this synod: The Bishops were to control that all the parish vicars used only the unaltered words of the Bible in their sermons. Vicars and priests were to be tutored in the words of the scripture and to secure this: scholars with knowledge were to be appointed to control the vicars of every city parish to ensure this, city priests were to inspect the parish vicars of the country to ensure that only what which could be found in the Bible was preached there putting the messages of the sermons under control.

Bishops were allowed to give dispense for several of the marriages banned because of to close relations. The church was allowed to practice punishment for worldly crimes when secular justice was found lacking; the Monks were, as were the priests subjected to control to ensure that they did not preach other than what could be found in the Bible. The Feast days to the Saints was to be suppressed, with the exception of the feast days of God himself, the Virgin Mary and the memorial days of the patron saints of each church; the rituals of the church, such as pilgrimages and relics of saints and other Catholic habits were to be allowed to continue. However, they were to be "explained" and demystified, in an effort to make people discontinue them of their own free will. For example: while the statues of the saints were allowed to remain in the churches, the public were to be instructed that they were not to be objects of religious worship, but only to be used as memorials of religious role models.

While pilgrimages to holy places were not to be stopped, people were to be instructed that they were made to be a meditative experience, not to be regarded as a religious act which could bring the performer any absolution or any other religious benefit. Carl Alfred Cornelius: Svenska kyrkans historia efter reformationen, förra delen, 1886–87

Truth and Method

Truth and Method is a 1960 book by the philosopher Hans-Georg Gadamer, in which the author deploys the concept of "philosophical hermeneutics" as it is worked out in Martin Heidegger's Being and Time. The book is considered Gadamer's major work. Gadamer draws on the ideas of Romantic hermeneuticists such as Friedrich Schleiermacher and the work of hermeneuticists such as Wilhelm Dilthey, he rejects as unachievable the goal of objectivity, instead suggests that meaning is created through intersubjective communication. Gadamer's philosophical project, as explained in Truth and Method, was to elaborate on the concept of "philosophical hermeneutics", which Heidegger in his Being and Time initiated but never dealt with at length. Gadamer's goal was to uncover the nature of human understanding. In the book Gadamer argued, he was critical of two approaches to the human sciences. On the one hand, he was critical of modern approaches to humanities that modelled themselves on the natural sciences. On the other hand, he took issue with the traditional German approach to the humanities, represented for instance by Dilthey and Schleiermacher, which believed that interpreting a text meant recovering the original intention of the author who wrote it.

In contrast to both of these positions, Gadamer argued that people have a'historically effected consciousness' and that they are embedded in the particular history and culture that shaped them. Thus interpreting a text involves a fusion of horizons where the scholar finds the ways that the text's history articulates with their own background. Truth and Method is not meant to be a programmatic statement about a new'hermeneutic' method of interpreting texts. Gadamer intended Truth and Method to be a description of what we always do when we interpret things: "My real concern was and is philosophic: not what we do or what we ought to do, but what happens to us over and above our wanting and doing". Truth and Method was published twice in English, the revised edition is now considered authoritative; the German-language edition of Gadamer's Collected Works includes a volume in which Gadamer elaborates his argument and discusses the critical response to the book. Gadamer's essay on poet Paul Celan has been considered by many—including Heidegger and Gadamer himself—as a "second volume" or continuation of the argument in Truth and Method.

Truth and Method is regarded as Gadamer's magnum opus, has influenced many philosophers and sociologists, notably Jürgen Habermas. In reaction to Gadamer, the critic E. D. Hirsch, in Validity and Interpretation, reasserted a traditionalist approach to interpretation, seeing the task of interpretation as consisting of reconstructing the intentions of the original author of a text; the philosopher Adolf Grünbaum criticized Truth and Method in The Foundations of Psychoanalysis, maintaining that Gadamer misunderstood the methods of science, made an incorrect contrast between the natural and the human sciences. The critic George Steiner writes in Martin Heidegger that Gadamer's influential model of textual understanding is "developed explicitly out of Heidegger's concept and practice of language."