Virginia's 1st congressional district
Virginia's first congressional district is a United States congressional district in the commonwealth of Virginia. Virginian politicians now sometimes refer to it as "America's First District" since during the 20th century it included Jamestown, the first permanent English settlement in the New World. However, Jamestown Island and the historic settlement were redistricted to the 2nd congressional district in 2017. Moreover, in the 18th and early 19th century, it comprised northwestern Virginia. For years, the first district included the other two points of the Historic Triangle–Williamsburg, the longtime capital of the colony, Yorktown, where the decisive battle of the Revolutionary War was fought; the district continues to include major military installations, has been represented by Republican Rob Wittman since 2007. As of 2016, the adjacent 3rd district has been ruled unconstitutional. New districts have been drawn, it covers all or part of the following political subdivisions: Caroline Essex Fauquier Gloucester Hanover James City King and Queen King George King William Lancaster Mathews Middlesex New Kent Northumberland Prince William Richmond County Spotsylvania Stafford Westmoreland York The entirety of: Fredericksburg The Virginia First District started in 1788 covering the counties of Berkeley, Hampshire, Harrison, Ohio and Shenandoah.
Of these only Shenandoah and Frederick Counties are in Virginia today. The modern counties of Clarke and most of Page as well as the independent city of Winchester were included as part of Frederick and Shenandoah counties in 1788. In West Virginia all the current state north and east of a generalized line running from Wood County to Pocahontas County was in the congressional district; the one exception was that Pendleton County, West Virginia was in Virginia's 3rd congressional district. In the redistribution which followed the 1850 census, the First District comprised sixteen counties in eastern Virginia; the counties included Accomack, Gloucester, James City and Queen, Middlesex, New Kent, Richmond and Westmoreland. In an 1862 Union special election three out of the sixteen counties in the Union district supplied returns; the First District is noted for its strong presence of military institutions, including the Naval Surface Warfare Center. Increasing numbers of military and retired voters have swung the district to the right.
Virginia's congressional districts List of United States congressional districts Virginia's 1st congressional district special election, 2007 Virginia's 1st congressional district election, 2008 Virginia's 1st congressional district election, 2010 Martis, Kenneth C.. The Historical Atlas of Political Parties in the United States Congress. New York: Macmillan Publishing Company. Martis, Kenneth C.. The Historical Atlas of United States Congressional Districts. New York: Macmillan Publishing Company. Congressional Biographical Directory of the United States 1774–present http://www.va1gop.org/ http://www.1stcdvademocrats.info/ http://www.govtrack.us/congress/findyourreps.xpd?state=VA&district=1
John Washington was an English planter and politician in colonial Virginia in North America. He was a lieutenant colonel in the local militia. Born in Hertfordshire, England, he settled in Virginia, he was the colonist paternal English ancestor and great-grandfather of George Washington, general of the Continental Army and first president of the United States of America. John Washington was born in 1631 in Tring, England, the son of Amphillis Twigden and Rev. Lawrence Washington. At the time of his marriage, Lawrence Washington was a don at the University of Oxford; when John was eight his father enrolled him in Charterhouse School in London to begin preparing for an academic career, but the boy never attended the school. In 1633 the senior Washington had left Oxford when called as the Rector of Essex. During the English Civil War, in 1643 the royalist Washington was stripped of his clerical position by the Parliamentary Puritans, he was reduced to serving as a Vicar of an impoverished parish in Essex.
His wife and family returned to her parents' family home in Hertfordshire. John Washington was apprenticed with a London merchant through the help of his Sandys relatives, he gained a valuable education in colonial trade, as England had colonies in the Caribbean and North America. In 1656 John Washington invested in a merchant ship engaged in transporting tobacco from North America to European markets. Washington served as the ship's second officer. In 1657, the ship foundered in the Potomac River. Although the vessel was repaired, Washington elected to remain in the colony, he was accompanied to Virginia by his cousin, James Washington, the son of Robert Washington, who worked in the London-Rotterdam trade of the Merchant Adventurers. James subsequently returned to England. While first in Virginia, Washington stayed at the house of a planter. During this stay, he fell in love with his host's daughter Anne, he settled at a site on Bridges Creek. After his marriage to Anne Pope, the couple received a wedding gift from Anne's father of 700 acres on Mattox Creek in Westmoreland County of the Northern Neck.
Washington became a successful planter, depending on the labor of African slaves and British indentured servants to cultivate tobacco as a commodity crop and the necessary kitchen crops to support the household and workers. He became a politician in the colony. In 1674, he received a 5,000 acres land grant, adding to his power. During the events leading to Bacon's Rebellion in 1676, Washington was appointed a colonel in the Virginia militia, he led a company to back a group of Marylanders during a planned parley with the disgruntled opposition and their allied American Indian leaders. The militia killed six chiefs of various tribes. Outraged, their peoples retaliated, conducting raids and attacks against the colonists. Governor William Berkeley criticized Washington for the murders of the American Indian chiefs, but colonists supported him. Relations between the Indians and colonists deteriorated; as noted, Washington married Anne Pope in 1658. They had three children together: Lawrence Washington, John Washington II Anne Washington After Anne Pope's death, Washington married Anne Brett, a widow.
She was the daughter of Thomas Gerard and had been married first to Walter Broadhurst and secondly to Henry Brett, who both died. After Anne Brett's death, John Washington married Frances Gerard Appleton; this third marriage occurred about May 10, 1676 when a "joynture" was recorded between Mrs. Frances Appleton and John Washington in Westmoreland County, Virginia. Washington and his first wife Anne Pope are buried in present-day Colonial Beach, Virginia, at what is now called the George Washington Birthplace National Monument, his vault is the largest in the small family burial plot. The name of the local parish of the Anglican Church was changed to Washington in his honor. Randall, Willard Sterne. George Washington: A Life. New York: Holt & Co. Washington of Adwick.
King George County, Virginia
King George County is a county located in the Commonwealth of Virginia. As of the 2010 census, the population was 23,584, its county seat is King George. The county's largest employer is the U. S. Naval Surface Warfare Center Dahlgren Division, it is adjacent to the two-lane, 2-mile long Harry W. Nice Memorial Bridge carrying U. S. Highway 301 over the Potomac River, it contains the ZIP codes 22448 and 22485. It is within the area code 540 and contains the exchanges: 775, 644, 663, 653. Indigenous peoples of varying cultures lived along the waterways for thousands of years before Europeans arrived. Among the historic Native American tribes who came into conflict with the English were the Algonquian-speaking Nanzatico. In 1704 colonists retaliated for the tribe's attacking the farm of John Rowley, "known for his disputes" with them, they captured and shipped 40 people, including children older than 12, to Antigua in the Caribbean, where they were sold into slavery. King George County was established in 1720 when land was split from Virginia.
The county is named for King George I of Great Britain. It was reorganized in 1776 and 1777, with land swapped with both Stafford and Westmoreland Counties to form the modern boundaries. On March 16, 1751, James Madison, the fourth President of the United States, was born in Port Conway in southern King George County at Belle Grove plantation, the childhood home of his mother, Eleanor Rose "Nellie" Conway, the daughter of its owner, Francis Conway, for whom Port Conway was named. Two-time Governor of Virginia, William "Extra Billy" Smith, was born at Marengo in 1797. On May 1, 1861 during the American Civil War, Confederates installed artillery at Mathias Point in order to blockade the Potomac River. On June 27, the steamer Thomas Freeborn bombarded Mathias Point in an attempt to drive away the soldiers who were manning the weapons. Confederate soldiers fired back from Mathias Point and mortally wounding Commander James H. Ward of the Freeborn, who became the first Union naval officer to die in the Civil War.
While trying to elude Union cavalry, John Wilkes Booth and David Herold crossed into the county from Maryland on April 21, 1865 after assassinating US president Abraham Lincoln. Booth and Herold landed at the mouth of Gambo Creek, before meeting with Confederate agents, who guided their passage to Port Conway, where they would cross into Port Royal, in Caroline County, Virginia. According to the U. S. Census Bureau, the county has a total area of 188 square miles, of which 180 square miles is land and 8 square miles is water. King George County is located on the Northern Neck and is bounded on the north by the Potomac River, which lies in Charles County, Maryland, it is bounded on the south by the Rappahannock River across which lie Essex Counties. Rappahannock River Valley National Wildlife Refuge Bishop and Toby's Point units US 301 SR 3 SR 205 SR 206 SR 218 As of the census of 2010, there were 23,584 people, 9,411 households, 4,525 families residing in the county; the population density was 93 people per square mile.
There were 6,820 housing units at an average density of 38 per square mile. The racial makeup of the county was 76.7% White, 17.9% Black or African American, 0.5% Native American, 1.2% Asian, 0.1% Pacific Islander, 0.8% from other races, 2.9% from two or more races. 3.3% of the population were Hispanic or Latino of any race. There were 6,091 households out of which 38.00% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 59.50% were married couples living together, 10.50% had a female householder with no husband present, 25.70% were non-families. 20.40% of all households were made up of individuals and 6.00% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.70 and the average family size was 3.12. In the county, the population was spread out with 27.80% under the age of 18, 8.20% from 18 to 24, 31.70% from 25 to 44, 22.70% from 45 to 64, 9.60% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 35 years. For every 100 females, there were 101.00 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 99.40 males.
The median income for a household in the county was $49,882, the median income for a family was $55,160. Males had a median income of $38,600 versus $26,350 for females; the per capita income for the county was $21,562. About 4.40% of families and 5.60% of the population were below the poverty line, including 6.10% of those under age 18 and 6.40% of those age 65 or over. County Administrator: Neiman C. Young, PhD Member: Ruby Brabo Member: Cathy Binder Member/Chairman: Richard Granger Member/Vice Chair: Jeffery L. Bueche Member: John Jenkins Clerk of the Circuit Court: Charles V. "Vic" Mason Commissioner of the Revenue: Jo Ann Hall Ando Commonwealth's Attorney: Keri A. Gusmann Sheriff: Steve F. Dempsey Treasurer: Alice L. Moore King George is represented by Republicans Ryan T. McDougle and Richard H. Stuart in the Virginia Senate, Republican Margaret Bevans Ransone in the Virginia House of Delegates, Republican Robert J. "Rob" Wittman in the U. S. House of Representatives; the King George Fall Festival is held the second weekend of October in King George.
All proceeds from this event go to support the Volunteer King George Rescue. The Fall Festival includes a parade through town, a carnival, a craft fair, a car show, a dance, a 5-K run, the Fall Festival Queens Pageant; the King George Fall Festival began in October 1959. Dahlgren Dahlgren Center Fairview Beach King George Passapatanzy James Madison, fourth President of the Unit
Col. Nicholas Spencer, Jr. was a London merchant who emigrated to Westmoreland County, where he became a planter and which he represented in the Virginia House of Burgesses. Spencer served as Secretary and President of the Council of the Virginia Colony, on the departure of his cousin Thomas Colepeper, 2nd Baron Colepeper in 1683, was named Acting Governor, in which capacity Spencer served until the arrival of Governor Lord Howard of Effingham. Spencer's role as agent for the Culpepers helped him and his friend Lt. Col. John Washington, ancestor of George Washington, secure the patent for their joint land grant of the Mount Vernon estate. Nicholas Spencer was born to an aristocratic English family long seated at Cople, England; the family was related to the Spencer family of Northamptonshire, with whom they shared a coat of arms. In 1531 the Spencers bought the manor of Rowlands at Cople. Nicholas Spencer, Sr. father of the Virginia emigrant, his wife, the former Mary Gostwick, second daughter of Sir Edward Gostwick had several sons, of these William inherited the family estates but died childless after making his heir his nephew William, son of his next-brother Nicholas who had moved to Virginia.
Another brother, Robert Spencer removed from Surry County, Virginia, to Talbot County, where his descendants long lived at Spencer Hall, the family plantation. Nicholas Spencer moved from London to Westmoreland County, Virginia, in the 1650s, where he served as agent for his cousin John Colepeper, 1st Baron Colepeper. Colepeper had inherited his father's share of ownership in the Virginia Company in 1617, was subsequently knighted and afterwards raised to the peerage, he became the one-seventh proprietor of the Northern Neck of Virginia under the charter of 1649. Colepeper never lived in the colonies, his son Thomas Culpeper, 2nd Baron Culpeper of Thoresway, who lived at Leeds Castle, did not arrive in Virginia until 1680. In the meantime Nicholas Spencer had come to Virginia to help oversee his cousin John's investment. On his arrival in the colony, Spencer secured an appointment as a customs collector, in addition to his post as the administrator of his cousin's Virginia estates.. Spencer and John Washington jointly held the post of customs collector on the Potomac.
He won his own land grant. But Spencer was, unlikely as it sounds an efficient administrator on his own being appointed to additional posts in Virginia by virtue of his abilities. Spencer was a pragmatic administrator, he was a hard-nosed capitalist. When it came to slavery, for instance, Spencer weighed the benefits of enslaved labor in a cost-benefit way. "The low price of Tobacco," Spencer wrote, "requires it should bee made as cheap as possible, that Blacks can make it cheaper than Whites." Spencer's rationale for slavery was as succinctly heartless as any committed to paper. Spencer's role as an aristocratic bureaucrat in the new colony was a tricky one, he was navigating the shoals of dilemmas. While attempting to rationalize slavery, Spencer was writing to the Privy Council in England about the Virginia Colony's precarious place on the edge of Catholic Maryland. "Unruly and unorderly spirits lay hold of ye motion of affairs," Spencer wrote, "and that under the pretext of Religion, soe as from those false glasses to pretend to betake themselves to Arms... from the groundless Imaginacon that the few Papists in Maryland and Virginia had conspired to hyre the Seneca Indians, to ye Cutting off, totall distroying of all ye Protestants."At the same time, the forces that were propelling the Virginia Colony into the forefront of American economic and social might – the raising of tobacco based on slavery – were making Spencer's administrative role tricky.
The Virginia colony of the era was, as the eminent colonial historian Edmund S. Morgan wrote, "the volatile society." There were popular uprisings such as Bacon's Rebellion, as well as the tobacco plant-cutting riots. A communication to the Crown in 1674 noted that his opposition to the Bacon Rebellion, for instance, had taken a toll on Spencer's estates. Having done the country "very good service against the Rebells, in that hee affected part of the Country where he resided, as wee are credibly informed, by his Correspondence here is much Impaired in his Estate by the late Rebells."In 1682 Spencer wrote to London in the wake of the events roiling Virginia. "Bacon's Rebellion," Spencer told colonial overseers in London, "had left an itching behind it". It was "plaine" that the class tensions stirred by the Rebellion had lingered, with a "mutinous mob" subsequently engaged in "wild and extravagant" rioting, going from farm to farm, tearing tobacco plants out by their roots; the Virginia government reacted harshly with the promise of steep fines.
The "frenzy," according to Spencer, destroyed crops on over 200 plantations, was driven by a glutted tobacco market which had depressed prices. The wives, Spencer wrote, took up hoes laid down by their husbands and continued to rip out the plants; such civil disobedience, Nicholas Spencer saw, was the price paid by colonial administrators acting the foil for the empire's merchants back home. For an aristocratic Englishman accustomed to centuries-old protocol, the mix must have been dizzying. One can sense Spencer's wish for some good old-fashioned English authori
Virginia the Commonwealth of Virginia, is a state in the Southeastern and Mid-Atlantic regions of the United States located between the Atlantic Coast and the Appalachian Mountains. Virginia is nicknamed the "Old Dominion" due to its status as the first English colonial possession established in mainland North America and "Mother of Presidents" because eight U. S. presidents were born there, more than any other state. The geography and climate of the Commonwealth are shaped by the Blue Ridge Mountains and the Chesapeake Bay, which provide habitat for much of its flora and fauna; the capital of the Commonwealth is Richmond. The Commonwealth's estimated population as of 2018 is over 8.5 million. The area's history begins with several indigenous groups, including the Powhatan. In 1607 the London Company established the Colony of Virginia as the first permanent New World English colony. Slave labor and the land acquired from displaced Native American tribes each played a significant role in the colony's early politics and plantation economy.
Virginia was one of the 13 Colonies in the American Revolution. In the American Civil War, Virginia's Secession Convention resolved to join the Confederacy, Virginia's First Wheeling Convention resolved to remain in the Union. Although the Commonwealth was under one-party rule for nearly a century following Reconstruction, both major national parties are competitive in modern Virginia; the Virginia General Assembly is the oldest continuous law-making body in the New World. The state government was ranked most effective by the Pew Center on the States in both 2005 and 2008, it is unique in how it treats cities and counties manages local roads, prohibits its governors from serving consecutive terms. Virginia's economy has many sectors: agriculture in the Shenandoah Valley. S. Department of Defense and Central Intelligence Agency. Virginia has a total area of 42,774.2 square miles, including 3,180.13 square miles of water, making it the 35th-largest state by area. Virginia is bordered by Maryland and Washington, D.
C. to the north and east. Virginia's boundary with Maryland and Washington, D. C. extends to the low-water mark of the south shore of the Potomac River. The southern border is defined as the 36° 30′ parallel north, though surveyor error led to deviations of as much as three arcminutes; the border with Tennessee was not settled until 1893, when their dispute was brought to the U. S. Supreme Court; the Chesapeake Bay separates the contiguous portion of the Commonwealth from the two-county peninsula of Virginia's Eastern Shore. The bay was formed from the drowned river valleys of the James River. Many of Virginia's rivers flow into the Chesapeake Bay, including the Potomac, Rappahannock and James, which create three peninsulas in the bay; the Tidewater is a coastal plain between the fall line. It includes major estuaries of Chesapeake Bay; the Piedmont is a series of sedimentary and igneous rock-based foothills east of the mountains which were formed in the Mesozoic era. The region, known for its heavy clay soil, includes the Southwest Mountains around Charlottesville.
The Blue Ridge Mountains are a physiographic province of the Appalachian Mountains with the highest points in the state, the tallest being Mount Rogers at 5,729 feet. The Ridge and Valley region includes the Great Appalachian Valley; the region includes Massanutten Mountain. The Cumberland Plateau and the Cumberland Mountains are in the southwest corner of Virginia, south of the Allegheny Plateau. In this region, rivers flow northwest, into the Ohio River basin; the Virginia Seismic Zone has not had a history of regular earthquake activity. Earthquakes are above 4.5 in magnitude, because Virginia is located away from the edges of the North American Plate. The largest earthquake, at an estimated 5.9 magnitude, was in 1897 near Blacksburg. A 5.8 magnitude earthquake struck central Virginia on August 2011, near Mineral. The earthquake was felt as far away as Toronto and Florida. 35 million years ago, a bolide impacted. The resulting Chesapeake Bay impact crater may explain what earthquakes and subsidence the region does experience.
Coal mining takes place in the three mountainous regions at 45 distinct coal beds near Mesozoic basins. Over 64 million tons of other non-fuel resources, such as slate, sand, or gravel, were mined in Virginia in 2018; the state's carbonate rock is filled with more than 4,000 caves, ten of which are open for tourism, including the popular Luray Caverns and Skyline Caverns. The climate of Virginia is humid subtropical and becomes warmer and more humid farther south and east. Seasonal extremes vary from average lows of 26 °F in January to average highs of 86 °F in July; the Atlantic Ocean has a strong effect on southeastern coastal areas of the state. Influenced by the Gulf Stream, coastal weather is subject to hurricanes, most pronouncedly near the mouth of Chesapeake Bay. In spite of its position adjacent to the Atlantic Ocean the coastal areas have a significant continental influence with quite large temperature differences between summ
George Washington was an American political leader, military general and Founding Father who served as the first president of the United States from 1789 to 1797. He led Patriot forces to victory in the nation's War of Independence, he presided at the Constitutional Convention of 1787 which established the new federal government, he has been called the "Father of His Country" for his manifold leadership in the formative days of the new nation. Washington received his initial military training and command with the Virginia Regiment during the French and Indian War, he was elected to the Virginia House of Burgesses and was named a delegate to the Continental Congress, where he was appointed Commanding General of the nation's Continental Army. Washington allied with France, in the defeat of the British at Yorktown. Once victory for the United States was in hand in 1783, Washington resigned his commission. Washington played a key role in the adoption and ratification of the Constitution and was elected president by the Electoral College in the first two elections.
He implemented a strong, well-financed national government while remaining impartial in a fierce rivalry between cabinet members Thomas Jefferson and Alexander Hamilton. During the French Revolution, he proclaimed a policy of neutrality while sanctioning the Jay Treaty, he set enduring precedents for the office of president, including the title "President of the United States", his Farewell Address is regarded as a pre-eminent statement on republicanism. Washington utilized slave labor and trading African American slaves, but he became troubled with the institution of slavery and freed them in his 1799 will, he was a member of the Anglican Church and the Freemasons, he urged tolerance for all religions in his roles as general and president. Upon his death, he was eulogized as "first in war, first in peace, first in the hearts of his countrymen." He has been memorialized by monuments, geographical locations and currency, many scholars and polls rank him among the top American presidents. Washington's great-grandfather John Washington immigrated in 1656 from Sulgrave, England to the British Colony of Virginia where he accumulated 5,000 acres of land, including Little Hunting Creek on the Potomac River.
George Washington was born February 22, 1732 at Popes Creek in Westmoreland County and was the first of six children of Augustine and Mary Ball Washington. His father was a justice of the peace and a prominent public figure who had three additional children from his first marriage to Jane Butler; the family moved to Little Hunting Creek to Ferry Farm near Fredericksburg, Virginia. When Augustine died in 1743, Washington inherited ten slaves. Washington did not have the formal education that his older brothers received at Appleby Grammar School in England, but he did learn mathematics and surveying, he was talented in draftsmanship and map-making. By early adulthood, he was writing with "considerable force" and "precision."Washington visited Mount Vernon and Belvoir, the plantation that belonged to Lawrence's father-in-law William Fairfax, which fueled ambition for the lifestyle of the planter aristocracy. Fairfax became Washington's patron and surrogate father, Washington spent a month in 1748 with a team surveying Fairfax's Shenandoah Valley property.
He received a surveyor's license the following year from the College of Mary. He resigned from the job in 1750 and had bought 1,500 acres in the Valley, he owned 2,315 acres by 1752. In 1751, Washington made his only trip abroad when he accompanied Lawrence to Barbados, hoping that the climate would cure his brother's tuberculosis. Washington contracted smallpox during that trip, which immunized him but left his face scarred. Lawrence died in 1752, Washington leased Mount Vernon from his widow. Lawrence's service as adjutant general of the Virginia militia inspired Washington to seek a commission, Virginia's Lieutenant Governor Robert Dinwiddie appointed him as a major in December 1752 and as commander of one of the four militia districts; the British and French were competing for control of the Ohio Valley at the time, the British building forts along the Ohio River and the French doing between Lake Erie and the Ohio River. In October 1753, Dinwiddie appointed Washington as a special envoy to demand that the French vacate territory which the British had claimed.
Dinwiddie appointed him to make peace with the Iroquois Confederacy and to gather intelligence about the French forces. Washington met with Half-King Tanacharison and other Iroquois chiefs at Logstown to secure their promise of support against the French, his party reached the Ohio River in November, they were intercepted by a French patrol and escorted to Fort Le Boeuf where Washington was received in a friendly manner. He delivered the British demand to vacate to French commander Saint-Pierre, but the French refused to leave. Saint-Pierre gave Washington his official answer in a sealed envelope after a few days' delay, he gave Washington's party food and extra winter clothing for the trip back to Virginia. Washington completed the precarious mission in 77 days in difficult winter conditions and achieved a measure of distinction when his report was published in Virginia and London. In February 1754, Dinwiddie promoted Washington to lieutenant colonel and second-in-command of the 300-strong Virginia R
Arlington County, Virginia
Arlington County is a county in the Commonwealth of Virginia referred to as Arlington or Arlington, Virginia. In 2016, the county's population was estimated at 230,050, making it the sixth-largest county in Virginia, or the fourth-largest city if it were incorporated as such, it is the 5th highest-income county in the U. S. by median family income and has the highest concentration of singles in the region. The county is coterminous with the U. S. Census Bureau's census-designated place of Arlington. Though a county, it is treated as the second-largest principal city of the Washington metropolitan area; the county is situated in Northern Virginia on the southwestern bank of the Potomac River directly across from the District of Columbia, of which it was once a part. With a land area of 26 square miles, Arlington is the geographically smallest self-governing county in the U. S. and by reason of state law regarding population density, has no incorporated towns within its borders. Due to the county's proximity to downtown Washington, D.
C. Arlington is home to many important installations for the capital region and U. S. government, including the Pentagon, Reagan National Airport, Arlington National Cemetery. Many schools and universities have campuses in Arlington, most prominently the Antonin Scalia Law School of George Mason University; the area that now constitutes Arlington County was part of Fairfax County in the Colony of Virginia. Land grants from the British monarch were awarded to prominent Englishmen in exchange for political favors and efforts at development. One of the grantees was Thomas Fairfax, 6th Lord Fairfax of Cameron, who lends his name to both Fairfax County and the City of Fairfax; the county's name "Arlington" comes via Henry Bennet, Earl of Arlington, a Plantation along the Potomac River, Arlington House, the family residence on that property. George Washington Parke Custis, grandson of First Lady Martha Washington, acquired this land in 1802; the estate was passed down to Mary Anna Custis Lee, wife of General Robert E. Lee.
The property became Arlington National Cemetery during the American Civil War, lent its name to present-day Arlington County. The area that now contains Arlington County was ceded to the new United States federal government by Virginia. With the passage of the Residence Act in 1790, Congress approved a new permanent capital to be located on the Potomac River, the exact area to be selected by U. S. President George Washington; the Residence Act only allowed the President to select a location within Maryland as far east as what is now the Anacostia River. However, President Washington shifted the federal territory's borders to the southeast in order to include the pre-existing city of Alexandria at the District's southern tip. In 1791, Congress, at Washington's request, amended the Residence Act to approve the new site, including the territory ceded by Virginia. However, this amendment to the Residence Act prohibited the "erection of the public buildings otherwise than on the Maryland side of the River Potomac."
As permitted by the United States Constitution, the initial shape of the federal district was a square, measuring 10 miles on each side, totaling 100 square miles. During 1791–92, Andrew Ellicott and several assistants placed boundary stones at every mile point. Fourteen of these markers were in Virginia and many of the stones are still standing; when Congress arrived in the new capital, they passed the Organic Act of 1801 to organize the District of Columbia and placed the entire federal territory, including the cities of Washington and Alexandria, under the exclusive control of Congress. Further, the unincorporated territory within the District was organized into two counties: the County of Washington to the east of the Potomac and the County of Alexandria to the west, it included all of the present Arlington County, plus part of what is now the independent city of Alexandria. This Act formally established the borders of the area that would become Arlington but the citizens located in the District were no longer considered residents of Maryland or Virginia, thus ending their representation in Congress.
Residents of Alexandria County had expected the federal capital's location to result in higher land prices and the growth of commerce. Instead the county found itself struggling to compete with the Chesapeake and Ohio Canal at the port of Georgetown, farther inland and on the northern side of the Potomac River next to the city of Washington. Members of Congress from other areas of Virginia used their power to prohibit funding for projects, such as the Alexandria Canal, which would have increased competition with their home districts. In addition, Congress had prohibited the federal government from establishing any offices in Alexandria, which made the county less important to the functioning of the national government. Alexandria had been an important center of the slave trade. Rumors circulated. At the same time, an active abolitionist movement arose in Virginia that created a division on the question of slavery in the Virginia General Assembly. Pro-slavery Virginians recognized that if Alexandria were returned to Virginia, it could provide two new representatives who favored slavery in the state legislature.
During the American Civil War, this division led to the formation of the state of West Virginia, which comprised the 55 counties in the northwest that favored abolitionism. As a result of the economic neglect by Congress, divisions over slavery, the lack of voting